Languedoc

What is Languedoc known for?


shows strong

Maria sopra Minerva . The Piliny culture in northern Hungary and Slovakia grew from the tumulus culture, but used urn burials as well. The pottery shows strong links to the Gáva-culture, but in the later phases, a strong influence of the Lusatian culture is found. In Italy the late bronze age-early iron age proto-Villanovan and Villanovan culture show similarities with the urnfields of central Europe. Urnfields are found in the French Languedoc and Catalonia from the 9th to 8th centuries. The change in burial custom was most probably influenced by developments further east. On two occasions, he had to leave France for conspiring against the government of his mother and her Prime Minister Cardinal Richelieu. After waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc leading to the Battle of Castelnaudary in 1632, he took refuge in Flanders. Reconciled with his brother Louis XIII (Louis XIII of France), he plotted against Richelieu in 1635, fled from the country again, and then submitted to the king and the cardinal. The "black truffle" or "black Périgord truffle" ( under vines and is the single biggest wine-producing region (List of wine-producing regions) in the world, being responsible for more than a third of France's total wine production. K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 293 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 As recently as 2001, the region produced more wine than the entire United States (American wine). K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 294 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 Nicetas then went on to Languedoc. In 1167 in the presence of Mark and other representatives of Cathar churches in Languedoc, France and Catalonia, Nicetas presided over the Council of Saint-Félix at which he renewed the ''consolamenta'' and confirmed the episcopal office of six Cathar bishops: Most well known as a painter, his bold, arguably brutal depictions of the South Wales valleys are his most powerful legacy. ‘Pithead Funeral’, a response to the Aberfan disaster that affected him so deeply, stands out amongst his work together with 'Fallen Figure' (opposite). Also the series of miner’s paintings produced following the week he spent sketching underground in a Welsh (Wales) coal mine. In sharp contrast are the paintings and drawings produced as a result of the considerable time he spent in the Languedoc region of France.


book publishing

and he took his vows two years later. "Lives of the Saints, For Every Day of the Year", edited by Rev. Hugo Hoever, S.O.Cist., Ph.D., New York: Catholic Book Publishing Co., 1955, p. 229 Born at Melgueil in Languedoc, he was educated by his uncle, the bishop of Maguelonne, whom he succeeded in 1529. In 1536 he was transferred to Montpellier. From England he was several times given safe-conduct to France, and he took an active part


collection+de

necessary. By the terms of several ''paréages'' agreed upon between the Cistercian abbey of Bonnefont-en-Comminges on the one hand and the local ''seigneur (Lord)'' or the king on the other, Charles Samaran and Charles Higounet, eds. ''Recueil des Actes de l'Abbaye Cistercienne de Bonnefont en Comminges'' (Collection de Documents Inédits sur l'histoire de France '''8'''), Paris 1970. the Abbey granted the land from one of its outlying grange (Monastic grange)s


personal quot

'', the ''pays d'état'' and the ''pays d'imposition''. In the ''pays d'élection'' (the longest held possessions of the French crown; some of these provinces had had the equivalent autonomy of a ''pays d'état'' in an earlier period, but had lost it through the effects of royal reforms) the assessment and collection of taxes were entrusted to elected officials (at least originally; later, these positions were bought), and the tax was generally "personal", meaning it was attached to non-noble individuals. In the ''pays d'état'' ("provinces with provincial estates" Brittany, Languedoc, Burgundy (Burgundy (region)), Auvergne (Auvergne (province)), Béarn, Dauphiné, Provence, and such portions of Gascony as Bigorre, Comminges, and the Quatre-Vallées; these recently acquired provinces had been able to maintain a certain local autonomy in terms of taxation), the assessment of the tax was established by local councils and the tax was generally "real (Real property)", meaning that it was attached to non-noble lands (that is, even nobles possessing such lands were required to pay taxes on them). Finally, ''pays d'imposition'' were recently conquered lands which had their own local historical institutions (they were similar to the ''pays d'état'' under which they are sometimes grouped), although taxation was overseen by the royal intendant. He was born at Bédarieux, Hérault. In 1738 he was admitted as a preacher by the synod of Languedoc, and in 1740 he went to Lausanne to complete his studies in the seminary founded by Antoine Court (Antoine Court (Huguenot)). In 1741 Rabaut was placed at the head of the church of Nîmes, and in 1744 he was vice-president of the general synod. During the persecution of 1745-1752, he was forced into hiding. When the marquis of Paulmy d'Argenson was sent to Languedoc to make a military inspection, Rabaut succeeded in interviewing him (1750). birth_place Athens, Greece death_place Septimania (Languedoc, Southern France) titles Abbot Veneration Around the abbey allegedly founded by him in the 7th century (Abbey of St. Gilles), sprang up the town of St-Gilles-du-Gard (Saint-Gilles, Gard). The abbey (which was re-dedicated to him in the 10th century) remained the center of his cult, which was particularly strong in Languedoc, even after a rival body of Saint Giles appeared at Toulouse. Pierre-Gilles Girault, 2002. "Observations sur le culte de saint Gilles dans le Midi", in ''Hagiographie et culte des saints en France méridionale (XIIIe-XVe siècle)'', ''Cahiers de Fanjeaux'' '''37''', pp. 431-454. His cult spread rapidly far and wide throughout Europe in the Middle Ages, as is witnessed by the countless churches and monasteries dedicated to him in France, Spain, Germany, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and Great Britain; by the numerous manuscripts in prose and verse commemorating his virtues and miracles; and especially by the vast concourse of pilgrims who from all Europe flocked to his shrine. thumb left Giles, depicted in the lower left with a hind, is one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers (Image:14Nothelfer.JPG). DATE OF DEATH 710 PLACE OF DEATH Septimania (Languedoc, Southern France) Biography Dacier was born at Castres in upper Languedoc. His father, a Protestant lawyer, sent him first to the Academy of Puy Laurens, and afterwards to the Academy of Saumur to study under Tanneguy Le Fèvre. On Lefebvre's death in 1672, Dacier moved to Paris, and was appointed one of the editors of the Delphin series of the classics. In 1683 he married Anne Lefèvre, the daughter of his old tutor. Better known by her married name of Madame Dacier, she was also a learned translator of the classics. '''Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie''' (born 19 July 1929) is a French historian whose work is mainly focused upon Languedoc in the ''ancien regime'', particularly the history of the peasantry. Montaillou Le Roy Ladurie's best-known work is ''Montaillou, village occitan de 1294 à 1324'' (1975), a study of the village of Montaillou in the region of Languedoc in the south of France during the age of the Cathar heresy. In this work, he used the meticulous notes of a member of the Inquisition, Jacques Fournier who served as the Bishop of Pamiers between 1318 and 1325 before becoming Pope Benedict XII, to develop a multi-layered study of life in a small French village over the course of several years. Le Roy Ladurie used the records of interrogations conducted by Fournier to offer a picture of both the material and mental worlds of the villagers. He examined the former as reflected in farming practices, houses, relations with other villages and with both secular and ecclesiastical power, and the latter as reflected in their beliefs about God, fate, sexuality, death, life, marriage, magic, space, time, and salvation. The 13th century was to bring the crown important gains also in the south, where a papal-royal crusade against the region's Albigensian or Cathar heretics (1209) led to the incorporation into the royal domain of Lower (1229) and Upper (1271) Languedoc. Philip IV (Philip IV of France)'s seizure of Flanders (1300) was less successful, ending two years later in the rout of his knights by the forces of the Flemish (Flanders) cities at the Battle of the Golden Spurs near Kortrijk (Courtrai). under vines and is the single biggest wine-producing region (List of wine-producing regions) in the world, being responsible for more than a third of France's total wine production. K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 293 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 As recently as 2001, the region produced more wine than the entire United States (American wine). K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 294 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 Nicetas then went on to Languedoc. In 1167 in the presence of Mark and other representatives of Cathar churches in Languedoc, France and Catalonia, Nicetas presided over the Council of Saint-Félix at which he renewed the ''consolamenta'' and confirmed the episcopal office of six Cathar bishops: Most well known as a painter, his bold, arguably brutal depictions of the South Wales valleys are his most powerful legacy. ‘Pithead Funeral’, a response to the Aberfan disaster that affected him so deeply, stands out amongst his work together with 'Fallen Figure' (opposite). Also the series of miner’s paintings produced following the week he spent sketching underground in a Welsh (Wales) coal mine. In sharp contrast are the paintings and drawings produced as a result of the considerable time he spent in the Languedoc region of France.


traditional commercial

, stayed in Castres in 1585. The Protestants of Castres were brought to terms, however, by King Louis XIII (Louis XIII of France) in 1629, and Richelieu (Cardinal Richelieu) came himself to Castres to have its fortifications dismantled. Nonetheless, after these religious wars, the town, now in peace, enjoyed a period of rapid expansion. Business and traditional commercial activities revived, in particular fur and leather-dressing, tanning, and above all wool trade. Culture flourished anew


special+culture

consisting of the city of Toulouse and its environs under the Merovingians ruled by the Counts of Toulouse, and the center of the special culture of the Languedoc, Southern France, where the Occitan language, rather close to the Catalan language today, was distinct from that of the north of France, the Langues d'oïl. No succession of such royal appointees is known, though a few names survive to the present. With the Carolingians, the appointments of both counts and dukes become more regular and better-known, though the office soon fell out of the orbit of the royal court and became hereditary. As a successor state for the Visigothic Kingdom, Tolouse, along with Aquitania (Aquitaine) and Languedoc (but not Gascony), inherited the Visigothic Law and Roman Law which had combined to allow women more rights than their contemporaries would enjoy until the 20th century. Particularly with the Liber Judiciorum (Visigothic Code) as codified 642 643 and expanded on in the Code of Recceswinth in 653, women could inherit land and title and manage it independently from their husbands or male relations, dispose of their property in legal wills if they had no heirs, and women could represent themselves and bear witness in court by age 14 and arrange for their own marriages by age 20. Klapisch-Zuber, Christine; ''A History of Women; Book II: Silences of the Middle Ages'', Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992; Chapter 6, "Women in the Fifth to the Tenth Century" by Suzanne Fonay Wemple, p. 74. According to Wemple, Visigothic women of Spain and the Aquitaine could inherit land and title and manage it independently of their husbands, and dispose of it as they saw fit if they had no heirs, and represent themselves in court, appear as witnesses (by the age of 14), and arrange their own marriages by the age of twenty. As a consequence, male-preference primogeniture was the practiced succession law for the nobility. '''Béziers''' ( under vines and is the single biggest wine-producing region (List of wine-producing regions) in the world, being responsible for more than a third of France's total wine production. K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 293 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 As recently as 2001, the region produced more wine than the entire United States (American wine). K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 294 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 Nicetas then went on to Languedoc. In 1167 in the presence of Mark and other representatives of Cathar churches in Languedoc, France and Catalonia, Nicetas presided over the Council of Saint-Félix at which he renewed the ''consolamenta'' and confirmed the episcopal office of six Cathar bishops: Most well known as a painter, his bold, arguably brutal depictions of the South Wales valleys are his most powerful legacy. ‘Pithead Funeral’, a response to the Aberfan disaster that affected him so deeply, stands out amongst his work together with 'Fallen Figure' (opposite). Also the series of miner’s paintings produced following the week he spent sketching underground in a Welsh (Wales) coal mine. In sharp contrast are the paintings and drawings produced as a result of the considerable time he spent in the Languedoc region of France.


culture show

Maria sopra Minerva . The Piliny culture in northern Hungary and Slovakia grew from the tumulus culture, but used urn burials as well. The pottery shows strong links to the Gáva-culture, but in the later phases, a strong influence of the Lusatian culture is found. In Italy the late bronze age-early iron age proto-Villanovan and Villanovan culture show similarities with the urnfields of central Europe. Urnfields are found in the French Languedoc and Catalonia from the 9th to 8th centuries. The change in burial custom was most probably influenced by developments further east. On two occasions, he had to leave France for conspiring against the government of his mother and her Prime Minister Cardinal Richelieu. After waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc leading to the Battle of Castelnaudary in 1632, he took refuge in Flanders. Reconciled with his brother Louis XIII (Louis XIII of France), he plotted against Richelieu in 1635, fled from the country again, and then submitted to the king and the cardinal. The "black truffle" or "black Périgord truffle" ( under vines and is the single biggest wine-producing region (List of wine-producing regions) in the world, being responsible for more than a third of France's total wine production. K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 293 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 As recently as 2001, the region produced more wine than the entire United States (American wine). K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 294 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 Nicetas then went on to Languedoc. In 1167 in the presence of Mark and other representatives of Cathar churches in Languedoc, France and Catalonia, Nicetas presided over the Council of Saint-Félix at which he renewed the ''consolamenta'' and confirmed the episcopal office of six Cathar bishops: Most well known as a painter, his bold, arguably brutal depictions of the South Wales valleys are his most powerful legacy. ‘Pithead Funeral’, a response to the Aberfan disaster that affected him so deeply, stands out amongst his work together with 'Fallen Figure' (opposite). Also the series of miner’s paintings produced following the week he spent sketching underground in a Welsh (Wales) coal mine. In sharp contrast are the paintings and drawings produced as a result of the considerable time he spent in the Languedoc region of France.


literary studies

: Literature and Society in Scotland 1918-1939''. Glasgow: Association for Scottish Literary Studies, 2004. 52-53. In 1281 the Synod of Lambeth, England, ordered priests to explain these truths of faith four times a year. The Provincial Council of Lavours, France, in 1368, expanded this and commanded priests to give instruction on all Sundays and feast days. This council also published a catechism to serve as a textbook for the clergy in giving instructions


life directing

of the old regime, until December 1792, when he was sent to Belgium as agent of the republic, but he was involved in the treason of Dumouriez and was arrested on 2 April 1793. To justify himself, he published an account of his conduct from the beginning of the Revolution. He was freed from prison in July 1794. Napoleon did not trust him, and gave him only some unimportant missions. After 1815 Bonne-Carrre retired into private life, directing a profitable business in public carriages between


quot violent

of the Mediterranean around the Camargue region. The ''Petit Larousse Illustre (1997) ,'' defines Mistral as "Vent violent, froid, turbulent et sec qui souffle du secteur nord" (Violent, cold, turbulent and dry wind which blows from the north)." See also definition of Meteo France on their website and the U.S. Navy Marine Meteorology site, which describe the mistral as a strong, cold northwesterly wind It affects the northeast of the plain of Languedoc

Languedoc

'''Languedoc''' ( ) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day ''régions'' (List of regions in France) of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées in the south of France, and whose capital city was Toulouse, now in Midi-Pyrénées. It had an area of approximately 27,376 square kilometers.

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