Languedoc

What is Languedoc known for?


international role

region , the largest region in metropolitan France. It is also the capital of the Haute-Garonne department (Departements of France). During his time as mayor, Toulouse's economy and population boomed. He tried to strengthen the international role of Toulouse (such as its Airbus operations), as well as revive the cultural heritage of the city. The Occitan cross, flag of Languedoc and symbol of the counts of Toulouse, was chosen as the new flag of the city, instead of the traditional


natural historical

''), Provence, Touraine, Limousin (Limousin (province)), Auvergne (Auvergne (province)), Béarn, Alsace, Flanders (Flanders (county)), Lorraine (Lorraine (province)), Corsica (''Corse''), Savoy (''Savoie'')... (please see individual articles for specifics about each regional culture) — are still used to designate natural, historical and cultural regions, and many of them appear in modern région or département names. These names are also used by the French


quot studies

'' style known as a ''cargolade''. Wild boar can be found in the more mountainous regions of the ''Midi''. Another theory by Alauddin Samarrai suggests an Arabic origin, from ''fuyū'' (the plural of ''fay''). Alauddin Samarrai. "The term 'fief': A possible Arabic origin", ''Studies in Medieval Culture'', 4.1 (1973), pp. 78-82. Samarrai's theory is that early forms


century historic

province de Languedoc, de l'époque romaine à nos jours , by Élie Pélaquier, CNRS. under vines and is the single biggest wine-producing region (List of wine-producing regions) in the world, being responsible for more than a third of France's total wine production. K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 293 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 As recently as 2001, the region produced more wine than the entire United States (American wine). K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 294 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 Nicetas then went on to Languedoc. In 1167 in the presence of Mark and other representatives of Cathar churches in Languedoc, France and Catalonia, Nicetas presided over the Council of Saint-Félix at which he renewed the ''consolamenta'' and confirmed the episcopal office of six Cathar bishops: Most well known as a painter, his bold, arguably brutal depictions of the South Wales valleys are his most powerful legacy. ‘Pithead Funeral’, a response to the Aberfan disaster that affected him so deeply, stands out amongst his work together with 'Fallen Figure' (opposite). Also the series of miner’s paintings produced following the week he spent sketching underground in a Welsh (Wales) coal mine. In sharp contrast are the paintings and drawings produced as a result of the considerable time he spent in the Languedoc region of France.


manufacturing manufacture

taught the theories of Antoine Lavoisier. The capital he acquired by the death of a wealthy uncle was employed in the establishment of chemical works for the manufacture (Manufacturing) of the mineral acids, alum, white-lead (Cerussite), soda (Sodium) and other substances. Then came the Jubilee (Jubilee (Christian)) year of 1300, that filled Rome with the fervent masses of pilgrims and made up for the lack of French gold in the treasury. The following year, Philip's ministers overstepped their bounds. Bernard Saisset, the Bishop of Pamiers in Foix, the farthest southern march (Marches) of Languedoc was recalcitrant and difficult. There was no love between the south, that had suffered so recently with the Albigensian Crusade, and the Frankish north. Pamiers was one of the last strongholds of the Cathars. Saisset made no secret of his disrespect for the King of France. Philip's ministry decided to make an example of the bishop. He was brought before Philip and his court, on 24 October 1301, where the chancellor, Pierre Flotte, charged him with high treason, and he was placed in the keeping of the archbishop of Narbonne, his metropolitan. Before they could attack him in the courts, the royal ministry needed the Pope to remove him from his See and strip him of his clerical protections, so that he could be tried for treason. Philip IV tried to obtain from the pope this "canonical degradation". Instead, Boniface ordered the king in December 1301 to free the bishop to go to Rome to justify himself. In the Bull, ''Ausculta Fili'' ("Give ear, my son") he accused Philip of sinfully subverting the Church in France, and not in terms that were conciliatory: History The Gallic settlement on a rocky peak over the Rhône (Rhône River) river was called ''Bergoiata''. Bourg-Saint-Andéol has one of the very rare testimonies of post-roman and pre-Christian religions with its sculpted ''bas relief'' of God Mithra. It acquired its present name after Saint Andeolus, the 'apostle of the Vivarais', a disciple of St. Polycarp, supposedly arriving from Minor Asia, who evangelized the area under Emperor Septimius Severus, and was martyred in 208. The region was named ''Helvia'' in Julius Caesar's ''De Bello Gallico'', with Alba-la-Romaine as capital city, then Vivarais from the mediaeval times after the see of Viviers, a region of Languedoc province during Ancient Regime until ''département (Departments of France)s'' were created at the French Revolution. Due to the citizen's engagement for the Revolution, the town's name rejected a while the quite whimmy saint and was named ''Bourg-sur-Rhône''. (At the Napoleonic times, Andéol had already been brought in back...) * thumb 300px The Roman Province of Gallia Narbonensis in 20 BC (File:GalliaNarbonensis En.jpg) '''Gallia Narbonensis''' ( under vines and is the single biggest wine-producing region (List of wine-producing regions) in the world, being responsible for more than a third of France's total wine production. K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 293 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 As recently as 2001, the region produced more wine than the entire United States (American wine). K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 294 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 Nicetas then went on to Languedoc. In 1167 in the presence of Mark and other representatives of Cathar churches in Languedoc, France and Catalonia, Nicetas presided over the Council of Saint-Félix at which he renewed the ''consolamenta'' and confirmed the episcopal office of six Cathar bishops: Most well known as a painter, his bold, arguably brutal depictions of the South Wales valleys are his most powerful legacy. ‘Pithead Funeral’, a response to the Aberfan disaster that affected him so deeply, stands out amongst his work together with 'Fallen Figure' (opposite). Also the series of miner’s paintings produced following the week he spent sketching underground in a Welsh (Wales) coal mine. In sharp contrast are the paintings and drawings produced as a result of the considerable time he spent in the Languedoc region of France.


culture show

Maria sopra Minerva . The Piliny culture in northern Hungary and Slovakia grew from the tumulus culture, but used urn burials as well. The pottery shows strong links to the Gáva-culture, but in the later phases, a strong influence of the Lusatian culture is found. In Italy the late bronze age-early iron age proto-Villanovan and Villanovan culture show similarities with the urnfields of central Europe. Urnfields are found in the French Languedoc and Catalonia from the 9th to 8th centuries. The change in burial custom was most probably influenced by developments further east. On two occasions, he had to leave France for conspiring against the government of his mother and her Prime Minister Cardinal Richelieu. After waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc leading to the Battle of Castelnaudary in 1632, he took refuge in Flanders. Reconciled with his brother Louis XIII (Louis XIII of France), he plotted against Richelieu in 1635, fled from the country again, and then submitted to the king and the cardinal. The "black truffle" or "black Périgord truffle" ( under vines and is the single biggest wine-producing region (List of wine-producing regions) in the world, being responsible for more than a third of France's total wine production. K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 293 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 As recently as 2001, the region produced more wine than the entire United States (American wine). K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 294 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 Nicetas then went on to Languedoc. In 1167 in the presence of Mark and other representatives of Cathar churches in Languedoc, France and Catalonia, Nicetas presided over the Council of Saint-Félix at which he renewed the ''consolamenta'' and confirmed the episcopal office of six Cathar bishops: Most well known as a painter, his bold, arguably brutal depictions of the South Wales valleys are his most powerful legacy. ‘Pithead Funeral’, a response to the Aberfan disaster that affected him so deeply, stands out amongst his work together with 'Fallen Figure' (opposite). Also the series of miner’s paintings produced following the week he spent sketching underground in a Welsh (Wales) coal mine. In sharp contrast are the paintings and drawings produced as a result of the considerable time he spent in the Languedoc region of France.


year military

, France territory The '''Albigensian Crusade''' or '''Cathar Crusade''' (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Catholic Church to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc. The Crusade was prosecuted primarily by the French crown and promptly took on a political flavour, resulting in not only a significant reduction in the number of practicing Cathars but also a realignment of Occitania, bringing it into the sphere of the French crown


famous paintings

. This art includes cave paintings, such as the famous paintings at Pech Merle in the Lot (Lot (département)) in Languedoc which date back to 16,000 BC, Lascaux, located near the village of Montignac (Montignac, Dordogne), in the Dordogne, dating back to between 13,000 and 15,000 BC, or perhaps, as far back as 25,000 BC, the Cosquer Cave, the Chauvet Cave, and the Trois-Frères cave (Trois-Frères); and portable art, such as animal carvings and great goddess


blue red

to Christianity some time before Palamedes. When the affair between Lancelot and Guinevere is exposed, Safir and Palamedes join Lancelot's side in the ensuing civil war between Lancelot and King Arthur. When they are banished to Lancelot's homeland in Gaul, Safir is made Duke of Landok (Languedoc) while Palamedes becomes Duke of Provence. During the Ancien Régime, there were many different facing colours (notably various shades of blue, red, yellow, green and black


book publishing

and he took his vows two years later. "Lives of the Saints, For Every Day of the Year", edited by Rev. Hugo Hoever, S.O.Cist., Ph.D., New York: Catholic Book Publishing Co., 1955, p. 229 Born at Melgueil in Languedoc, he was educated by his uncle, the bishop of Maguelonne, whom he succeeded in 1529. In 1536 he was transferred to Montpellier. From England he was several times given safe-conduct to France, and he took an active part

Languedoc

'''Languedoc''' ( ) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day ''régions'' (List of regions in France) of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées in the south of France, and whose capital city was Toulouse, now in Midi-Pyrénées. It had an area of approximately 27,376 square kilometers.

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