of Prague . Heavily demolished in the Thirty Years' War, the church was rebuilt in a Baroque (Baroque architecture) style including rich interior decorations. By the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna), Lower Lusatia fell to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) and the abbey was finally securalised by the order of King Frederick William III (Frederick William III of Prussia) two years later. The village became part of the Kingdom of Prussia during the 18th century
to the government, Schleicher was able to secure Ebert′s assent to the Army being allowed to maintain its political autonomy. When Gustav Noske was appointed Defence Minister on December 27, 1918, both Groener and his protégé Schleicher established excellent working relations with the new minister. Wheeler-Bennett, John ''The Nemesis of Power'', London: Macmillan, 1967 page 35. To deal with the problem of the lack of loyal troops, Schleicher helped to found the ''Freikorps'' in early January 1919. Głogów remained part of the Austrian Crown of Bohemia until the First Silesian War (Silesian War). In March 1741 it was captured in a brilliant night attack by the Prussian Army under General Prince Leopold II of Anhalt-Dessau (Leopold II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau), and like the majority of Silesia became part of Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) under King Frederick II (Frederick II of Prussia). The city became known by the Germanized (Germanization) name of ''Groß-Glogau'' ("Greater Glogau") to differentiate it from the town of ''Oberglogau'' ("Upper Glogau", present-day Głogówek) in Upper Silesia. ''Chiffon de papier'' Belgium's ''de facto'' independence had been established through nine years of intermittent fighting, the Belgian Revolution. The signatories of the treaty, the United Kingdom (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), Austria (Austrian Empire), France (July Monarchy), Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), Russia (Russian Empire), and the Netherlands (Kingdom of the Netherlands), now officially recognised the independent Kingdom of Belgium, and at the United Kingdom's insistence agreed to its neutrality. This doctrine was used successfully in the War of Austrian Succession, The Seven Years' War, The Napoleonic Wars, The Austro-Prussian War, and The Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). The military success of Kingdom of Prussia Germany was the catalyst of the alliance systems of 19th century Europe. Life Rüstow was born in Wiesbaden in the Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) Province of Hesse-Nassau. From 1903 till 1908, he studied mathematics, physics, philosophy, philology, law and economics, at the universities of Göttingen, Munich and Berlin. In 1908, he obtained his doctorate under Paul Hensel, at the University of Erlangen (Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg), on a mathematical topic, Russell's paradox. He then worked at the Teubner publishing house in Berlin, until 1911, when he started working on his habilitation, on the knowledge theory of Parmenides. He had to interrupt his work though at the outbreak of the First World War, when he volunteered for the German Army. thumb right Cäsar Rüstow (File:CaesarRuestow1.jpg) '''Cäsar Rüstow''' (June 18, 1826, Brandenburg an der Havel – July 4, 1866) was a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) soldier and military writer. *1466–1772 Part of Poland *1772–1919 West Prussia (''Westpreußen'', province of Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) and part of the German Empire from 1871) *1808 August – 1820 August François Joseph Lefebvre was created Duc de Danzig by Napoleon Bonaparte after taking The fortress of Danzig (1807 May) History Following a short regency by Kingdom of Prussia (1791–1810) the region fell to Bavaria in 1810. The district was established in 1852. In the Bavarian communal reforms of 1972 (:de:Gebietsreform in Bayern) it was merged with parts of the dissolved districts Naila, Münchberg, Kronach and Rehau. He joined the republican army as a volunteer in 1799. At the time there was no officer school for cadets. He rose rapidly to commissioned rank, and was ''aide-de-camp'' to Marshal Augereau (Pierre François Charles Augereau, duc de Castiglione), commanding the VII corps, in the war against Kingdom of Prussia and Russia in 1806-7. After this he served with great distinction in the Peninsular War under Lannes (Jean Lannes) and Masséna, and showed himself to be a dashing leader of light cavalry in the Russian War of 1812 and the German campaign of the following year. After a slow recovery from the wounds he had received at Leipzig (battle of Leipzig) and Hanau (battle of Hanau), he was promoted general of brigade by Napoleon during the Hundred Days, and took part in, and was wounded at, the battle of Waterloo. Military life In 1785, MacDonald joined the Irish legion raised to support the revolutionary party in the Dutch Republic against the Kingdom of Prussia. After it was disbanded, he received a commission in the regiment of Dillon. At the start of the French Revolution, the regiment of Dillon remained loyal to the King, except for MacDonald, who was in love with Mlle Jacob, whose father was an enthusiastic revolutionary. After his marriage, he was appointed ''aide-de-camp'' to General Charles François Dumouriez. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Jemappes, and was promoted colonel in 1793. ), located in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Prussia) of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949. Klein dealt with small matters of zoological nomenclature and set up his own system of classification of animals, which was based on the number, shape, and position of the limbs. For his work in the field of natural science, Klein had been awarded the membership of several scientific societies, including the Royal Society in London and the Danzig Research Society. He was also a correspondent of the Lutheran pastor Friedrich Christian Lesser. He died 27 February 1759 in Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The settlement in the historical region of Upper Lusatia was first mentioned in a 1262 deed. Initially a possession of the Bohemian crown (Kingdom of Bohemia), Lusatia by the 1635 Peace of Prague (Peace of Prague (1635)) fell to the Saxon Electorate (Electorate of Saxony). As Saxony had sided with Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) it had to cede the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna). After the new border had been drawn, ''Reichenau'' was the only locality east of the Neisse river (Lusatian Neisse) that belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the end of World War II, it was therefore the only municipality in Poland which until 1945 was part of the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). At first called ''Rychwald'', the town was renamed in 1947. thumb left Tower of the Upper Gate (File:Bad Ziegenhals-turm.JPG) After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) and the 1742 Treaty of Breslau the Duchy of Nysa was partitioned and Ziegenhals became a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) bordertown, while the adjacent area around Zlaté Hory remained with Austrian Silesia. In the 19th century it became a spa town (''Bad''). After World War II and the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the area fell to the Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland). First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.
url http: books.google.com books?id S6aUBuWPqywC&printsec frontcover&dq Historical+dictionary+of+Poland,+966-1945#v onepage&q &f false isbn 9780313260070 The descendants of Kristinas Astikas, a close associate of the 14th century Lithuanian ruler Vytautas, were highly prominent for centuries, first in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Kingdom of Prussia. The family has produced many individuals
; *1884: Paul Gottlieb Nipkow of Lębork, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire invents the Nipkow disk,an image scanning device. It was the basis of his patent method of translating visual images to electronic impulses, transmit said impulses to another device and successfully reassemble the impulses to visual images. Nipkow used a selenium photoelectric cell (Solar cell).
. "Diesel originally designed the diesel engine to use peanut oil as a fuel in order to help support agrarian society." "Rudolp Diesel and Diesel oil" It was an early form of biodiesel. The Biodiesel Handbook, Chaper 2 – The History of Vegatable Oil Based Diesel Fuels, by Gerhard Knothe, ISBN 978-1-893997-79-0 *1884–1885: On August 9, 1884, "La France (La France (airship))"
Prussian Province of Westphalia (now in North Rhine-Westphalia), on 14 January 1892 to the Lutheran (Lutheranism) pastor Heinrich Niemöller and his wife Pauline née Müller, and grew up in a very conservative home. In 1900 the family moved to Elberfeld where he finished school, taking his abitur exam in 1910. The city of Königsberg in Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia) was set on both sides of the Pregolya Pregel
Liegnitz (Legnica), Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), German Empire death_date Life and career Löbe was born in Liegnitz (Legnica) (present-day Legnica) in the Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) province of Silesia (Silesia Province). The son of a carpenter (carpentry), he had to work as a waiting-boy helping to support the family. Finishing school he was trained as a typesetter (typesetting) at a printing shop in Wrocław
into the Austrian Netherlands which resulted in victory at the Battle of Jemappes on 6 November 1792. The Spanish Habsburgs were replaced by Viennese (Vienna) ones, and in 1734 the two kingdom were united under a single independent crown (''Utriusque Siciliarum''), that of Charles of Bourbon (Charles III of Spain). Charles renovated the city with the Villa di Capodimonte and the Teatro di San Carlo, and welcomed the philosophers Giovan Battista Vico and Antonio Genovesi
, and the most distinguished of his six brothers was Rudolf Mosse. Life She was born in Crossen-an-der-Oder, in the Kingdom of Prussia (now Krosno Odrzańskie, Poland), daughter of a theatrical manager and dramatic poet, Johann Christian Neumann. She made her first stage appearance in 1787 at Weimar. Gorgolewski was born in Solec (Schulitz) (Solec Kujawski), Province of Posen, Kingdom of Prussia. Between 1866 and 1871 he studied in Berlin
of the 16th century. With the weakening of the Commonwealth and growing religious strife (due to the Protestant Reformation and Catholic (Roman Catholic Church) Counter-Reformation), Poland’s traditional tolerance began to wane from the 17th century onward. After the partitions of Poland in 1795
conventional_long_name Kingdom of Prussia native_name ''Königreich Preußen'' common_name Prussia continent Europe region Central Europe country Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic were formally parts of Prussia. status State (States of the German Confederation) of the German Confederation (partly, 1815–1866) State (States of the North German Confederation) of the North German Confederation (1867–1871) State (States of the German Empire) of the German Empire (1871–1918) year_start 1701 year_end 1918 image_flag Flag of Prussia 1892-1918.svg flag_type Flag image_coat Wappen Deutsches Reich - Königreich Preussen (Grosses).png symbol Coat of arms of Prussia symbol_type Royal coat of arms national_motto national_anthem image_map German Empire - Prussia (1871).svg image_map_caption The Kingdom of Prussia (dark red) at its greatest extent, after the de facto incorporation of Saxe-Lauenburg in 1866. capital Berlin latd 52 latm 31 latNS N longd 13 longm 24 longEW E common_languages '''Official:''' German (German language) header '''Recognised:''' content religion government_type title_leader King (List of monarchs of Prussia#Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918)) leader1 Frederick I (Frederick I of Prussia) year_leader1 1701–1713 leader2 William II (William II, German Emperor) year_leader2 1888–1918 title_deputy deputy1 Adolf Heinrich (Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg) year_deputy1 1848 deputy2 Maximilian William (Prince Maximilian of Baden) year_deputy2 1918 legislature ''Landtag (Landtag of Prussia)'' house1 ''Herrenhaus (House of Lords of Prussia)'' house2 ''Abgeordnetenhaus (Abgeordnetenhaus (Prussia))'' era event_start Frederick I (Frederick I of Prussia) date_start 18 January event1 Jena-Auerstedt (Battle of Jena-Auerstedt) date_event1 14 October 1806 event2 Congress of Vienna date_event2 9 June 1815 event3 date_event3 5 December 1848 event4 Germany unified (Unification of Germany) date_event4 18 January 1871 event_end date_end 28 November event_post Treaty of Versailles date_post 28 June 1919 stat_year1 1816 stat_pop1 10349031 stat_year2 1871 stat_pop2 24689000 stat_year3 1910 stat_pop3 34472509 stat_area3 348779 currency p1 Holy Roman Empire flag_p1 Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg p2 Brandenburg-Prussia flag_p2 Flag of Brandenburg (1660–1750).svg p3 Royal Prussia flag_p3 Flag of Prussia (1466-1772) Lob.svg p4 Free City of Danzig (Napoleonic) flag_p4 Gdansk flag.svg p5 Swedish Pomerania flag_p5 Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg border_p5 no p6 Electorate of Hesse flag_p6 Flag of Hesse.svg p7 Free City of Frankfurt flag_p7 Flagge der Freien Stadt Frankfurt.png p8 Duchy of Nassau flag_p8 Flagge Herzogtum Nassau (1806-1866).svg p9 Kingdom of Hanover flag_p9 Flag of Hanover 1837-1866.svg p10 Duchy of Holstein flag_p10 Flag of Denmark.svg p11 Duchy of Schleswig flag_p11 Flag of Denmark.svg p12 Saxe-Lauenburg flag_p12 Flag of Lauenburg.svg s1 Free State of Prussia flag_s1 Flag of Prussia (1918–1933).svg today footnotes
The '''Kingdom of Prussia''' ( ) was a German kingdom (Monarchy) that existed between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic. Marriott, J. A. R., and Charles Grant Robertson. The Evolution of Prussia, the Making of an Empire,. Rev. ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1946. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871, and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia (Prussia (region)), it was based in Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg), where its capital was Berlin.
Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William (Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg), known as "The Great Elector". Fueter, Eduard (1922). World history, 1815–1920. United States of America: Harcourt, Brace and Company. pp. 25–28, 36–44. ISBN 1-58477-077-5. Danilovic, Vesna. "When the Stakes Are High—Deterrence and Conflict among Major Powers", University of Michigan Press (2002), p 27, p225-p228 Aping the Great Powers: Frederick the Great and the Defence of Prussia's International Position 1763–86, Pp. 286-307. The Rise of Prussia
Prussia continued its reign of power under the guidance of Frederick II (Frederick II of Prussia) (Frederick the Great), the third son of Frederick William I of Prussia. Horn, D. B. "The Youth of Frederick the Great 1712-30." In Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia, 9-10. 3rd ed. London: English Universities Press, 1964. Frederick the Great was credited for starting the Seven Years' War, holding his own against Austria, Russia, France and Sweden and establishing Prussia’s role in the German states, as well as establishing the country as a European great power. Horn, D. B. "The Seven Years' War." In Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia, 81-101. 3rd ed. London: English Universities Press, 1964. After the might of Prussia was revealed it became a major power for the German states. Throughout the next hundred years they went on to win many battles for the German states. Atkinson, C. T. A History of Germany, 1715-1815,. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1969. It was because of their power that they continuously tried to unify all the German states under their rule. After the Napoleonic wars the issue of unifying Germany into one country caused revolution throughout the German states each wanting their own constitution. Prussia tried once unsuccessfully to unify German states and end the fighting. The first was called the North German Confederation lasted from 1867-1871 and included many but not all of the German states. It was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War but many of its laws were later used in the German empire. The German Empire lasted from 1871-1918 and was the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian power. This was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. The war united all the German states against a common enemy, and with the victory came an overwhelming wave of patriotism which changed the opinions of those against unification. In 1871, Germany unified into a single country with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the legal predecessor (Succession of states) of the unified German Reich (1871–1945) and as such a direct ancestor of the current German state (Germany). The formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the ''fiat'' of the Allied Control Council referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction (Reactionism), and made way for the current setup of the German states. However, the '''Free State of Prussia''' ( ), which has become one of the largest cultural organisations in the world. Langels, Otto: "Constitutional Reality: 50 years of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation", in German, Deutschlandradio, 25 July 2007