Kingdom of Prussia

What is Kingdom of Prussia known for?


modern written

Parliament (the ''Kokkai'') is conventionally called the Diet in English, indicating the heavy Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) influence on the Meiji Constitution, Japan's first modern written constitution. * Some universities refer to the period of formal examination and the conclusion of an academic term as an "examination diet". In the effect of the Partitions of Poland, in 1794 Sejny became part of the Kingdom of Prussia and confiscated by the Prussian authorities


business family

to suffer from "excessive mother love", devoting much time to her family, and insisting on cleanliness within her home. Wheen 2001 (#Whe00). p. 12. She was from a prosperous business family. Her family later founded the company Philips Electronics: she was great-aunt to Anton (Anton Philips) and Gerard Philips, and great-great-aunt to Frits Philips. Her brother, Marx's uncle Benjamin


field+lack

in this field - lack of qualified teachers, lack of buildings and funds. After World War Two, compulsory education remained as one of priorities of the state. In 1978, only 1,2% of Polish population was illiterate. The '''Duchy of Magdeburg''' ( ) was a province of Brandenburg-Prussia from 1680 to 1701 and a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1701 to 1807. It replaced the Archbishopric of Magdeburg after its secularization by Brandenburg. The duchy


modern international

Lutheran church became the official religion in many German states after 1530. Religious conflict led to the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), which devastated German lands. The population of the German states was reduced by about 30%.


artistic summer

that and the exhibition activities in Olsztyn, there are also popular events held within the frameworks of the Olsztyn Artistic Summer and so called “evenings of the castle” and “Sundays in the Museum”. birth_date March 23, 1900 birth_place Frankfurt am Main, Hesse-Nassau (Hesse-Nassau Province), Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), Germany (German Empire) death_date File:Lyksborg slot 9-7-2005.jpg thumb left Residence


previous+buildings

since 1875) and the state paid the complete construction cost of 11,5 million Marks (German gold mark). At ), located in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Prussia) of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949. Klein dealt with small matters of zoological nomenclature and set up his own system of classification of animals, which was based on the number, shape, and position of the limbs. For his work in the field of natural science, Klein had been awarded the membership of several scientific societies, including the Royal Society in London and the Danzig Research Society. He was also a correspondent of the Lutheran pastor Friedrich Christian Lesser. He died 27 February 1759 in Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The settlement in the historical region of Upper Lusatia was first mentioned in a 1262 deed. Initially a possession of the Bohemian crown (Kingdom of Bohemia), Lusatia by the 1635 Peace of Prague (Peace of Prague (1635)) fell to the Saxon Electorate (Electorate of Saxony). As Saxony had sided with Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) it had to cede the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna). After the new border had been drawn, ''Reichenau'' was the only locality east of the Neisse river (Lusatian Neisse) that belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the end of World War II, it was therefore the only municipality in Poland which until 1945 was part of the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). At first called ''Rychwald'', the town was renamed in 1947. thumb left Tower of the Upper Gate (File:Bad Ziegenhals-turm.JPG) After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) and the 1742 Treaty of Breslau the Duchy of Nysa was partitioned and Ziegenhals became a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) bordertown, while the adjacent area around Zlaté Hory remained with Austrian Silesia. In the 19th century it became a spa town (''Bad''). After World War II and the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the area fell to the Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland). First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.


numerous military

), located in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Prussia) of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949. Klein dealt with small matters of zoological nomenclature and set up his own system of classification of animals, which was based on the number, shape, and position of the limbs. For his work in the field of natural science, Klein had been awarded the membership of several scientific societies, including the Royal Society in London and the Danzig Research Society. He was also a correspondent of the Lutheran pastor Friedrich Christian Lesser. He died 27 February 1759 in Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The settlement in the historical region of Upper Lusatia was first mentioned in a 1262 deed. Initially a possession of the Bohemian crown (Kingdom of Bohemia), Lusatia by the 1635 Peace of Prague (Peace of Prague (1635)) fell to the Saxon Electorate (Electorate of Saxony). As Saxony had sided with Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) it had to cede the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna). After the new border had been drawn, ''Reichenau'' was the only locality east of the Neisse river (Lusatian Neisse) that belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the end of World War II, it was therefore the only municipality in Poland which until 1945 was part of the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). At first called ''Rychwald'', the town was renamed in 1947. thumb left Tower of the Upper Gate (File:Bad Ziegenhals-turm.JPG) After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) and the 1742 Treaty of Breslau the Duchy of Nysa was partitioned and Ziegenhals became a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) bordertown, while the adjacent area around Zlaté Hory remained with Austrian Silesia. In the 19th century it became a spa town (''Bad''). After World War II and the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the area fell to the Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland). First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.


poetry published

peasant family. From 1870 he studied in Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) ''gymnasia (Gymnasium (school))'' in Inowrocław, Poznań, Opole, Racibórz, and in 1884 graduated from Mary Magdalen Gymnasium in Poznań. He studied philosophy and literature in German universities in Leipzig and Wrocław. During his studies he began having articles and poetry published, working with various Polish magazines. For his activities in socialist circles he was twice arrested by Prussian police and spent half a year in prison. But when the Kingdom of Prussia (the name element Electorate of Brandenburg had turned void at the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire on 6 August 1806), after it had turned – as part of the Fourth Coalition – against France, was defeated in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (November 11, 1806), France recaptured Saxe-Lauenburg. In remained first under French occupation, before on 1 March 1810 most of it was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia, a French client state. A small area with 15,000 inhabitants remained reserved for Napoléon's purposes. On 1 January 1811, most of the former duchy – except for the Amt Neuhaus and the Marschvogtei, which remained with Westphalia – was annexed to the First French Empire. After the Napoleonic Wars, Saxe-Lauenburg was restored as a Hanoverian dominium in 1813. The Congress of Vienna established Saxe-Lauenburg as a member state of the German Confederation. In 1814 the Kingdom of Hanover bartered Saxe-Lauenburg against royally Prussian East Frisia. On 7 June 1815, after 14 months under its rule, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) granted Saxe-Lauenburg to Sweden, receiving in return prior Swedish Pomerania, however, additionally paying 2.6 million Taler to Denmark, in order to compensate Danish claims to Pomerania. ''Pommern'', Werner Buchholz (ed.), Werner Conze, Hartmut Boockmann (contrib.), Berlin: Siedler, 1999, pp. 363 seq. ISBN 3-88680-272-8 Denmark gained that ducal territory north of the Elbe, now ruled in personal union by the Danish House of Oldenburg, from Sweden, which thus again compensated Danish claims to Swedish Pomerania. Dependent rule (1876–present) * In 1876 the Duchy gave up statehood and was transformed into the District of the Duchy of Lauenburg (Herzogtum Lauenburg) within Schleswig-Holstein (Province of Schleswig-Holstein), a province of the Kingdom of Prussia (1866–1918) and then of the Free State of Prussia (1918–33 1947), a component state of the respective government forms of Germany. In 1946 the province assumed the rank of statehood as State (Land) of Schleswig-Holstein (Schleswig-Holstein) and joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. * In 1890, Imperial Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) Otto von Bismarck was awarded the honorific title of ''Duke of Lauenburg'' including estates in the Sachsenwald in the former duchy, but he was never sovereign ruler of the territory, which had been incorporated into Prussia in 1876. He moved to these estates in Friedrichsruh and lived there until his death. From the Unification of Germany in 1871 until the end of World War I, the German Empire did not have a national Ministry of War. Instead the larger German states (such as the kingdoms of Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), Bavaria (Kingdom of Bavaria), Saxony (Kingdom of Saxony) and Württemberg (Kingdom of Württemberg)), insisting on their autonomy, each had an own war ministry. According to the military agreements the Prussian minister president Otto von Bismarck had forged with the South German states on the eve of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 71, the major states were responsible also for the defence of the smaller states. However, the Imperial Navy (Kaiserliche Marine) from 1889 was overseen by a federal department, the Imperial Naval Office (German Imperial Naval Office). thumb left Bendlerblock, Berlin-Tiergarten, secondary seat since 1993 (File:Berlin, Tiergarten, Reichpietschufer, Bendler-Block 02.jpg) Polanica-Zdrój was first documented in 1347 under the name ''Heyde''; at the time it belonged to the House of Glaubitz, Bohemia (Kingdom of Bohemia) within the Holy Roman Empire. In 1645 the town was destroyed by Swedish (Swedish Empire) troops during the Thirty Years' War. In 1742 the town – like all the area – changed into the hands of Brandenburg-Prussia, becoming part of sovereign Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. The town grew quickly during the 19th century, becoming a popular health resort in the 1870s, after Prussia had become a component state of Germany (German Empire) in 1871. In 1890 a rail connection to Glatz (Kłodzko) was completed. The town became part of Poland after World War II ended in 1945. Friedland belonged to the Kingdom of Prussia from 1701; on June 14, 1807, Napoleon I (Napoleon I of France)'s French (First French Empire) army won the nearby Battle of Friedland against a combined Russian (Russian Empire)-Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) army. The town became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany. Friedland belonged to the Kingdom of Prussia from 1701; on June 14, 1807, Napoleon I (Napoleon I of France)'s French (First French Empire) army won the nearby Battle of Friedland against a combined Russian (Russian Empire)-Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) army. The town became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany. Żnin was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1772 during the First Partition of Poland and subsequently administered within the Netze District. In September 1794 during the unsuccessful Kościuszko Uprising, Polish forces under General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski, passed Gąsawa from Poznań and liberated Żnin. The local garrison commander, Colonel Keszycki, established a recruitment center for volunteers in the town. thumb left View of Grottkau, 1819 (File:Grottkau Ansicht 19. Jahrhundert.jpg) Grottkau was devastated during the Hussite Wars and again in the Thirty Years' War, after which it was rebuilt under the rule of its native son Bishop Sebastian von Rostock. With the Bohemian kingdom, the town was incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy in 1526. After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) of 1740-42, it was annexed by King Frederick the Great of Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), the Prussian garrison established after the Seven Years' War in 1763 was not disbanded until 1920. From 1815 onwards, Grottkau was part of the Silesia Province. In the Frederic#Monarch section and in Kingdom of Prussia, the title of at least Frederick I of Prussia was King ''in'' Prussia, not King ''of'' Prussia. Anything I don't know? In 1656 Neidenburg was unsuccessfully besieged during the Northern Wars. The town became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Half of Neidenburg's inhabitants died from plague (pandemic) from 1708-1711. It became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany. In 1701 Lebus became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars, it was administered within the new Prussian Province of Brandenburg. Płośnica was first documented in 1351, while its church was first reported in 1404. In 1818 it belonged to Landkreis Neidenburg in East Prussia in the Kingdom of Prussia and, after 1871, in Imperial Germany. It was damaged during World War I and transferred to Poland in 1920 after the Treaty of Versailles without a referendum. At the beginning of World War II in 1939 it became part of Nazi Germany again until 1945, when it was overrun by the Soviet Red Army and given to Poland again. Launhardt was born in Hanover, the capital of the Kingdom of Hanover. He studied and taught at Hanover's technical school (University of Hanover). Following Hanover's annexation by the Kingdom of Prussia, Launhardt served in the Prussian House of Lords. The corps had suffered 10,602 casualties; 3,598 killed and 7,004 wounded. Moran (#Reference-Moran) p. 139 The German Sixth Army suffered an unknown number of casualties with an approximate 4,000 men becoming prisoners of war. Gibbs, Philip. All of Vimy Ridge Cleared of Germans ''New York Times'' 11 April 1917 Four Victoria Crosses, the highest military decoration awarded to British and Commonwealth (Commonwealth of Nations) forces for valour, were awarded to members of the Canadian Corps and at least two Orders Pour le Mérite, the Kingdom of Prussia's highest military order, were awarded to German commanders. Godefroy (#Reference-Godefroy2) p. 233 The Germans did not attempt to recapture the ridge, including during the Spring Offensive, and it remained under British control until the end of the war. As foreign minister, Buol soon had to deal with the Near Eastern crisis which had erupted by early 1854 into the Crimean War, as France (Second French Empire) and Britain had declared war on Russia in an effort to support the Ottoman Empire. In this crisis, Austria's position was a tenuous one. Russia's intervention to suppress the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, and its subsequent intervention on behalf of Austria against Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) leading to the Punctation of Olmütz in 1850, put the Austrians substantially in the debt of the Tsar Nicholas I (Nicholas I of Russia). Furthermore, the geographical positions involved meant that in any war with Russia, Austria, even if allied with France and Britain, would bear the brunt of the fighting. On the other hand, permanent Russian control of the Danubian Principalities (the later Romania) would greatly endanger Austria's strategic position, and the Austrians were more generally opposed to any expansion of Russian influence in the Balkans. Thus, Buol attempted to pursue a middle course, trying to mediate between the belligerent parties. Klemens von Gruben was succeeded by the auxiliary bishop Karl Anton von Lüpke, also administrator of the North German Missions. After his death new negotiations led to the endowment of an independent see. Pope Pius IX, with the consent of King George V of Hanover, appointed Paulus Melchers of Münster as bishop on 3 August 1857. In 1866 the territory of the diocese passed, with Hanover, to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (Province of Hanover); Melchers became Archbishop of Cologne, and was succeeded in 1866 by Johannes Heinrich Beckmann (1866–78), who was succeeded by Bernhard Höting (1882–98) after a vacancy of four years owing to the Kulturkampf. The next bishop (to 1911), Hubert Voss, was appointed 12 April 1899. combatant1 ), located in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Prussia) of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949. Klein dealt with small matters of zoological nomenclature and set up his own system of classification of animals, which was based on the number, shape, and position of the limbs. For his work in the field of natural science, Klein had been awarded the membership of several scientific societies, including the Royal Society in London and the Danzig Research Society. He was also a correspondent of the Lutheran pastor Friedrich Christian Lesser. He died 27 February 1759 in Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The settlement in the historical region of Upper Lusatia was first mentioned in a 1262 deed. Initially a possession of the Bohemian crown (Kingdom of Bohemia), Lusatia by the 1635 Peace of Prague (Peace of Prague (1635)) fell to the Saxon Electorate (Electorate of Saxony). As Saxony had sided with Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) it had to cede the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna). After the new border had been drawn, ''Reichenau'' was the only locality east of the Neisse river (Lusatian Neisse) that belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the end of World War II, it was therefore the only municipality in Poland which until 1945 was part of the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). At first called ''Rychwald'', the town was renamed in 1947. thumb left Tower of the Upper Gate (File:Bad Ziegenhals-turm.JPG) After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) and the 1742 Treaty of Breslau the Duchy of Nysa was partitioned and Ziegenhals became a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) bordertown, while the adjacent area around Zlaté Hory remained with Austrian Silesia. In the 19th century it became a spa town (''Bad''). After World War II and the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the area fell to the Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland). First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.


hard+famous

'' and a Russian Empire army under Levin August, Count von Bennigsen near the town of Preußisch Eylau in East Prussia. Haythornthwaite, Philip J., ''Die Hard! Famous Napoleonic Battles'', Cassell, London, 1996, chapter 3 Late in the battle, the Russians received a timely reinforcement from a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) division. The town is now called Bagrationovsk and it is a part of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. The engagement was fought during


growing religious

of the 16th century. With the weakening of the Commonwealth and growing religious strife (due to the Protestant Reformation and Catholic (Roman Catholic Church) Counter-Reformation), Poland’s traditional tolerance began to wane from the 17th century onward. After the partitions of Poland in 1795

Kingdom of Prussia

conventional_long_name Kingdom of Prussia native_name ''Königreich Preußen'' common_name Prussia continent Europe region Central Europe country Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic were formally parts of Prussia. status State (States of the German Confederation) of the German Confederation (partly, 1815–1866) State (States of the North German Confederation) of the North German Confederation (1867–1871) State (States of the German Empire) of the German Empire (1871–1918) year_start 1701 year_end 1918 image_flag Flag of Prussia 1892-1918.svg flag_type Flag image_coat Wappen Deutsches Reich - Königreich Preussen (Grosses).png symbol Coat of arms of Prussia symbol_type Royal coat of arms national_motto national_anthem image_map German Empire - Prussia (1871).svg image_map_caption The Kingdom of Prussia (dark red) at its greatest extent, after the de facto incorporation of Saxe-Lauenburg in 1866. capital Berlin latd 52 latm 31 latNS N longd 13 longm 24 longEW E common_languages '''Official:''' German (German language) header '''Recognised:''' content religion government_type title_leader King (List of monarchs of Prussia#Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918)) leader1 Frederick I (Frederick I of Prussia) year_leader1 1701–1713 leader2 William II (William II, German Emperor) year_leader2 1888–1918 title_deputy deputy1 Adolf Heinrich (Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg) year_deputy1 1848 deputy2 Maximilian William (Prince Maximilian of Baden) year_deputy2 1918 legislature ''Landtag (Landtag of Prussia)'' house1 ''Herrenhaus (House of Lords of Prussia)'' house2 ''Abgeordnetenhaus (Abgeordnetenhaus (Prussia))'' era event_start Frederick I (Frederick I of Prussia) date_start 18 January event1 Jena-Auerstedt (Battle of Jena-Auerstedt) date_event1 14 October 1806 event2 Congress of Vienna date_event2 9 June 1815 event3 date_event3 5 December 1848 event4 Germany unified (Unification of Germany) date_event4 18 January 1871 event_end date_end 28 November event_post Treaty of Versailles date_post 28 June 1919 stat_year1 1816 stat_pop1 10349031 stat_year2 1871 stat_pop2 24689000 stat_year3 1910 stat_pop3 34472509 stat_area3 348779 currency p1 Holy Roman Empire flag_p1 Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg p2 Brandenburg-Prussia flag_p2 Flag of Brandenburg (1660–1750).svg p3 Royal Prussia flag_p3 Flag of Prussia (1466-1772) Lob.svg p4 Free City of Danzig (Napoleonic) flag_p4 Gdansk flag.svg p5 Swedish Pomerania flag_p5 Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg border_p5 no p6 Electorate of Hesse flag_p6 Flag of Hesse.svg p7 Free City of Frankfurt flag_p7 Flagge der Freien Stadt Frankfurt.png p8 Duchy of Nassau flag_p8 Flagge Herzogtum Nassau (1806-1866).svg p9 Kingdom of Hanover flag_p9 Flag of Hanover 1837-1866.svg p10 Duchy of Holstein flag_p10 Flag of Denmark.svg p11 Duchy of Schleswig flag_p11 Flag of Denmark.svg p12 Saxe-Lauenburg flag_p12 Flag of Lauenburg.svg s1 Free State of Prussia flag_s1 Flag of Prussia (1918–1933).svg today footnotes

The '''Kingdom of Prussia''' ( ) was a German kingdom (Monarchy) that existed between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic. Marriott, J. A. R., and Charles Grant Robertson. The Evolution of Prussia, the Making of an Empire,. Rev. ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1946. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871, and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia (Prussia (region)), it was based in Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg), where its capital was Berlin.

Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William (Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg), known as "The Great Elector". Fueter, Eduard (1922). World history, 1815–1920. United States of America: Harcourt, Brace and Company. pp. 25–28, 36–44. ISBN 1-58477-077-5. Danilovic, Vesna. "When the Stakes Are High—Deterrence and Conflict among Major Powers", University of Michigan Press (2002), p 27, p225-p228 Aping the Great Powers: Frederick the Great and the Defence of Prussia's International Position 1763–86, Pp. 286-307. The Rise of Prussia

Prussia continued its reign of power under the guidance of Frederick II (Frederick II of Prussia) (Frederick the Great), the third son of Frederick William I of Prussia. Horn, D. B. "The Youth of Frederick the Great 1712-30." In Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia, 9-10. 3rd ed. London: English Universities Press, 1964. Frederick the Great was credited for starting the Seven Years' War, holding his own against Austria, Russia, France and Sweden and establishing Prussia’s role in the German states, as well as establishing the country as a European great power. Horn, D. B. "The Seven Years' War." In Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia, 81-101. 3rd ed. London: English Universities Press, 1964. After the might of Prussia was revealed it became a major power for the German states. Throughout the next hundred years they went on to win many battles for the German states. Atkinson, C. T. A History of Germany, 1715-1815,. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1969. It was because of their power that they continuously tried to unify all the German states under their rule. After the Napoleonic wars the issue of unifying Germany into one country caused revolution throughout the German states each wanting their own constitution. Prussia tried once unsuccessfully to unify German states and end the fighting. The first was called the North German Confederation lasted from 1867-1871 and included many but not all of the German states. It was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War but many of its laws were later used in the German empire. The German Empire lasted from 1871-1918 and was the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian power. This was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. The war united all the German states against a common enemy, and with the victory came an overwhelming wave of patriotism which changed the opinions of those against unification. In 1871, Germany unified into a single country with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the legal predecessor (Succession of states) of the unified German Reich (1871–1945) and as such a direct ancestor of the current German state (Germany). The formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the ''fiat'' of the Allied Control Council referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction (Reactionism), and made way for the current setup of the German states. However, the '''Free State of Prussia''' ( ), which has become one of the largest cultural organisations in the world. Langels, Otto: "Constitutional Reality: 50 years of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation", in German, Deutschlandradio, 25 July 2007

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