Kingdom of Prussia

What is Kingdom of Prussia known for?


academic term

), located in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Prussia) of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949. Klein dealt with small matters of zoological nomenclature and set up his own system of classification of animals, which was based on the number, shape, and position of the limbs. For his work in the field of natural science, Klein had been awarded the membership of several scientific societies, including the Royal Society in London and the Danzig Research Society. He was also a correspondent of the Lutheran pastor Friedrich Christian Lesser. He died 27 February 1759 in Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The settlement in the historical region of Upper Lusatia was first mentioned in a 1262 deed. Initially a possession of the Bohemian crown (Kingdom of Bohemia), Lusatia by the 1635 Peace of Prague (Peace of Prague (1635)) fell to the Saxon Electorate (Electorate of Saxony). As Saxony had sided with Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) it had to cede the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna). After the new border had been drawn, ''Reichenau'' was the only locality east of the Neisse river (Lusatian Neisse) that belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the end of World War II, it was therefore the only municipality in Poland which until 1945 was part of the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). At first called ''Rychwald'', the town was renamed in 1947. thumb left Tower of the Upper Gate (File:Bad Ziegenhals-turm.JPG) After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) and the 1742 Treaty of Breslau the Duchy of Nysa was partitioned and Ziegenhals became a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) bordertown, while the adjacent area around Zlaté Hory remained with Austrian Silesia. In the 19th century it became a spa town (''Bad''). After World War II and the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the area fell to the Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland). First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.


legal fiction

; was adopted to acknowledge the legal fiction that the Hohenzollerns were legally kings only in their former duchy. In Brandenburg and the portions of their domains that were still part of the Empire, they were still legally only electors under the overlordship of the emperor. However, by this time the emperor's authority was only nominal. The rulers of the empire's various territories acted largely as the rulers of sovereign states, and only acknowledged the emperor's suzerainty in a formal way. While the personal union between Brandenburg and Prussia legally continued until the end of the empire in 1806, from 1701 onward Brandenburg was ''de facto'' treated as an integral part of the kingdom. Since the Hohenzollerns were nominally still subjects of the emperor within the parts of their domains that were part of the empire, they continued to use the additional title of Elector of Brandenburg until the empire ceased. It was not until 1772 that the title was changed to "King ''of'' Prussia". The Great Northern War: 1700-1721 The Great Northern War was the first major conflict the new Kingdom of Prussia was involved in. Starting in 1700, the Great Northern War consisted of a coalition led by Tsarist Russia and the dominant European power at the time the Swedish Empire. Frederick William (Frederick William I of Prussia) in 1705 tried to get Prussia involved in the war, stating "best Prussia has her own army and make her own decisions." Feuchtwanger, E. J. Prussia: Myth and Reality: The Role of Prussia in German History. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1970. However his views were not considered accepted by those in power. It was not until 1713 that Frederick William (Frederick William I of Prussia) gained full royal powers. Therefore in 1715, Prussia, led by Frederick William, joined the coalition for various reasons. The most important being the danger of getting attacked from both her rear and the sea, her claims on Pomerania and the fact that if she stood aside and Sweden lost she would not get a share of the territory. Prussia turned the tides of the war, their armies helped push the Swedish army out of the Pomerania which eventually lead to the Swedish Empire surrender. It was this surrender that led to the Treaty of Stockholm (Treaty of Stockholm (Great Northern War)) in which Prussia expanded its empire by obtaining the previously Swedish territory of Pomerania. The Great Northern War not only marked the end of the Swedish Empire but also introduced Prussia and Russia as new powers in Europe. Shennan, Margaret. The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia. London: Routledge, 1995 1701–1721: Results of Thirty-Years' War and The Great Northern War The Kingdom of Prussia was poor in natural resources and devastated from the Thirty Years' War. Its territory was disjointed. It stretched ), located in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Prussia) of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949. Klein dealt with small matters of zoological nomenclature and set up his own system of classification of animals, which was based on the number, shape, and position of the limbs. For his work in the field of natural science, Klein had been awarded the membership of several scientific societies, including the Royal Society in London and the Danzig Research Society. He was also a correspondent of the Lutheran pastor Friedrich Christian Lesser. He died 27 February 1759 in Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The settlement in the historical region of Upper Lusatia was first mentioned in a 1262 deed. Initially a possession of the Bohemian crown (Kingdom of Bohemia), Lusatia by the 1635 Peace of Prague (Peace of Prague (1635)) fell to the Saxon Electorate (Electorate of Saxony). As Saxony had sided with Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) it had to cede the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna). After the new border had been drawn, ''Reichenau'' was the only locality east of the Neisse river (Lusatian Neisse) that belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the end of World War II, it was therefore the only municipality in Poland which until 1945 was part of the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). At first called ''Rychwald'', the town was renamed in 1947. thumb left Tower of the Upper Gate (File:Bad Ziegenhals-turm.JPG) After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) and the 1742 Treaty of Breslau the Duchy of Nysa was partitioned and Ziegenhals became a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) bordertown, while the adjacent area around Zlaté Hory remained with Austrian Silesia. In the 19th century it became a spa town (''Bad''). After World War II and the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the area fell to the Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland). First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.


hard+famous

'' and a Russian Empire army under Levin August, Count von Bennigsen near the town of Preußisch Eylau in East Prussia. Haythornthwaite, Philip J., ''Die Hard! Famous Napoleonic Battles'', Cassell, London, 1996, chapter 3 Late in the battle, the Russians received a timely reinforcement from a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) division. The town is now called Bagrationovsk and it is a part of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. The engagement was fought during


historical+free

, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) and Russia (Russian Empire) The '''Free, Independent, and Strictly Neutral City of Kraków The Polish variant of Kraków is occasionally retroactively applied in English to the historical Free City. (Cracow) with its Territory''' ( ), more commonly known as either the '''Free City of Kraków''' or '''Republic of Kraków''' (


business family

to suffer from "excessive mother love", devoting much time to her family, and insisting on cleanliness within her home. Wheen 2001 (#Whe00). p. 12. She was from a prosperous business family. Her family later founded the company Philips Electronics: she was great-aunt to Anton (Anton Philips) and Gerard Philips, and great-great-aunt to Frits Philips. Her brother, Marx's uncle Benjamin


event based

lands in the Russian Empire in 1803–4 and again in 1808. A poignant retelling of this event based on what Goethe (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe) had personally witnessed can be found in his long poem ''Hermann and Dorothea''. thumb Traditional costumes of Alsace (File:Alsace4.jpg) France was provoked by the Ems Dispatch into the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), and was defeated by the Kingdom of Prussia and other German states. The end of the war led to the unification


water connection

; Major industries prospering in Stettin since 1840 were shipbuilding, chemical and food industries and machinery construction. Starting in 1843, Stettin became connected to the major German and Pomeranian cities by railways, and the water connection to the Bay of Pomerania was enhanced by the construction of the Kaiserfahrt (now Piast) canal. On 20 October 1890, some of the city's Poles created the Towarzystwo Robotników Polsko Katolickich (Society of Polish-Catholic Workers) in the city, one of the first Polish organisations. Dzieje Szczecina:1806-1945 page 450 Bogdan Frankiewicz 1994 The peninsula became part of the Duchy of Prussia when Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Albert, Duke of Prussia), the 37th Grand Master, secularized the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights in 1525. The Margraviate of Brandenburg inherited the duchy in 1618, and its Hohenzollern (House of Hohenzollern) ruler proclaimed the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Sambia became part of the Province (Provinces of Prussia) of East Prussia in 1773. (The Kingdom of Prussia completed the unification of Germany by setting up the German Empire in 1871.) ), located in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Prussia) of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949. Klein dealt with small matters of zoological nomenclature and set up his own system of classification of animals, which was based on the number, shape, and position of the limbs. For his work in the field of natural science, Klein had been awarded the membership of several scientific societies, including the Royal Society in London and the Danzig Research Society. He was also a correspondent of the Lutheran pastor Friedrich Christian Lesser. He died 27 February 1759 in Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The settlement in the historical region of Upper Lusatia was first mentioned in a 1262 deed. Initially a possession of the Bohemian crown (Kingdom of Bohemia), Lusatia by the 1635 Peace of Prague (Peace of Prague (1635)) fell to the Saxon Electorate (Electorate of Saxony). As Saxony had sided with Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) it had to cede the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna). After the new border had been drawn, ''Reichenau'' was the only locality east of the Neisse river (Lusatian Neisse) that belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the end of World War II, it was therefore the only municipality in Poland which until 1945 was part of the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). At first called ''Rychwald'', the town was renamed in 1947. thumb left Tower of the Upper Gate (File:Bad Ziegenhals-turm.JPG) After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) and the 1742 Treaty of Breslau the Duchy of Nysa was partitioned and Ziegenhals became a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) bordertown, while the adjacent area around Zlaté Hory remained with Austrian Silesia. In the 19th century it became a spa town (''Bad''). After World War II and the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the area fell to the Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland). First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.


work modern

. Bonn was of little relevance in these years. First documented in the 13th century, Berlin was the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945). 1920s Berlin Berlin in the 1920s


period+social

Kurpierz (IPN (Institute of National Remembrance) Katowice) with Michał Luty date 2010 work Sylwetki publisher Institute of National Remembrance, Poland. was executed by Nazi Germans in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp on 26 August 1944. Sławik was a Polish (Polish people) politician in the interwar period, social worker, activist, and diplomat, who during World War II helped save over 5,000 History of the Jews


military development

. In the Treaty of Frankfurt (Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)), Prussia forced France to cede Alsace-Lorraine to the new German Empire. Ever since, relations had been at an all time low. France—worried about the escalating military development of Germany—began building up its own war industries and army as a deterrent to German aggression. As another measure, France developed a strong bond with Russia by joining the Franco-Russian Alliance, which was designed to create a strong counter

Kingdom of Prussia

conventional_long_name Kingdom of Prussia native_name ''Königreich Preußen'' common_name Prussia continent Europe region Central Europe country Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic were formally parts of Prussia. status State (States of the German Confederation) of the German Confederation (partly, 1815–1866) State (States of the North German Confederation) of the North German Confederation (1867–1871) State (States of the German Empire) of the German Empire (1871–1918) year_start 1701 year_end 1918 image_flag Flag of Prussia 1892-1918.svg flag_type Flag image_coat Wappen Deutsches Reich - Königreich Preussen (Grosses).png symbol Coat of arms of Prussia symbol_type Royal coat of arms national_motto national_anthem image_map German Empire - Prussia (1871).svg image_map_caption The Kingdom of Prussia (dark red) at its greatest extent, after the de facto incorporation of Saxe-Lauenburg in 1866. capital Berlin latd 52 latm 31 latNS N longd 13 longm 24 longEW E common_languages '''Official:''' German (German language) header '''Recognised:''' content religion government_type title_leader King (List of monarchs of Prussia#Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918)) leader1 Frederick I (Frederick I of Prussia) year_leader1 1701–1713 leader2 William II (William II, German Emperor) year_leader2 1888–1918 title_deputy deputy1 Adolf Heinrich (Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg) year_deputy1 1848 deputy2 Maximilian William (Prince Maximilian of Baden) year_deputy2 1918 legislature ''Landtag (Landtag of Prussia)'' house1 ''Herrenhaus (House of Lords of Prussia)'' house2 ''Abgeordnetenhaus (Abgeordnetenhaus (Prussia))'' era event_start Frederick I (Frederick I of Prussia) date_start 18 January event1 Jena-Auerstedt (Battle of Jena-Auerstedt) date_event1 14 October 1806 event2 Congress of Vienna date_event2 9 June 1815 event3 date_event3 5 December 1848 event4 Germany unified (Unification of Germany) date_event4 18 January 1871 event_end date_end 28 November event_post Treaty of Versailles date_post 28 June 1919 stat_year1 1816 stat_pop1 10349031 stat_year2 1871 stat_pop2 24689000 stat_year3 1910 stat_pop3 34472509 stat_area3 348779 currency p1 Holy Roman Empire flag_p1 Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg p2 Brandenburg-Prussia flag_p2 Flag of Brandenburg (1660–1750).svg p3 Royal Prussia flag_p3 Flag of Prussia (1466-1772) Lob.svg p4 Free City of Danzig (Napoleonic) flag_p4 Gdansk flag.svg p5 Swedish Pomerania flag_p5 Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg border_p5 no p6 Electorate of Hesse flag_p6 Flag of Hesse.svg p7 Free City of Frankfurt flag_p7 Flagge der Freien Stadt Frankfurt.png p8 Duchy of Nassau flag_p8 Flagge Herzogtum Nassau (1806-1866).svg p9 Kingdom of Hanover flag_p9 Flag of Hanover 1837-1866.svg p10 Duchy of Holstein flag_p10 Flag of Denmark.svg p11 Duchy of Schleswig flag_p11 Flag of Denmark.svg p12 Saxe-Lauenburg flag_p12 Flag of Lauenburg.svg s1 Free State of Prussia flag_s1 Flag of Prussia (1918–1933).svg today footnotes

The '''Kingdom of Prussia''' ( ) was a German kingdom (Monarchy) that existed between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic. Marriott, J. A. R., and Charles Grant Robertson. The Evolution of Prussia, the Making of an Empire,. Rev. ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1946. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871, and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia (Prussia (region)), it was based in Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg), where its capital was Berlin.

Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William (Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg), known as "The Great Elector". Fueter, Eduard (1922). World history, 1815–1920. United States of America: Harcourt, Brace and Company. pp. 25–28, 36–44. ISBN 1-58477-077-5. Danilovic, Vesna. "When the Stakes Are High—Deterrence and Conflict among Major Powers", University of Michigan Press (2002), p 27, p225-p228 Aping the Great Powers: Frederick the Great and the Defence of Prussia's International Position 1763–86, Pp. 286-307. The Rise of Prussia

Prussia continued its reign of power under the guidance of Frederick II (Frederick II of Prussia) (Frederick the Great), the third son of Frederick William I of Prussia. Horn, D. B. "The Youth of Frederick the Great 1712-30." In Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia, 9-10. 3rd ed. London: English Universities Press, 1964. Frederick the Great was credited for starting the Seven Years' War, holding his own against Austria, Russia, France and Sweden and establishing Prussia’s role in the German states, as well as establishing the country as a European great power. Horn, D. B. "The Seven Years' War." In Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia, 81-101. 3rd ed. London: English Universities Press, 1964. After the might of Prussia was revealed it became a major power for the German states. Throughout the next hundred years they went on to win many battles for the German states. Atkinson, C. T. A History of Germany, 1715-1815,. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1969. It was because of their power that they continuously tried to unify all the German states under their rule. After the Napoleonic wars the issue of unifying Germany into one country caused revolution throughout the German states each wanting their own constitution. Prussia tried once unsuccessfully to unify German states and end the fighting. The first was called the North German Confederation lasted from 1867-1871 and included many but not all of the German states. It was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War but many of its laws were later used in the German empire. The German Empire lasted from 1871-1918 and was the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian power. This was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. The war united all the German states against a common enemy, and with the victory came an overwhelming wave of patriotism which changed the opinions of those against unification. In 1871, Germany unified into a single country with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the legal predecessor (Succession of states) of the unified German Reich (1871–1945) and as such a direct ancestor of the current German state (Germany). The formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the ''fiat'' of the Allied Control Council referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction (Reactionism), and made way for the current setup of the German states. However, the '''Free State of Prussia''' ( ), which has become one of the largest cultural organisations in the world. Langels, Otto: "Constitutional Reality: 50 years of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation", in German, Deutschlandradio, 25 July 2007

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