Kingdom of Nri

What is Kingdom of Nri known for?


bronze

set free from their bondage. Nri expanded through converts gaining neighboring communities' allegiance, not by force. Nri's royal founder, Eri (Eri (divine king)), is said to be a 'sky being' that came down to earth and then established civilization. One of the better-known remnants of the Nri civilization is its art, as manifested in the Igbo Ukwu bronze items (Archaeology of Igbo-Ukwu). Nri's culture had permanently influenced the Northern and Western Igbo, especially through religion

distance from the coast, have been found depicted in Nri's bronze. A Nri dignitary was unearthed with ivory, also indicating a wealth in trade existed among the Nri. Another source of income would have been the income brought back by traveling ''mbùríchi''. Unlike in many African economies of the period, Nri did not practice slave ownership or trade. Certain parts of the Nri domain, like Agukwu, did

were the names of their four governing spirits. Eri revealed the opportunity of time to the Igbo, who would use the days for exchanging goods and knowledge. Uzukwu, 107 Culture Art thumbnail 9th century bronze vessel in form of a snail shell excavated in Archaeology of Igbo-Ukwu Igbo-Ukwu (File:Bronze ceremonial vessel in form of a snail shell, 9th century, Igbo-Ukwu, Nigeria.JPG) Igbo-Ukwu, a part of the kingdom about nine miles from Nri itself


century

may be divided into six main periods: the pre-Eri period (before 948 CE), the Eri period (948—1041 CE), migration and unification (1042—1252 CE), the heyday of Nri hegemony (1253—1679 CE), hegemony decline and collapse (1677—1936 CE) and the Socio-culture Revival (1974—Present). Onwuejeogwu (1981), page 22 Foundation 300px thumb Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 9th century AD showing Nri and other civilizations. (File:East-Hem 900ad.jpg) Archaeological evidence

suggests that Nri hegemony in Igboland may go back as far as the 9th century, Hrbek, page 254 and royal burials have been unearthed dating to at least the 10th century. Eri, the god-like founder of Nri, is believed to have settled the region around 948, with other related Igbo cultures following after in the 13th century. Lovejoy, page 62

century, Nri influence extended well beyond the nuclear northern Igbo region to Igbo settlements on the west bank of the Niger and communities affected by the Benin Empire. There is strong evidence to indicate Nri influence well beyond the Igbo region to Benin and Southern Igala areas like Idah. At its height, the kingdom of Nri had influence over roughly a third of Igboland and beyond. It reached its furthest extent between 1100 and 1400.<


set free

set free from their bondage. Nri expanded through converts gaining neighboring communities' allegiance, not by force. Nri's royal founder, Eri (Eri (divine king)), is said to be a 'sky being' that came down to earth and then established civilization. One of the better-known remnants of the Nri civilization is its art, as manifested in the Igbo Ukwu bronze items (Archaeology of Igbo-Ukwu). Nri's culture had permanently influenced the Northern and Western Igbo, especially through religion and taboos. British colonialism, the Atlantic slave trade and the rise of Bini and Igala kingdoms, contributed to the decline of the Nri Kingdom. The Nri Kingdom is going through a cultural revival. History The Nri kingdom is considered to be a center of Igbo culture. Griswold, page XV Nri and Aguleri, where the Umueri-Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan, who trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure, Eri (Eri (divine king)). Isichei, page 246—247 Eri's origins are unclear, though he has been described as a "sky being" sent by Chukwu (God). Uzukwu, page 93 He is credited with first giving societal order to the people of Anambra. Nri history may be divided into six main periods: the pre-Eri period (before 948 CE), the Eri period (948—1041 CE), migration and unification (1042—1252 CE), the heyday of Nri hegemony (1253—1679 CE), hegemony decline and collapse (1677—1936 CE) and the Socio-culture Revival (1974—Present). Onwuejeogwu (1981), page 22 Foundation 300px thumb Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 9th century AD showing Nri and other civilizations. (File:East-Hem 900ad.jpg) Archaeological evidence suggests that Nri hegemony in Igboland may go back as far as the 9th century, Hrbek, page 254 and royal burials have been unearthed dating to at least the 10th century. Eri, the god-like founder of Nri, is believed to have settled the region around 948, with other related Igbo cultures following after in the 13th century. Lovejoy, page 62 ; excerpted in "Cultural Harmony I: Igboland — the World of Man and the World of Spirits", section 4 of Kalu Ogbaa, ed., ''Understanding Things Fall Apart'' (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999; ISBN 0313302944), pp. 83–85. The Kingdom of Nri, rising around the 10th century, is credited for the foundation of Igboland's culture and it is the oldest kingdom in Nigeria. Many other kingdom's were founded after Nri, either directly or indirectly as a result of Nri. The most powerful kingdom of these was the Aro Confederacy. Igboland was conquered by the British after several decades of resistance on all front's; some of the most famous of the resistance includes the Ekumeku Movement, the Anglo-Aro War, and the Igbo Women's War.


world influence

;ref name "Isichei, page 246—247" Nri's hegemony over much of Igboland lasted from the reigns of the fourth ''eze'' Nri to that of the ninth. After that, patterns of conflict emerged that existed from the tenth to the fourteenth reigns, which probably reflected the monetary importance of the slave trade. Outside-world influence was not going to be halted by native religious doctrine in the face of the slave trade's (Atlantic Slave Trade) economic opportunities. Nri hegemony declined after the start of the 18th century. Lovejoy, page 63 Still, it survived in a much-reduced, and weakened form until 1911. In 1911, British (United Kingdom) troops forced the reigning eze Nri to renounce the ritual power of the religion known as the ''ìkénga'', ending the kingdom of Nri as a political power. Government thumb A tender palm frond was a symbol of Nri (File:Palm frond.jpg) Nearly all communities in Igboland were organized according to a title system. Igbo west of the Niger River and on its east bank developed kingship, governing states such as Aboh, Onitsha and Oguta, their title ''Obi''. Ogot, page 229 Apparently from the Benin Empire's (Benin Empire) ''Oba'', this is debatable however, because the word "obi" in most Igbo dialects literally means "heart" and may be a metaphorical reference to kingship, rather than a loanword from Yoruba (Yoruba language) or Edo) The Igbo of Nri, on the other hand, developed a state system sustained by ritual power. The Kingdom of Nri was a religio-polity, a sort of theocratic state, that developed in the central heartland of the Igbo region. The Nri had a taboo symbolic code with six types. These included human (such as twins), animal, object, temporal, behavioral, speech and place taboos. The rules regarding these taboos were used to educate and govern Nri's subjects. This meant that, while certain Igbo may have lived under different formal administration, all followers of the Igbo religion had to abide by the rules of the faith and obey its representative on earth, the eze Nri. Nyang, page 130 An important symbol among the Nri religion was the ''omu'', a tender palm frond, used to sacralize and restrain. It was used as protection for traveling delegations or safeguarding certain objects; a person or object carrying an ''omu'' twig was considered protected. The influence of these symbols and institutions extended well beyond Nri, and this unique Igbo socio-political system proved capable of controlling areas wider than villages or towns. For many centuries, the people within the Nri hegemony were committed to peace. This religious pacifism was rooted in a belief that violence was an abomination which polluted the earth. Instead, the eze Nri could declare a form of excommunication from the ''odinani'' Nri against those who violated specific taboos. Members of the ''Ikénga'' could isolate entire communities via this form of ritual siege. Eze Nri ; excerpted in "Cultural Harmony I: Igboland — the World of Man and the World of Spirits", section 4 of Kalu Ogbaa, ed., ''Understanding Things Fall Apart'' (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999; ISBN 0313302944), pp. 83–85. The Kingdom of Nri, rising around the 10th century, is credited for the foundation of Igboland's culture and it is the oldest kingdom in Nigeria. Many other kingdom's were founded after Nri, either directly or indirectly as a result of Nri. The most powerful kingdom of these was the Aro Confederacy. Igboland was conquered by the British after several decades of resistance on all front's; some of the most famous of the resistance includes the Ekumeku Movement, the Anglo-Aro War, and the Igbo Women's War.


Religion

Southern Nigeria Protectorate flag_s3 Flag of British Colonial Nigeria.svg image_flag image_coat image_map LocationIgboland.png image_map_caption Nri's area of influence (green) with West Africa's modern borders capital Igbo-Ukwu Ehret, page 315. latd latm latNS longd longm longEW national_motto national_anthem common_languages Igbo (Igbo language) religion Odinani title_leader

set free from their bondage. Nri expanded through converts gaining neighboring communities' allegiance, not by force. Nri's royal founder, Eri (Eri (divine king)), is said to be a 'sky being' that came down to earth and then established civilization. One of the better-known remnants of the Nri civilization is its art, as manifested in the Igbo Ukwu bronze items (Archaeology of Igbo-Ukwu). Nri's culture had permanently influenced the Northern and Western Igbo, especially through religion

economic opportunities. Nri hegemony declined after the start of the 18th century. Lovejoy, page 63 Still, it survived in a much-reduced, and weakened form until 1911. In 1911, British (United Kingdom) troops forced the reigning eze Nri to renounce the ritual power of the religion known as the ''ìkénga'', ending the kingdom of Nri as a political power. Government File:Palm frond.jpg


traditional sense

this form of ritual siege. Eze Nri thumb Eze Nri Obalike (File:Eze Nri Obalike.jpg) sounding his bell The ''eze'' Nri was the title of the ruler of Nri with ritual and mystic (but not military) power. He was a ritual figure rather than a king in the traditional sense. The ''eze'' Nri was chosen after an interregnum period while the electors waited for supernatural


century making

of the Niger River at a site dated to the 9th century, making it (and, by extension, Nri) older than Ife. Hrbek, page 252 It appears that Nri had an artistic as well as religious influence on the lower Niger. Sculptures found there are bronze like those at Igbo-Ukwu. The great sculptures of the Benin Empire, by contrast, were almost always brass with, over time, increasingly greater percentages of zinc added. The bronzes of Igbo-Ukwu pay special attention to detail depicting birds, snails, chameleons, and other natural aspects of the world such as a hatching bird. Other pieces include gourds and vessels which were often given handles. The pieces are so fine that small insects were included on the surfaces of some while others have what looks like bronze wires decorated around them. None of these extra details were made separately; the bronzes were all one piece. Igbo-Ukwu gave the evidence of an early bronze casting tradition in Nri. Garlake, page 119—120 Religion ; excerpted in "Cultural Harmony I: Igboland — the World of Man and the World of Spirits", section 4 of Kalu Ogbaa, ed., ''Understanding Things Fall Apart'' (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999; ISBN 0313302944), pp. 83–85. The Kingdom of Nri, rising around the 10th century, is credited for the foundation of Igboland's culture and it is the oldest kingdom in Nigeria. Many other kingdom's were founded after Nri, either directly or indirectly as a result of Nri. The most powerful kingdom of these was the Aro Confederacy. Igboland was conquered by the British after several decades of resistance on all front's; some of the most famous of the resistance includes the Ekumeku Movement, the Anglo-Aro War, and the Igbo Women's War.


including influence

of Igbo land, including influence on the Anioma people, Arochukwu which controlled slavery in Igbo land and Onitsha. Unlike the other two regions, decisions among the Igbo were made by a general assembly in which men could participate. Ijeaku,Nnamdi Kingdom ''' - Mukombero Nyahuma, Mwenemutapa (1480&ndash;1490) *'''Kingdom of Nri''' - Anyamata, Eze Nri (List of rulers of Nri) (1465&ndash;1511) *'''Rwanda''' - Cyirima I, King of Rwanda (List of kings of Rwanda) (1482&ndash;1506) * a Non-resident Indian (Non-resident Indian and Person of Indian Origin) * Kingdom of Nri, An Igbo (Igbo people) kingdom that flourished between the 10th Century and early 20th Century (Also see Nri-Igbo) * Negative Refractive Index (Metamaterial#Negative refractive index) Meanwhile, south of the Sudan, strong city states arose in Kingdom of Nri, Ife, Bono (Bono Manso), and Benin around the fourth and fifth centuries. Further east, Oyo (Oyo Empire) arose as the dominant Yoruba (Yoruba people) state and the Aro Confederacy around the 18th and 19th centuries in the far east in modern-day Nigeria. The oldest pieces of pottery found in Igboland were from the Okigwe-Nsukka axis dating back to 4,500 B.C. ; excerpted in "Cultural Harmony I: Igboland — the World of Man and the World of Spirits", section 4 of Kalu Ogbaa, ed., ''Understanding Things Fall Apart'' (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999; ISBN 0313302944), pp. 83–85. The Kingdom of Nri, rising around the 10th century, is credited for the foundation of Igboland's culture and it is the oldest kingdom in Nigeria. Many other kingdom's were founded after Nri, either directly or indirectly as a result of Nri. The most powerful kingdom of these was the Aro Confederacy. Igboland was conquered by the British after several decades of resistance on all front's; some of the most famous of the resistance includes the Ekumeku Movement, the Anglo-Aro War, and the Igbo Women's War.


large commercial

With the decline of Nri kingdom (Kingdom of Nri) in the 1400-1600 AD, several states once under their influence, became powerful economic oracular oligarchies and large commercial states that dominated Igboland. The neighboring Awka city-state rose in power as a result of their powerful Agbala oracle and metalworking expertise. The Onitsha Kingdom (Onitsha), which was originally inhabited by Igbo (Igbo people)s from East of the Niger, was founded in the 16th century by migrants from Anioma (Western Igboland). Later groups like the Igala traders from the hinterland settled in Onitsha in the 18th century. Western Igbo kingdoms like Aboh, dominated trade in the lower Niger area from the 17th century until European penetration. The Umunoha state in the Owerri area used the ''Igwe ka Ala'' oracle at their advantage. However, the Cross River Igbo state like the Aro had the greatest influence in Igboland and adjacent areas after the decline of Nri. In the forest zone, several states and empires emerged. The Ashanti Empire arose in the 16th century in modern day Ghana and Ivory Coast. The oldest kingdom in Nigeria, the Kingdom of Nri, was established by the Igbo (Igbo people) in the 11th century. Nri was famous for having a priest-king who wielded no military power. Nri was a rare African state as it never dealt in the trade of slaves. All slaves and outcasts who sought refuge in their territory were freed. Other major states included the kingdoms of Ifẹ (Ife) and Oyo (Oyo Empire) in the western block of Nigeria which became prominent about 700–900 and 1400 respectively, and center of Yoruba (Yoruba people) culture. The Yoruba's built massive mud walls around their cities, the most famous being Sungbo's Eredo. Another prominent kingdom in southwestern Nigeria was the Kingdom of Benin whose power lasted between the 15th and 19th century. Their dominance reached as far as the well known city of Eko which was named


tradition

book title Igbo Civilization: Nri Kingdom & Hegemony first M. Angulu last Onwuejeogwu publisher Ethnographica year 1981 pages 22–25 isbn 0-905788-08-7 The first ''eze'' Nri (List of rulers of Nri) (King of Nri), Ìfikuánim, follows directly after him. According to Igbo oral tradition, his reign started in 1043. At least one historian puts Ìfikuánim's reign much later, around 1225 AD. Chambers, page 33 In 1911

, the names of 19 ''eze'' Nri were recorded, but the list is not easily converted into chronological terms because of long interregnums between installations. Tradition held that at least seven years would pass upon the death of the ''eze'' Nri before a successor could be determined; the interregnum served as a period of divination of signs from the deceased ''eze'' Nri, who would communicate his choice of successor from beyond the grave

, practiced bronze casting techniques using elephant-head motifs. The bronzes of Igbo-Ukwu (Archaeology of Igbo-Ukwu) are often compared to those of Ife and Benin (Benin Empire), but they come from a different tradition and are associated with the ''eze'' Nri. In fact, the earliest body of Nigerian bronzes has been unearthed in Igbo territory to the east

Kingdom of Nri

The '''Kingdom of Nri''' ( ) (948–1911) was the West African medieval state of the Nri-Igbo, a subgroup of the Igbo people. The Kingdom of Nri was unusual in the history of world government in that its leader exercised no military power over his subjects. The kingdom existed as a sphere of religious and political influence over a third of Igboland, and was administered by a priest-king called the eze Nri. The eze Nri managed trade and diplomacy on behalf of the Igbo people, and possessed divine authority in religious matters.

The kingdom was a safe haven for all those who had been rejected in their communities and also a place where slaves were set free from their bondage. Nri expanded through converts gaining neighboring communities' allegiance, not by force. Nri's royal founder, Eri (Eri (divine king)), is said to be a 'sky being' that came down to earth and then established civilization. One of the better-known remnants of the Nri civilization is its art, as manifested in the Igbo Ukwu bronze items (Archaeology of Igbo-Ukwu).

Nri's culture had permanently influenced the Northern and Western Igbo, especially through religion and taboos. British colonialism, the Atlantic slave trade and the rise of Bini and Igala kingdoms, contributed to the decline of the Nri Kingdom. The Nri Kingdom is going through a cultural revival.

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