Kingdom of Montenegro

What is Kingdom of Montenegro known for?


interest title

October 2010 year 2001 publisher Oxford University Press isbn 9780198297468 page 195 citing


cultural+conservative

. Unlike the pro-federalist Socialist People's Party of Montenegro (SNP) which is left-oriented (being social-democratic), the SNS is focused primarily on representing the interests of Serb people in Montenegro (Serbs of Montenegro) around a center-right cultural conservative program. It presented itself as one of the successors to the old People's Party (People's Party of Montenegro) in the founded in 1906 in the Kingdom of Montenegro, alongside the current People's Party of Montenegro. thumb right 250px Breakup of SFR Yugoslavia (File:Breakup of Yugoslavia.gif). The first country to be known by this name was the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which before 3 October 1929 was known as the ''Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes''. It was established on 1 December 1918 by the union of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia (to which the Kingdom of Montenegro was annexed on 13 November 1918, and the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris gave international recognition to the union on 13 July 1922). http: www.orderofdanilo.org en family index.htm The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers in 1941, and because of the events that followed, was officially abolished in 1943 and 1945. During World War I the Petrović Njegoš family were forced to flee the country in 1915 after the Army of Montenegro was overwhelmed by the troops of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At the end of the war, the Kingdom of Serbia annexed Montenegro while abolishing the Kingdom of Montenegro and deposing (deposition (politics)) the Petrović Njegoš (House of Petrović-Njegoš) dynasty. However, Njegoš's express wish was to be buried in a small chapel which he had built in his lifetime. This was done, but the original chapel was destroyed when the Austro-Hungarian army invaded Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) in First World War (1916). Njegoš's remains were then transferred into Cetinje Monastery and buried in the chapel rebuilt by King Alexander (Alexander I of Yugoslavia) in 1920s. Contrary to Njegoš's express wishes to be buried in that chapel, the then communist powers of Montenegro destroyed the chapel and built in its stead a monumental mausoleum in Viennese Secession style. The local Bishopric (Mitropolija) of the Serbian Orthodox Church opposed the destruction and even took the matter to the Constitutional Court, albeit with no success. The design was that of Ivan Meštrović who, although world-famous, had never set foot on Lovćen. The Kingdom of Montenegro attempted to retake the Bay of Kotor during World War I, it was bombarded from Lovćen, but by 1916 Austria-Hungary defeated Montenegro. On 7 November 1918, the Serbian Army entered the bay and were greeted by the people as liberators. The bay later became a part of the self-proclaimed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, although expressed for a direct union with Serbia rather. Within a month, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was formed, renamed to Yugoslavia in 1929. The bay was a municipality of Dalmatia until it was, like all historic entities, abolished in 1922. It was incorporated into the Zeta Oblast, from 1929 Zeta Banate. In 1918, as part of Banat, Bačka and Baranja, Apatin became part of the Kingdom of Serbia, which later together with the Kingdom of Montenegro and the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs formed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (''renamed to Yugoslavia in 1929''). Between 1929 and 1941, Apatin was part of the Danube Banovina, one of the provinces of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. '''Svetozar Vukmanović "Tempo"''' (Светозар Вукмановић-Темпо) (14 August 1912 in Podgora (Podgora, Montenegro) village near Cetinje, Kingdom of Montenegro – 6 December 2000 in Reževići village near Budva, Montenegro, FR Yugoslavia) was a leading Montenegrin (Montenegro) communist and member of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. During World War II he served on the Supreme Staff, went on missions to Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania, and became Josip Broz Tito's personal representative in Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia). He held high positions in the postwar government, and was proclaimed a People's Hero of Yugoslavia. Born in Ljubotinj village (part of Cetinje), Kingdom of Montenegro, his father Jovan was a Serbian Orthodox deacon and his brother was Vlado Dapčević. From the fall of 1912 as the first (First Balkan War) of eventually two Balkan Wars started raging nearby, just beyond the Austria-Hungary's eastern borders, ĐSK naturally began fostering Pan-Slavic (Pan-Slavism) sentiment, and especially the Yugoslav idea (Yugoslavia) (unification of South Slavs), even harder as national and political aspects of club's activities came to the forefront. While the Balkan League member states (Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia), Greece (Kingdom of Greece), Bulgaria (Kingdom of Bulgaria), and Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro)) were getting rid of the last remains of Ottoman influence, Slavs within the borders of Austria-Hungary were restless to make some dents in the armour of their own occupiers - the Austro-Hungarian empire. By mid 1913, the Balkan Wars were over with a resounding victory for Slavs (Serbs and Montenegrins) across the border on the other side of river Drina. This had an enormously encouraging effect on Slavs (especially Serbs) in Bosnia. Austro-Hungarian authorities were not oblivious to such developments and their repression got stepped up even further. All of this led to increased tensions and boiling pot atmosphere in the city of Sarajevo. The Entente Powers (Triple Entente) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), France (French Third Republic), and the Russian Empire; Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)) entered the war on the Entente in 1915. Japan (Empire of Japan), Belgium, Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia), Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro), Greece (Kingdom of Greece), Romania (Kingdom of Romania) and the Czechoslovak legions Karel Schelle, The First World War and the Paris Peace Agreement, GRIN Verlag, 2009, p. 24 were minor members of the Entente. http: www.firstworldwar.com origins causes.htm * ; Serbian (Serbian language) Cyrillic: Дан) is a daily newspaper published in Montenegro. Its first issue appeared on December 31, 1998. It took its name from the old day Cetinje monthly newspaper that was published in the old Montenegrin state (Kingdom of Montenegro) at the beginning of the 20th century. It now holds the second place after Vijesti with a share of an estimated 31,6% of the country's total readers CEDEM's October 2009 poll . thumb 250px right On this 1862 map, the Montenegrin Littoral is in yellow; the Principality of Montenegro (File:Montenegro.JPG) is in red. The '''Montenegrin Littoral''' is a region in Montenegro which borders the Adriatic Sea. Prior to the Creation of Yugoslavia, the Montenegrin Littoral was not part of the Kingdom of Montenegro, but rather a bordering region of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, latterly part of the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. date 28 July 1914 - 3 November 1918 place Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia), Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro), Austria (Austria-Hungary), Greece (Kingdom of Greece), Albania (Princedom of Albania) result 1st, 2nd and 3rd Austria-Hungary invasion failed Decisive Serbian Victory in 1914 and 1918 Decisive Central Powers Victory in 1915 Military defeat of Serbia Occupation of Serbia Retreat of Serbian Army Salonika Front Salonika Front breakthrough 1918 Dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Marshal Putnik ordered a full retreat, south and west through Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) and into Albania. The weather was terrible, the roads poor, and the army had to help the tens of thousands of civilians who retreated with them with almost no supplies or food left. But the bad weather and poor roads worked for the refugees as well, as the Central Powers forces could not press them hard enough, and so they evaded capture. Many of the fleeing soldiers and civilians did not make it to the coast, though - they were lost to hunger, disease, attacks by enemy forces and Albanian tribal bands. The circumstances of the retreat were disastrous, and all told, some 155,000 Serbs, mostly soldiers, reached the coast of the Adriatic Sea, and embarked on Allied transport ships that carried the army to various Greek islands (many to Corfu) before being sent to Salonika. The survivors were so weakened that thousands of them died from sheer exhaustion in the weeks after their rescue. Marshal Putnik had to be carried during the whole retreat and he died a bit more than a year later in a hospital in France. thumb 250px left Serbian Army during its retreat towards Albania (File:Serbian retreat WWI.jpg)


year fighting

returned to Montenegro to become the leader of the Christmas Uprising on 7 January 1919 and ''Saint Petar's Day Uprising'' in July of same year, fighting against the decision of the Podgorica Assembly to unite the Kingdom of Montenegro with the Kingdom of Serbia under the House of Karađorđević. Between 1919 and 1922, he was a leader of Montenegrin ''komite'', fighters for the federalisation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1922, he emigrated to Argentina and later to Belgium in 1929. Born to father Todor "Zrno" Popović and mother Ćetna Krivokapić, he fought in the Balkan Wars and the First World War in the Montenegrin army forces until being captured by Austro-Hungarian (Austria-Hungary) army in 1916. He was also one of the prominent heroes of the Battle of Mojkovac, where Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) helped the army (Serbian army) of Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia), its close ally, to retreat in face of the Austro-Hungarian (Austria-Hungary) attacks. After spending two years in the Austro-Hungarian prisoner camp, he returned to Montenegro to become the leader of the Christmas Uprising on 7 January 1919 and ''Saint Petar's Day Uprising'' in July of same year, fighting against the decision of the Podgorica Assembly to unite the Kingdom of Montenegro with the Kingdom of Serbia under the House of Karađorđević. Between 1919 and 1922, he was a leader of Montenegrin ''komite'', fighters for the federalisation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1922, he emigrated to Argentina and later to Belgium in 1929. The Greens voted against the unification of the Kingdom of Montenegro with the Kingdom of Serbia Podgorica Assembly, while the majority Whites (''Bjelaši'') supported it. Meanwhile, only several months after his arrival to Montenegro, Krsto Popović returned to Italy, where he served in the army of Montenegrin government in exile, advancing to level of commander, and later to level of brigadier. thumb 201px Ethnic exchanges & expulsions during Balkan wars (Image:Muslim_refugees_in_the_initial_phase_of_the_First_Balkan_War.png) Ottomans (190,000–200,000) Greeks (150,000–160,000) Bulgarians (200,000) The three new Balkan states formed at the end of the 19th century and Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro), sought additional territories from the Albania, Macedonia (Macedonia (region)), and Thrace regions, behind their nationalistic arguments. The incomplete emergence of these nation-states on the fringes of the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century set the stage for the Balkan Wars. On October 10, 1912 the collective note of the powers was handed in at Constantinople. CUP responded to demands of European powers on reforms in Macedonia on October 14. Archives Diplomatiques, third series, vol. 126, p. 127. But before further action could be taken war broke out. While Powers were asking Empire to reform Macedonia, under the encouragement of Russia, a series of agreements were concluded: between Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia) and Bulgaria (Tsardom of Bulgaria) in March 1912, between Greece and Bulgaria in May 1912, and Montenegro subsequently concluded agreements between Serbia and Bulgaria respectively in October 1912. The Serbian-Bulgarian agreement specifically called for the partition of Macedonia which resulted in the First Balkan War. In 1913 a nationalist uprising broke out in Albania, and on October 8, the Balkan League, consisting of Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria, mounted a joint attack on the Ottoman Empire, starting the First Balkan War. The strong march of the Bulgarian forces in Thrace pushed the Ottoman armies to the gates of Istanbul. The Second Balkan War soon followed. Albania declared independence on November 28, Empire agreed to a ceasefire on December 2, and its territory losses were finalized in 1913 in the treaties of London (Treaty of London, 1913) and Bucharest (Treaty of Bucharest, 1913). Albania became independent, and the Empire lost almost all of its European territory (Kosovo, Sanjak of Novi Pazar (Sandzak), Macedonia and western Thrace) to the four allies. The '''Battle of Mojkovac''' (Montenegrin (Montenegrin language): Бој на Мојковцу, ''Boj na Mojkovcu'') was a famous World War I battle fought between 6 January and 7 January 1916 near Mojkovac, Montenegro, between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro). It ended with a Montenegrin (Montenegrins) victory. As a result firstly of the Treaty of San Stefano in 1878, then of the modified Treaty of Berlin (Treaty of Berlin (1878)) the same year which split the Ottoman Empire, Kosovo became the first line of defense for the Ottoman Empire, with large garrisons of Ottoman troops being stationed in the province. Prior to the First Balkan War in 1912, the province's shape and location denied Serbia and Montenegro a common land border. After the war, the major part of the vilayet was divided between Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) and Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia). These borders were all ratified at the Treaty of London (Treaty of London (1913)) in 1913 http: www.zum.de psm div tuerkei mowat120.php with the Ottoman Empire itself finally recognising the new borders following a peace deal with the Kingdom of Serbia on March 14, 1914. http: www.kosovo.net nmalk7.html The '''perper''' (Serbian (Serbian language) Cyrillic: Перпер; plural перпери) was the currency of Montenegro between 1906 and 1918. The name was adopted in accordance to the earlier Serbian perper, the currency of the Serbian Empire, to which the Princedom, later Kingdom of Montenegro, consider itself a successor. It was divided into 100 pare (singular para, Serbian: паре, пара) and was equivalent to the French franc as part of the Latin Monetary Union. The perper was replaced by the dinar (Yugoslav dinar) when Montenegro became part of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia). Revolt Ded joined the ''Albanian Revolt of 1911'', and became a chief commander of the rebel army. King Nikola Petrović (Nikola Petrovic Njegos) of Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) supported the rebellion, ; Serbian (Serbian language) Cyrillic: Дан) is a daily newspaper published in Montenegro. Its first issue appeared on December 31, 1998. It took its name from the old day Cetinje monthly newspaper that was published in the old Montenegrin state (Kingdom of Montenegro) at the beginning of the 20th century. It now holds the second place after Vijesti with a share of an estimated 31,6% of the country's total readers CEDEM's October 2009 poll . thumb 250px right On this 1862 map, the Montenegrin Littoral is in yellow; the Principality of Montenegro (File:Montenegro.JPG) is in red. The '''Montenegrin Littoral''' is a region in Montenegro which borders the Adriatic Sea. Prior to the Creation of Yugoslavia, the Montenegrin Littoral was not part of the Kingdom of Montenegro, but rather a bordering region of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, latterly part of the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. date 28 July 1914 - 3 November 1918 place Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia), Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro), Austria (Austria-Hungary), Greece (Kingdom of Greece), Albania (Princedom of Albania) result 1st, 2nd and 3rd Austria-Hungary invasion failed Decisive Serbian Victory in 1914 and 1918 Decisive Central Powers Victory in 1915 Military defeat of Serbia Occupation of Serbia Retreat of Serbian Army Salonika Front Salonika Front breakthrough 1918 Dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Marshal Putnik ordered a full retreat, south and west through Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) and into Albania. The weather was terrible, the roads poor, and the army had to help the tens of thousands of civilians who retreated with them with almost no supplies or food left. But the bad weather and poor roads worked for the refugees as well, as the Central Powers forces could not press them hard enough, and so they evaded capture. Many of the fleeing soldiers and civilians did not make it to the coast, though - they were lost to hunger, disease, attacks by enemy forces and Albanian tribal bands. The circumstances of the retreat were disastrous, and all told, some 155,000 Serbs, mostly soldiers, reached the coast of the Adriatic Sea, and embarked on Allied transport ships that carried the army to various Greek islands (many to Corfu) before being sent to Salonika. The survivors were so weakened that thousands of them died from sheer exhaustion in the weeks after their rescue. Marshal Putnik had to be carried during the whole retreat and he died a bit more than a year later in a hospital in France. thumb 250px left Serbian Army during its retreat towards Albania (File:Serbian retreat WWI.jpg)


world including

on behalf of the Ottoman government, urging Muslims all over the worldincluding those in the Allied (Allies of World War I) countries—to take up arms against Britain, Russia (Russian Empire), France (French Third Republic), Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia) and Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) in World War I. The Middle East during World War One On the other hand, Sheikh Hussein ibn Ali, the Emir of Mecca, refused to accommodate Ottoman requests that he endorse this jihad, a requirement that was necessary were a jihad to become popular, on the grounds that "the Holy War was doctrinally incompatible with an aggressive war, and absurd with a Christian ally: Germany" T. E. Lawrence, ''The Seven Pillars of Wisdom'', Jonathan Cape, London (1926) 1954 p. 49. Revolutionary Born in Polje village (Kolašin municipality) in the Kingdom of Montenegro, he joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia as a Belgrade University student in 1932. He was a political prisoner from 1933 to 1936. In 1938 he was elected to the Central Committee of the Communist Party and became a member of its Politburo in 1940. '''Nikola I Mirkov Petrović-Njegoš''' (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола I Мирков Петровић-Његош) ( ; Serbian (Serbian language) Cyrillic: Дан) is a daily newspaper published in Montenegro. Its first issue appeared on December 31, 1998. It took its name from the old day Cetinje monthly newspaper that was published in the old Montenegrin state (Kingdom of Montenegro) at the beginning of the 20th century. It now holds the second place after Vijesti with a share of an estimated 31,6% of the country's total readers CEDEM's October 2009 poll . thumb 250px right On this 1862 map, the Montenegrin Littoral is in yellow; the Principality of Montenegro (File:Montenegro.JPG) is in red. The '''Montenegrin Littoral''' is a region in Montenegro which borders the Adriatic Sea. Prior to the Creation of Yugoslavia, the Montenegrin Littoral was not part of the Kingdom of Montenegro, but rather a bordering region of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, latterly part of the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. date 28 July 1914 - 3 November 1918 place Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia), Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro), Austria (Austria-Hungary), Greece (Kingdom of Greece), Albania (Princedom of Albania) result 1st, 2nd and 3rd Austria-Hungary invasion failed Decisive Serbian Victory in 1914 and 1918 Decisive Central Powers Victory in 1915 Military defeat of Serbia Occupation of Serbia Retreat of Serbian Army Salonika Front Salonika Front breakthrough 1918 Dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Marshal Putnik ordered a full retreat, south and west through Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) and into Albania. The weather was terrible, the roads poor, and the army had to help the tens of thousands of civilians who retreated with them with almost no supplies or food left. But the bad weather and poor roads worked for the refugees as well, as the Central Powers forces could not press them hard enough, and so they evaded capture. Many of the fleeing soldiers and civilians did not make it to the coast, though - they were lost to hunger, disease, attacks by enemy forces and Albanian tribal bands. The circumstances of the retreat were disastrous, and all told, some 155,000 Serbs, mostly soldiers, reached the coast of the Adriatic Sea, and embarked on Allied transport ships that carried the army to various Greek islands (many to Corfu) before being sent to Salonika. The survivors were so weakened that thousands of them died from sheer exhaustion in the weeks after their rescue. Marshal Putnik had to be carried during the whole retreat and he died a bit more than a year later in a hospital in France. thumb 250px left Serbian Army during its retreat towards Albania (File:Serbian retreat WWI.jpg)


popular song

of Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro), reigning as king from 1910 to 1918 and as prince from 1860 to 1910. He was also a poet, notably penning "Onamo, 'namo!", a popular song from Montenegro. The current text of the official anthem is derived from the text written by Drljević to be the Montenegrin national anthem in the early 1930s, but slightly amended, namely removing the references celebrating a slaughter of Muslims. It was proclaimed an anthem by the Parliament


world

30 May 1913 event3 Balkans Campaign (Balkans Campaign (World War I)) date_event3 1914–1918 event4 Corfu Declaration date_event4 20 July 1917 p1 Principality of Montenegro flag_p1 Flag of the Principality of Montenegro.svg s1 Kingdom of Serbia#World War I flag_s1 State Flag of Serbia (1882-1918).svg image_flag Flag

in southeastern Europe (Southeast Europe) during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist (Absolute monarchy) in practice. On 28 November 1918 Montenegro was unified with the Kingdom of Serbia, then three days later, on 1 December 1918, it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. History Prince Nicholas I of Montenegro


book quot

joined the leaders of the revolt at meeting in a village in Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) (Gerče) on June 23rd and together they draw up "Gerče Memorandum" (sometimes referred to as "Red Book" because of the color of its covers ; Serbian (Serbian language) Cyrillic: Дан) is a daily newspaper published in Montenegro. Its first issue appeared on December 31, 1998. It took its name from the old day Cetinje monthly newspaper that was published in the old Montenegrin state (Kingdom of Montenegro) at the beginning of the 20th century. It now holds the second place after Vijesti with a share of an estimated 31,6% of the country's total readers CEDEM's October 2009 poll . thumb 250px right On this 1862 map, the Montenegrin Littoral is in yellow; the Principality of Montenegro (File:Montenegro.JPG) is in red. The '''Montenegrin Littoral''' is a region in Montenegro which borders the Adriatic Sea. Prior to the Creation of Yugoslavia, the Montenegrin Littoral was not part of the Kingdom of Montenegro, but rather a bordering region of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, latterly part of the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. date 28 July 1914 - 3 November 1918 place Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia), Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro), Austria (Austria-Hungary), Greece (Kingdom of Greece), Albania (Princedom of Albania) result 1st, 2nd and 3rd Austria-Hungary invasion failed Decisive Serbian Victory in 1914 and 1918 Decisive Central Powers Victory in 1915 Military defeat of Serbia Occupation of Serbia Retreat of Serbian Army Salonika Front Salonika Front breakthrough 1918 Dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Marshal Putnik ordered a full retreat, south and west through Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) and into Albania. The weather was terrible, the roads poor, and the army had to help the tens of thousands of civilians who retreated with them with almost no supplies or food left. But the bad weather and poor roads worked for the refugees as well, as the Central Powers forces could not press them hard enough, and so they evaded capture. Many of the fleeing soldiers and civilians did not make it to the coast, though - they were lost to hunger, disease, attacks by enemy forces and Albanian tribal bands. The circumstances of the retreat were disastrous, and all told, some 155,000 Serbs, mostly soldiers, reached the coast of the Adriatic Sea, and embarked on Allied transport ships that carried the army to various Greek islands (many to Corfu) before being sent to Salonika. The survivors were so weakened that thousands of them died from sheer exhaustion in the weeks after their rescue. Marshal Putnik had to be carried during the whole retreat and he died a bit more than a year later in a hospital in France. thumb 250px left Serbian Army during its retreat towards Albania (File:Serbian retreat WWI.jpg)


red book

joined the leaders of the revolt at meeting in a village in Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) (Gerče) on June 23rd and together they draw up "Gerče Memorandum" (sometimes referred to as "Red Book" because of the color of its covers

%22red+book%22+albania+1911&q %22%22red+book%22#search_anchor author Stavro Skendi accessdate 10 October 2011 page 417 quote The Gerche memorandum, referred to often as "The Red Book" because of the color of its covers ) which addressed their requests both to Ottoman Empire and Europe (in particular to the Great Britain).


short history

Independence Will Work author Noel Malcolm issue 54 date Winter 1998–99 page 25 ref harv and also Following the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, it became part of the Ottoman Empire, while some parts of it remained in the Albanian Principality of Dukagjini, until the middle 15th century. ref name "Sellers2010"

title A short history of modern Bulgaria publisher Cambridge University Press year 1987 isbn 978-0-521-27323-7 page 62 but by adding a secret chapter to it essentially redirected the alliance against the Ottoman Empire. ref>


national interest

October 2010 year 2001 publisher Oxford University Press isbn 9780198297468 page 195 citing

Kingdom of Montenegro

The '''Kingdom of Montenegro''' (Serbian (Serbian language): Краљевина Црнa Горa ''Kraljevina Crna Gora''), was a monarchy in southeastern Europe (Southeast Europe) during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist (Absolute monarchy) in practice. On 28 November 1918 Montenegro was unified with the Kingdom of Serbia, then three days later, on 1 December 1918, it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

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