Kingdom of Hungary

What is Kingdom of Hungary known for?


construction made

'' with sword & buckler, wearing brigandine with plate armour for hand and legs Brigandines have been used by armies from earliest recorded history Jeremiah 46:4 KJV . Medieval brigandines were essentially a refinement of the earlier coat of plates, which developed in the late 12th century, typically of simpler construction made of larger plates. The Asian-originated armour reached Europe after the Mongol invasion in 1240 that destroyed the Kievan Rus' and generated extensive


family originating

in Bursa, to celebrate this victory. Childhood and early years (1881–98) Béla Bartók was born in the small Banatian town of Nagyszentmiklós in the Kingdom of Hungary, Austria-Hungary (since 1920 Sânnicolau Mare, Romania) on March 25, 1881. Bartók's family reflected some of the ethno-cultural diversities of the country. His father, Béla Sr., considered himself thoroughly Hungarian, because on his father's side the Bartók family was a Hungarian lower noble family

, originating from Borsod county (Móser 2006, 44; Bartók 1981, 13), though his mother was from a Roman Catholic Serbian family (Serbs) (Bayley 2001, 16). His mother, Paula (born Paula Voit), had German as a mother tongue, but was ethnically of "mixed Hungarian" origin: Her maiden name Voit is German, probably of Saxon origin from Upper Hungary (Since 1920 in Czechoslovakia, since 1993 in Slovakia), though she spoke Hungarian (Hungarian language) fluently.


bringing home

, Slovakia), where he is buried with his mother Jelena and his son. Katalin Mária Kincses „Without Special Ceremony: The Cult of Rákóczi - Bringing Home the Prince's Mortal Remains” A273 Communist party leaders Gheorgheni.jpg thumb left 250px Visit of Communist Party leaders in 1966 The city historically formed part of the Székely Land region of Transylvania province. It was first mentioned in 1332


period great

... William Cooke Taylor,Caleb Sprague Henry and served as a harbour for the Pannonian (Roman) fleet of Singidunum (Belgrade). Vespasian-Barbara Levick The pen of Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid) was said to be found in Taurunum. ''Biographia classica: the lives and characters of the Greek and Roman classics'', by Edward Harwood. After the Great Migrations (Migrations period) the area was under the authority of various peoples and states, including the Byzantine Empire, the Kingdom of the Gepids and the Bulgarian Empire. The town was conquered by the Kingdom of Hungary in the 12th century and in the 15th century it was given as a personal possession to the Serbian despot (Serbian Despotate) Đurađ Branković. After the nearby Serbian Despotate fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1459, Zemun became an important military outpost. It was then conquered by the Ottomans on July 12, 1521. In 1541, Zemun was integrated into the Syrmia (Sanjak of Syrmia) sanjak of the Budin (Budin Province, Ottoman Empire) pashaluk. During the Revolution of 1848-1849 (Revolutions of 1848), Zemun was one of the de facto capitals of Serbian Vojvodina, a Serbian autonomous region within Habsburg Empire, but in 1849, it was returned under the administration of the Military Frontier. With the abolishment of the Military Frontier in 1882, Zemun and the rest of Srem was included into Syrmia County of Croatia-Slavonia, which was an autonomous part of the Kingdom of Hungary and Austria-Hungary. The first railway line that connected it to the west was built in 1883, and the first railway bridge over the Sava followed shortly thereafter in 1884. The remnants of the old town which existed during battles between Kingdom of Hungary and Byzantine Empire in 12th century are known as ''Zemunski Grad'' (Zemun Town). Today visible ruins however are of the medieval fortress (angular towers and parts of the defending wall) where forces of Kingdom of Hungary, 500 šajkaši crew (led by Croat Marko Skoblić) consisted of Croats (:hr:s:Povijest Hrvatske I. (R. Horvat) Ban Ivan Karlović) and Serbs fought against invading Ottoman army of Suleyman the Magnificent in 1521. Despite hard resistance, Zemun fell on July 12 the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) From then onwards, it was a centre of mining and metallurgy until the end of the 20th century, particularly focussed on the iron and copper industries. At the start of the 20th century, the Krompachy Ironworks (Krompašská železiareň) had around 3,500 employees and was the biggest ironworks of its time in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ironworks closed after World War I. '''János Bottyán''' (1643, Esztergom, Hungary – September 27, 1709), also known as '''Blind Bottyán''', '''Vak Bottyán János''' was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) kuruc general. Such super-sized bombards had been employed in Western Europe siege warfare since the beginning of the 15th century, Schmidtchen (1977a), pp. 153–157 and were introduced to the Ottoman army in 1453 by the gunfounder Orban (from Brasov, Kingdom of Hungary) on the occasion of the Siege of Constantinople (Fall of Constantinople). Schmidtchen (1977b), p. 226 Ali's piece is assumed to have followed closely the outline of these guns. Bruck was born in Temesvár, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, since 1920 Timişoara, since 1920 in Romania.


intense work

is mentioned among the church benefactors. Vătăşianu, p.231 The most intense work took place before and after 1450, and involved completing the exceptionally large number of portals (Portal (architecture)), including the northern "Golden Gate" and its adjacent altar of the Holy Sacrifice. The eastern portal, commissioned by the Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) List of Hungarian rulers King


long resistance

and Lodomeria Galicia ##Kingdom of Bohemia During his reign, he strengthened Moldavia and maintained its independence against the ambitions of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary), Poland (History of Poland (1385–1569)), and the Ottoman Empire, which all sought to subdue the land. Stephen achieved fame in Europe for his long resistance against the Ottomans. He was victorious in 46 of his 48 battles, and was one of the first to gain a decisive victory over the Ottomans at the Battle of Vaslui, after which Pope Sixtus IV (Pope Sixtus IV) deemed him ''verus christianae fidei athleta (Athleta Christi)'' (''true Champion of Christian Faith''). He was a man of religion and displayed his piety when he paid the debt of Mount Athos to the Porte (Ottoman Porte), ensuring the continuity of Athos as an autonomous monastical community. thumb Coat of arms of Stephen the Great (Image:MoldavianOldCoatWijsbergen.jpg) After the Moldavian loss of Chilia (Kilia, Ukraine) and Cetatea Albă, the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) threat seemed more evident. King John I Albert (John I Albert of Poland) of Poland (History of Poland (1385–1569)) was suzerain of Moldavia, and, when Stephen asked him for military assistance, they met, in 1494 at the conference of Levoča, where together with King Ladislaus II (Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary) of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary) and Elector Johann Cicero of Brandenburg, they forged plans for an expedition against the Porte. The objective was to recapture Chilia and Cetatea Albă. However, in unexplained circumstances, Ștefan received reports from Hungary that John Albert (John I Albert of Poland) prepared to place his own brother, the Polish prince Sigismund (later king, as Sigismund I the Old), on the Moldavian throne the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) From then onwards, it was a centre of mining and metallurgy until the end of the 20th century, particularly focussed on the iron and copper industries. At the start of the 20th century, the Krompachy Ironworks (Krompašská železiareň) had around 3,500 employees and was the biggest ironworks of its time in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ironworks closed after World War I. '''János Bottyán''' (1643, Esztergom, Hungary – September 27, 1709), also known as '''Blind Bottyán''', '''Vak Bottyán János''' was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) kuruc general. Such super-sized bombards had been employed in Western Europe siege warfare since the beginning of the 15th century, Schmidtchen (1977a), pp. 153–157 and were introduced to the Ottoman army in 1453 by the gunfounder Orban (from Brasov, Kingdom of Hungary) on the occasion of the Siege of Constantinople (Fall of Constantinople). Schmidtchen (1977b), p. 226 Ali's piece is assumed to have followed closely the outline of these guns. Bruck was born in Temesvár, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, since 1920 Timişoara, since 1920 in Romania.


art songs

of Princes' authority in the previous decade. Regarding the Slovene language, Vraz's most notable work is the work ''Narodne pesmi ilirske, koje se pevaju po Štajerskoj, Kranjskoj, Koruškoj i zapadnoj strani Ugarske'' (Illyrian Folk Songs Sung in Styria (Styria (duchy)), Carniola, Carinthia (Carinthia (duchy)) and the Western Part of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)). It contains folk songs and art songs in Slovene, accompanied by comments in Croatian. These songs are the first Slovene


modern knowledge

) of Zala County (Zala County (former)) in the Kingdom of Hungary until the Treaty of Trianon was signed in 1920. Printing Press thumb left This map of the Indian Ocean (File:Map of the Indian Ocean and the China Sea was engraved in 1728 by Ibrahim Müteferrika.jpg) and the China Sea was engraved in 1728 by the Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary)-born Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) polymath and publisher Ibrahim Muteferrika; it is one of a series that illustrated Katip Çelebi’s ''Cihannuma'' (Universal Geography), the first printed book of maps and drawings to appear in the Muslim World. ** Würzburg (Prince-Bishopric of Würzburg) - Franz Ludwig von Erthal, Prince-Bishop of Würzburg (1779–1795) * '''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Maria Theresa (Maria Theresa of Austria), Queen of Hungary (1740–1780) * '''Ireland (Kingdom of Ireland)''' – George III (George III of the United Kingdom), King of Ireland (1760–1820) ** '''Trier''' – Clement Wenceslaus of Saxony (Prince Clemens Wenzel of Saxony), Archbishop of Trier (1768–1802) * '''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' – Joseph II (Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor), King of Hungary (1780–1790) * '''Ireland (Kingdom of Ireland)''' – George III (George III of the United Kingdom), King of Ireland (1760–1820) The '''Invasion of Yugoslavia''' (also known as ''Operation 25'') began on 6 April 1941 and ended with the unconditional surrender of the Royal Yugoslav Army on 17 April. The invading Axis (Axis powers of World War II) powers (Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)), Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary), and Bulgaria (Kingdom of Bulgaria)) occupied and dismembered the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. By cobbling together Bosnia and Herzegovina, some parts of Croatia, and Syrmia, the "Independent State of Croatia" (''Nezavisna Država Hrvatska'', NDH) was created by Germany and Italy. In Serbia and the Banat, the Serbia (1941-1944) puppet


high military

Andrew Anna Ursula Katherine The '''Báthory''' ( the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) From then onwards, it was a centre of mining and metallurgy until the end of the 20th century, particularly focussed on the iron and copper industries. At the start of the 20th century, the Krompachy Ironworks (Krompašská železiareň) had around 3,500 employees and was the biggest ironworks of its time in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ironworks closed after World War I. '''János Bottyán''' (1643, Esztergom, Hungary – September 27, 1709), also known as '''Blind Bottyán''', '''Vak Bottyán János''' was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) kuruc general. Such super-sized bombards had been employed in Western Europe siege warfare since the beginning of the 15th century, Schmidtchen (1977a), pp. 153–157 and were introduced to the Ottoman army in 1453 by the gunfounder Orban (from Brasov, Kingdom of Hungary) on the occasion of the Siege of Constantinople (Fall of Constantinople). Schmidtchen (1977b), p. 226 Ali's piece is assumed to have followed closely the outline of these guns. Bruck was born in Temesvár, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, since 1920 Timişoara, since 1920 in Romania.


heavy military

;''The European powers in the First World War: an encyclopedia'' by Spencer Tucker, Laura Matysek Wood, Justin D. Murphy Edition: illustrated Published by Taylor & Francis, 1996 ISBN 0-8153-0399-8, ISBN 978-0-8153-0399-2 p.697 heavy+military&source bl&ots t0dnrsRUmA&sig NDHEy6mXTJuULTrJnwpmhECnR5Y&hl en&ei ci29SeCBKpDDjAeS-bCMCA&sa X&oi book_result&

Kingdom of Hungary

The '''Kingdom of Hungary''' was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1918, 1920–1946). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation (Coronation of the Hungarian monarch) of the first king Stephen I (Stephen I of Hungary) at Esztergom in 1000 or 1001; Kristó Gyula - Barta János - Gergely Jenő: Magyarország története előidőktől 2000-ig (History of Hungary from the prehistory to 2000), Pannonica Kiadó, Budapest, 2002, ISBN 963-9252-56-5, p. 687, pp. 37, pp. 113 ("Magyarország a 12. század második felére jelentős európai tényezővé, középhatalommá vált." "By the 12th century Hungary became an important European constituent, became a middle power.", "A Nyugat részévé vált Magyarország... Hungary became part of the West"), pp. 616–644 his family (the Árpád dynasty) led the monarchy for 300 years. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European (Europe) middle power within the Western world.

Due to the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) occupation of the central and southern territories in the 16th century, the monarchy split into three parts: the Habsburg Royal Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867)), Ottoman Hungary and the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania (Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)). The Habsburg dynasty held the Hungarian throne after the Battle of Mohács and also played a key role in the liberation wars against the Ottoman Empire.

From 1867, territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into Austria-Hungary under the name of Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. The monarchy ended with the deposition of the last king Charles IV (Charles I of Austria) in 1918, after which Hungary became a republic. The kingdom was nominally restored during the "Regency (Kingdom of Hungary (1920–46))" of 1920–1946, ending with the Soviet occupation (Soviet occupation of Hungary) in 1946.

The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic Gerhard Stickel: National, Regional and Minority Languages in Europe state before the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Slovakia, Transylvania and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia (now part of Ukraine), Vojvodina (now part of Serbia), Burgenland (now part of Austria), and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders. From 1102 it also included Croatia (except Istria), being in personal union (Croatia in the union with Hungary) with it, united under the King of Hungary.

Today the feast day of the first king Stephen I (Stephen I of Hungary) (20 August) is a national holiday (Public holidays in Hungary) in Hungary, commemorating the foundation of the state (''Foundation Day''). St. Stephen's Day, National Holidays in Hungary (officeholidays.com) (English)

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