Kingdom of Hungary

What is Kingdom of Hungary known for?


distinct social

lands of Carniola. From the mouth of the Vistula river and the Prussian (Prussia (region)) region, the Teutonic Knights by force continued the eastward migration up to Estonian ''Reval (Tallinn)'' (Tallinn), Germans also settled in the mountainous border regions of Bohemia and Moravia and formed a distinct social class of citizens in towns like Prague, Havlíčkův Brod (''Deutsch-Brod''), Olomouc (''Olmütz'') and Brno (''Brünn''). They had moved into the Polish Kraków Voivodeship (Kraków Voivodeship (14th century – 1795)), the Western Carpathians and Transylvania (''Siebenbürgen''), introducing the crop rotation practice and German town law. First The first '''Peace of Pressburg''' was signed on 2 July 1271 between King Ottokar II (Ottokar II of Bohemia) of Bohemia and King Stephen V (Stephen V of Hungary) of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary). Under this agreement, Hungary renounced its claims on parts of present-day Austria and Slovakia, and Bohemia renounced its claims on territories conquered in Hungary. Legacy Although the founder of the Kingdom of Hungary was not Árpád (as he lived a century earlier) - but his descendant Saint Stephen I (Stephen I of Hungary) –, he is generally thought of as the forefather of Hungarians (Hungarian people) and is often affectionally mentioned as ''our father Árpád'' (Hungarian: ''Árpád apánk''). Árpád was the founder of the dynasty named after him (Árpád dynasty), which would rule over the kingdom of Hungary till 1301. As a Hungarian free royal town, Košice reinforced the king's troops in the crucial moment of the bloody Battle of Rozgony in 1312 against the strong aristocratic ''Palatine Amadé'' Aba (family). In 1347, it became the second place city in the hierarchy of the Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) free royal towns with the same rights as the capital (Capital city) Buda. In 1369, it received its own coat of arms (Coat of arms of Košice) from Louis I of Hungary. the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) From then onwards, it was a centre of mining and metallurgy until the end of the 20th century, particularly focussed on the iron and copper industries. At the start of the 20th century, the Krompachy Ironworks (Krompašská železiareň) had around 3,500 employees and was the biggest ironworks of its time in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ironworks closed after World War I. '''János Bottyán''' (1643, Esztergom, Hungary – September 27, 1709), also known as '''Blind Bottyán''', '''Vak Bottyán János''' was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) kuruc general. Such super-sized bombards had been employed in Western Europe siege warfare since the beginning of the 15th century, Schmidtchen (1977a), pp. 153–157 and were introduced to the Ottoman army in 1453 by the gunfounder Orban (from Brasov, Kingdom of Hungary) on the occasion of the Siege of Constantinople (Fall of Constantinople). Schmidtchen (1977b), p. 226 Ali's piece is assumed to have followed closely the outline of these guns. Bruck was born in Temesvár, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, since 1920 Timişoara, since 1920 in Romania.


+family+related

(whose authority sometimes extended to no more than a single village) rounded out the Empire. Apart from Austria and perhaps Bavaria, none of those entities was capable of national-level politics; alliances between family-related states were common, due partly to the frequent practice of splitting a lord's inheritance among the various sons. Overview Formed at the end of the 12th century in Acre (Acre, Israel), in the Levant, the medieval Order played an important role in Outremer


concept quot

a friend of Adalbert, committed to a pilgrimage from Italy (Kingdom of Italy (medieval)) to St. Adalbert's tomb in Gniezno; in his attempt to extend the influence of Christianity in Eastern Europe, and to renew the Holy Roman Empire based on a federal concept ("''renovatio Imperii Romanorum''") with the Polish and Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) duchies upgraded to eastern ''federati'' of the empire. ref name "Lawaty">


founder high

Austria and a Prince of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary) and Bohemia. He was the last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights from the Habsburg dynasty. country Hungary titles King of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary), Dalmatia, Croatia, Cumania, Slavonia, Bulgaria, Lodomeria, Duke of Styria (Styria) founder Álmos (High Prince Álmos) The '''Árpáds''' or '''Arpads''' ( ,


abilities art

City Vatican , then went home to collect money for his journeys working as an apothecary. From 1890 onwards he traveled around the world. He visited Paris, the Mediterraneum (Dalmatia, Italy, Greece), North Africa and the Middle East (Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt, Syria) and painted pictures. He painted his major works between 1903 and 1909. He had some exhibitions in Paris (1907) and Western Europe. Most of the critics in Western Europe recognized his abilities

, art and congeniality, but in the Kingdom of Hungary during his life he was considered to be an eccentric crank (Crank (person)) for several reasons, e. g. for his vegetarianism, anti-alcoholism (Teetotalism), anti-nicotinism (Abstinence), pacifism, his latent, but more and more apparent schizophrenia and his cloudy, prophetic writings and pamphlets about his life (''Curriculum''), genius (''The Authority'', ''The Genius'') and religious philosophy (''The Positivum


arts character

Emperors) and Andrea Baccius Elpidianus (a personal surgeon of the Pope). The first monography (''Schediasma de Thermis Postheinsibus'' by Ján Justus Torkoš) was published in 1745. But in the 16th and 17th centuries, Piešťany also suffered from Turkish raids (Ottoman wars in Europe) and anti-Habsburg uprisings. Jánošík has been the main character (character (arts)) of many Slovak (Slovakia) legends, novels, poems, and films. According to the legend, he robbed nobles and gave the loot


friendship association

Friendship Association year 2007 accessdate 2008-07-08 a French colonel, Polish military commander, and Austrian soldier. Benyovszky could speak more than five languages. Regardless of his nationality, he is a pride of three nations: Hungarian (Hungarian people), Benyovszky has a statue and a street named after him in Budapest, and several cultural events were organized in his honor in 2008, including the publication of his diary, and a dance


remarkable achievements

). Stephen Roth writes, "Hungarian Jews were opposed to Zionism because they hoped that somehow they could achieve equality with other Hungarian citizens, not just in law but in fact, and that they could be integrated into the country as Hungarian Israelites. The word 'Israelite' ( ) denoted only religious affiliation and was free from the ethnic or national connotations usually attached to the term 'Jew'. Hungarian Jews attained remarkable achievements in business, culture


independent part

of Italy (1861–1946) Italy ''' - **#Dimitrios Voulgaris, Prime Minister of Greece (1862–1863) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Franz Joseph I of Austria, King of Hungary (1848–1916) * '''Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946))''' - *Tuva (also known as Tannu Tuva) - now part of Russia after the dissolution of the USSR *Transylvania - Semi-independent part of the Kingdom of Hungary until the 19th century. Became part of Romania after World War I. *Grand Duchy of Tuscany - annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia in 1860. **Prime Minister - Alexandros Mavrokordatos, Prime Minister of Greece (1841) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Ferdinand V (Ferdinand I of Austria), King of Hungary (1835–1848) * '''Netherlands''' - William II (William II of the Netherlands), King of the Netherlands (1840–1849) * '''Greece (Kingdom of Greece)''' - Otto (Otto of Greece), King of Greece (1832–1862) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Ferdinand V (Ferdinand I of Austria), King of Hungary (1835–1848) * '''Netherlands''' - William II (William II of the Netherlands), King of the Netherlands (1840–1849) **Prime Minister - Andreas Metaxas, Prime Minister of Greece (1843–1844) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Ferdinand V (Ferdinand I of Austria), King of Hungary (1835–1848) * '''Ottoman (Turkish) Empire (Ottoman Empire)''' **#Ioannis Kolettis, Prime Minister of Greece (1844–1847) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Ferdinand V (Ferdinand I of Austria), King of Hungary (1835–1848) * '''Lucca (Duchy of Lucca)''' - Charles Louis (Charles II, Duke of Parma), Duke of Lucca (1824–1847) **Prime Minister - Ioannis Kolettis, Prime Minister of Greece (1844–1847) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Ferdinand V (Ferdinand I of Austria), King of Hungary (1835–1848) * '''Netherlands''' - William II (William II of the Netherlands), King of the Netherlands (1840–1849) **Prime Minister - Ioannis Kolettis, Prime Minister of Greece (1844–1847) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Ferdinand V (Ferdinand I of Austria), King of Hungary (1835–1848) *'''Lucca (Duchy of Lucca)''' - Charles (Charles II, Duke of Parma), Duke of Lucca (1824–1847) **#Kitsos Tzavelas, Prime Minister of Greece (1847–1848) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Ferdinand V (Ferdinand I of Austria), King of Hungary (1835–1848) * '''Netherlands''' - William II (William II of the Netherlands), King of the Netherlands (1840–1849) **Prime Minister - Antonios Kriezis, Prime Minister of Greece (1849–1854) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Franz Joseph I of Austria, King of Hungary (1848–1916) * '''Netherlands''' **Prime Minister - Antonios Kriezis, Prime Minister of Greece (1849–1854) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Franz Joseph I of Austria, King of Hungary (1848–1916) * '''Netherlands''' **Prime Minister - Antonios Kriezis, Prime Minister of Greece (1849–1854) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Franz Joseph I of Austria, King of Hungary (1848–1916) * '''Netherlands''' **Prime Minister - Antonios Kriezis, Prime Minister of Greece (1849–1854) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Franz Joseph I of Austria, King of Hungary (1848–1916) *'''Menton and Roquebrune''' - Charles Trenca, President of the Free Cities of Menton and Roquebrune (1848–1853) **#Alexandros Mavrokordatos, Prime Minister of Greece (1854–1855) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Franz Joseph I of Austria, King of Hungary (1848–1916) * '''Netherlands''' **#Dimitrios Voulgaris, Prime Minister of Greece (1855–1857) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Franz Joseph I of Austria, King of Hungary (1848–1916) * '''Netherlands''' **Prime Minister - Dimitrios Voulgaris, Prime Minister of Greece (1855–1857) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Franz Joseph I of Austria, King of Hungary (1848–1916) *'''Lucca (Duchy of Lucca)''' - Charles (Charles II, Duke of Parma), Duke of Lucca (1824–1847) **#Athanasios Miaoulis, Prime Minister of Greece (1857–1862) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Franz Joseph I of Austria, King of Hungary (1848–1916) * '''Netherlands''' **Prime Minister - Athanasios Miaoulis, Prime Minister of Greece (1857–1862) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Franz Joseph I of Austria, King of Hungary (1848–1916) * '''Netherlands''' **Prime Minister - Athanasios Miaoulis, Prime Minister of Greece (1857–1862) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' - Franz Joseph I of Austria, King of Hungary (1848–1916) * '''Netherlands''' **'''Würzburg''' – Friedrich Karl von Schönborn, Bishop of Würzburg (1729–1746), also ''Bishop of Bamberg'' *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' – Charles III (Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor), King of Hungary (1711–1740), also ''Holy Roman Emperor'' and ''King of Bohemia'' *'''Ireland (Kingdom of Ireland)''' – George II (George II of Great Britain), King of Ireland (1727–1760), also ''King of Great Britain'' and ''Elector of Hanover'' **'''Württemberg''' – Eberhard Ludwig, Duke of Württemberg (1677–1733) *'''Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary)''' – Leopold I (Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor), King of Hungary (1657–1705) *'''Ireland (Kingdom of Ireland)''' – William III (William III of England), King of Ireland (1689–1702) An intensive and organized settlement of this area started as late as in the middle of the 13th century, after the Mongol raids. The first written document mentioning Humenné dates back to 1317. The history of Humenné is closely connected with the Drugeth (Drugets, Drugetovci), a distinguished aristocratic family originally from Naples, who, accompanying the king Charles Robert of Anjou, came to the Kingdom of Hungary (Slovakia was part of the Kingdom of Hungary) at the beginning of the 14th century. The Drugeths made Humenné their seat and changed it into the centre of one of the largest feudal (Feudalism) dominions in Slovakia. King Matthias Corvinus conferred civic privileges (town status) on the town, which were validated by a seal with coat of arms. At that time, the town was crossed by an important trade route connecting the Kingdom of Hungary with the Kingdom of Poland (Kingdom of Poland (1320–1385)). Humenné is mentioned among royal customs offices, and later on it received the right of storehousing and supposedly market rights, too. This was also the time of an ever increasing influence of shepherd colonization from Carpatho-Ukraine by the so-called Walachians (Ruthenes, Poles (Polish people), and Romanians). Metropolitan Atanasie Anghel and his Holy Synod took this course to obtain for the Romanians of Transylvania (then a Principauté vasal to the Hapsburg Empire) the same rights as those of the other Transylvanian nations, which were part of the Unio Trium Nationum (the Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) nobility, the Transylvanian Saxons and the Székely). The event coincided with the arrival of the Jesuits (Society of Jesus), who attempted to align Transylvania more closely with Western Europe. However, not all Romanians agreed with this conversion, leading to the movement of the Romanian Orthodox population that advocated for freedom of worship for all the Transylvanian population, most notably being the movements led by Visarion Sarai, Nicolae Oprea Miclăuş and Sofronie of Cioara, under the dominant Serbian Church influence. Tribal area In pre-Roman (Ancient Rome) times the region was populated by various tribes, including the Lugii, Goths and Vandals (which may correspond to the Przeworsk (Przeworsk culture) and Puchov cultures in archaeology). After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was populated by West Slav people, identified with a group called Lendians. Around 833 the West Slavs became part of the Great Moravian state. Upon the invasion of the Hungarian tribes (Magyars) into the heart of the Great Moravian Empire around 899, the Lendians of the area found themselves under the influence of the Hungarian Empire (Kingdom of Hungary). The whole area was inhabited by White Croats,and land name was White Croatia,capital of Duchy was Stilsko . In 955 their area seems to have constituted part of the Bohemian State (Kingdom of Bohemia). Around 970 it was included in the Polish state (Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)). This area was mentioned in 981 (by Nestor (Nestor the Chronicler)), when Vladimir the Great of Kievan Rus took the area over on his way into Poland. He founded the city of Vladimir (Volynski) and later Christianized the locals. The area returned to Poland in 1018 and in 1031 was retaken by Rus. thumb Ruins of Eltz Manor (File:Castle Eltz1, Vukovar.JPG) in Vukovar In 1736 Archbishop Philipp Karl von Eltz had acquired the Lordship of Vukovar in eastern Slavonia (Kingdom of Slavonia) (present-day Croatia) affiliated with the Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) nobility. From 1749 onwards his heirs had Eltz Manor erected, the main residence of the Grafen von und zu Eltz until the family was expelled by the Yugoslav (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) communist regime in 1945. After Croatia declared independence (Croatian War of Independence) from Yugoslavia, Jakob Eltz returned to Croatia and as a naturalized citizen became a member of the new ''Sabor (Parliament of Croatia)'' parliament, where he represented Vukovar. During the Battle of Vukovar, the Eltz Manor in Vukovar was destroyed by intense shelling and the bodies in the Eltz tomb desecrated by Serbian (Republic of Serbian Krajina) forces. Jakob Eltz, then in his 70s, personally took part in the defence of the city. the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) From then onwards, it was a centre of mining and metallurgy until the end of the 20th century, particularly focussed on the iron and copper industries. At the start of the 20th century, the Krompachy Ironworks (Krompašská železiareň) had around 3,500 employees and was the biggest ironworks of its time in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ironworks closed after World War I. '''János Bottyán''' (1643, Esztergom, Hungary – September 27, 1709), also known as '''Blind Bottyán''', '''Vak Bottyán János''' was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) kuruc general. Such super-sized bombards had been employed in Western Europe siege warfare since the beginning of the 15th century, Schmidtchen (1977a), pp. 153–157 and were introduced to the Ottoman army in 1453 by the gunfounder Orban (from Brasov, Kingdom of Hungary) on the occasion of the Siege of Constantinople (Fall of Constantinople). Schmidtchen (1977b), p. 226 Ali's piece is assumed to have followed closely the outline of these guns. Bruck was born in Temesvár, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, since 1920 Timişoara, since 1920 in Romania.


long resistance

and Lodomeria Galicia ##Kingdom of Bohemia During his reign, he strengthened Moldavia and maintained its independence against the ambitions of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary), Poland (History of Poland (1385–1569)), and the Ottoman Empire, which all sought to subdue the land. Stephen achieved fame in Europe for his long resistance against the Ottomans. He was victorious in 46 of his 48 battles, and was one of the first to gain a decisive victory over the Ottomans at the Battle of Vaslui, after which Pope Sixtus IV (Pope Sixtus IV) deemed him ''verus christianae fidei athleta (Athleta Christi)'' (''true Champion of Christian Faith''). He was a man of religion and displayed his piety when he paid the debt of Mount Athos to the Porte (Ottoman Porte), ensuring the continuity of Athos as an autonomous monastical community. thumb Coat of arms of Stephen the Great (Image:MoldavianOldCoatWijsbergen.jpg) After the Moldavian loss of Chilia (Kilia, Ukraine) and Cetatea Albă, the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) threat seemed more evident. King John I Albert (John I Albert of Poland) of Poland (History of Poland (1385–1569)) was suzerain of Moldavia, and, when Stephen asked him for military assistance, they met, in 1494 at the conference of Levoča, where together with King Ladislaus II (Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary) of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary) and Elector Johann Cicero of Brandenburg, they forged plans for an expedition against the Porte. The objective was to recapture Chilia and Cetatea Albă. However, in unexplained circumstances, Ștefan received reports from Hungary that John Albert (John I Albert of Poland) prepared to place his own brother, the Polish prince Sigismund (later king, as Sigismund I the Old), on the Moldavian throne the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) From then onwards, it was a centre of mining and metallurgy until the end of the 20th century, particularly focussed on the iron and copper industries. At the start of the 20th century, the Krompachy Ironworks (Krompašská železiareň) had around 3,500 employees and was the biggest ironworks of its time in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ironworks closed after World War I. '''János Bottyán''' (1643, Esztergom, Hungary – September 27, 1709), also known as '''Blind Bottyán''', '''Vak Bottyán János''' was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) kuruc general. Such super-sized bombards had been employed in Western Europe siege warfare since the beginning of the 15th century, Schmidtchen (1977a), pp. 153–157 and were introduced to the Ottoman army in 1453 by the gunfounder Orban (from Brasov, Kingdom of Hungary) on the occasion of the Siege of Constantinople (Fall of Constantinople). Schmidtchen (1977b), p. 226 Ali's piece is assumed to have followed closely the outline of these guns. Bruck was born in Temesvár, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, since 1920 Timişoara, since 1920 in Romania.

Kingdom of Hungary

The '''Kingdom of Hungary''' was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1918, 1920–1946). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation (Coronation of the Hungarian monarch) of the first king Stephen I (Stephen I of Hungary) at Esztergom in 1000 or 1001; Kristó Gyula - Barta János - Gergely Jenő: Magyarország története előidőktől 2000-ig (History of Hungary from the prehistory to 2000), Pannonica Kiadó, Budapest, 2002, ISBN 963-9252-56-5, p. 687, pp. 37, pp. 113 ("Magyarország a 12. század második felére jelentős európai tényezővé, középhatalommá vált." "By the 12th century Hungary became an important European constituent, became a middle power.", "A Nyugat részévé vált Magyarország... Hungary became part of the West"), pp. 616–644 his family (the Árpád dynasty) led the monarchy for 300 years. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European (Europe) middle power within the Western world.

Due to the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) occupation of the central and southern territories in the 16th century, the monarchy split into three parts: the Habsburg Royal Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867)), Ottoman Hungary and the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania (Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)). The Habsburg dynasty held the Hungarian throne after the Battle of Mohács and also played a key role in the liberation wars against the Ottoman Empire.

From 1867, territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into Austria-Hungary under the name of Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. The monarchy ended with the deposition of the last king Charles IV (Charles I of Austria) in 1918, after which Hungary became a republic. The kingdom was nominally restored during the "Regency (Kingdom of Hungary (1920–46))" of 1920–1946, ending with the Soviet occupation (Soviet occupation of Hungary) in 1946.

The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic Gerhard Stickel: National, Regional and Minority Languages in Europe state before the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Slovakia, Transylvania and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia (now part of Ukraine), Vojvodina (now part of Serbia), Burgenland (now part of Austria), and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders. From 1102 it also included Croatia (except Istria), being in personal union (Croatia in the union with Hungary) with it, united under the King of Hungary.

Today the feast day of the first king Stephen I (Stephen I of Hungary) (20 August) is a national holiday (Public holidays in Hungary) in Hungary, commemorating the foundation of the state (''Foundation Day''). St. Stephen's Day, National Holidays in Hungary (officeholidays.com) (English)

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