Kingdom of Hungary

What is Kingdom of Hungary known for?


title made

was a Hungarian (Hungarian people)

OF DEATH March 18, 1939 '''Jozef Karol Hell''' (Slovak (Slovak language): ''Jozef Karol Hell'', German (German Language): ''Josef ph Karl Hell'', Hungarian (Hungarian language): ''Hell József Károly'') (15 May 1713, Banská Štiavnica - 11 March 1789, Banská Štiavnica) was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary)


high military

Andrew Anna Ursula Katherine The '''Báthory''' ( the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) From then onwards, it was a centre of mining and metallurgy until the end of the 20th century, particularly focussed on the iron and copper industries. At the start of the 20th century, the Krompachy Ironworks (Krompašská železiareň) had around 3,500 employees and was the biggest ironworks of its time in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ironworks closed after World War I. '''János Bottyán''' (1643, Esztergom, Hungary – September 27, 1709), also known as '''Blind Bottyán''', '''Vak Bottyán János''' was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) kuruc general. Such super-sized bombards had been employed in Western Europe siege warfare since the beginning of the 15th century, Schmidtchen (1977a), pp. 153–157 and were introduced to the Ottoman army in 1453 by the gunfounder Orban (from Brasov, Kingdom of Hungary) on the occasion of the Siege of Constantinople (Fall of Constantinople). Schmidtchen (1977b), p. 226 Ali's piece is assumed to have followed closely the outline of these guns. Bruck was born in Temesvár, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, since 1920 Timişoara, since 1920 in Romania.


active work

in the jacobinist (Jacobin (politics)) Martinovics-plot against Joseph II, named after its leader, Ignác Martinovics. After its failure, Berzeviczy retired from active work, and turned to science, especially to economics and ethnography, and writing. He was one of the first economists in Hungary to realize that the feudal (feudalism) liaisons were heavily blocking the country's economical advancing possibilities. He also criticized the exploitation of the peasants by the nobles


century major

and pillaged it the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) From then onwards, it was a centre of mining and metallurgy until the end of the 20th century, particularly focussed on the iron and copper industries. At the start of the 20th century, the Krompachy Ironworks (Krompašská železiareň) had around 3,500 employees and was the biggest ironworks of its time in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ironworks closed after World War I. '''János Bottyán''' (1643, Esztergom, Hungary – September 27, 1709), also known as '''Blind Bottyán''', '''Vak Bottyán János''' was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) kuruc general. Such super-sized bombards had been employed in Western Europe siege warfare since the beginning of the 15th century, Schmidtchen (1977a), pp. 153–157 and were introduced to the Ottoman army in 1453 by the gunfounder Orban (from Brasov, Kingdom of Hungary) on the occasion of the Siege of Constantinople (Fall of Constantinople). Schmidtchen (1977b), p. 226 Ali's piece is assumed to have followed closely the outline of these guns. Bruck was born in Temesvár, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, since 1920 Timişoara, since 1920 in Romania.


intense work

is mentioned among the church benefactors. Vătăşianu, p.231 The most intense work took place before and after 1450, and involved completing the exceptionally large number of portals (Portal (architecture)), including the northern "Golden Gate" and its adjacent altar of the Holy Sacrifice. The eastern portal, commissioned by the Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) List of Hungarian rulers King


historical world

) type_house1 house2 House of Representatives (House of Representatives of Hungary) (1867–1918; 1927–1945) type_house2 stat_year1 1711 ''Historical World Atlas. With the commendation of the Royal Geographical Society.'' Carthographia, Budapest, Hungary, 2005. ISBN 963-352-002-9CM stat_area1 stat_pop1 3000000 stat_year2 1790 stat_area2 stat_pop2 8000000 stat_year3 1910 Emil Valkovics:Demography of contemporary Hungarian society, 1996, p. 15 stat_area3 282870 stat_pop3 18264533 stat_year4 1930 the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) From then onwards, it was a centre of mining and metallurgy until the end of the 20th century, particularly focussed on the iron and copper industries. At the start of the 20th century, the Krompachy Ironworks (Krompašská železiareň) had around 3,500 employees and was the biggest ironworks of its time in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ironworks closed after World War I. '''János Bottyán''' (1643, Esztergom, Hungary – September 27, 1709), also known as '''Blind Bottyán''', '''Vak Bottyán János''' was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) kuruc general. Such super-sized bombards had been employed in Western Europe siege warfare since the beginning of the 15th century, Schmidtchen (1977a), pp. 153–157 and were introduced to the Ottoman army in 1453 by the gunfounder Orban (from Brasov, Kingdom of Hungary) on the occasion of the Siege of Constantinople (Fall of Constantinople). Schmidtchen (1977b), p. 226 Ali's piece is assumed to have followed closely the outline of these guns. Bruck was born in Temesvár, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, since 1920 Timişoara, since 1920 in Romania.


work based

of Constantinople ''' - Baldwin II (Baldwin II of Constantinople) (1228–1273, titular after 1261) *'''Kingdom of Hungary''' - Béla IV (Béla IV of Hungary) (1235–1270) *'''Kingdom of Lithuania''' - Mindaugas (1253–1263) Central Europe *'''Kingdom of Hungary''' - Béla IV (Béla IV of Hungary) (1235–1270) *'''Kingdom of Lithuania''' - Mindaugas (1253–1263) History The chronicle was written as a literary work based


free political

machine by amending the electoral law, providing jobs in the expanding bureaucracy to his supporters, and manipulating elections in rural areas. Bethlen restored order to the country by giving the radical counterrevolutionaries payoffs and government jobs in exchange for ceasing their campaign of terror against Jews and leftists. In 1921, he made a deal with the Social Democrats and trade unions (called Bethlen-Peyer Pact), agreeing, among other things, to legalize their activities and free

political prisoners in return for their pledge to refrain from spreading anti-Hungarian (Magyarization) propaganda, calling political strikes, and organizing the peasantry. Bethlen brought Hungary into the League of Nations in 1922 and out of international isolation by signing a treaty of friendship with Italy in 1927. The revision of the Treaty of Trianon rose to the top of Hungary's political agenda and the strategy employed by Bethlen consisted by strengthening the economy and building relations with stronger nations. Revision of the treaty had such a broad backing in Hungary that Bethlen used it, at least in part, to deflect criticism of his economic, social, and political policies. thumb upright left István Bethlen (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 102-10737, Graf István Bethlen.jpg), the Prime Minister of Hungary The Great Depression induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. In 1932 Horthy appointed a new prime-minister, Gyula Gömbös, who changed the course of Hungarian policy towards closer cooperation with Germany. Gömbös signed a trade agreement with Germany that drew Hungary's economy out of depression but made Hungary dependent on the German economy for both raw materials and markets. On 2 November 1938, the First Vienna Award transferred parts of Southern Slovakia (Upper Hungary) and Carpathian Ruthenia to Hungary, an area amounting to 11,927 km² and a population of 869,299 (86.5% of which were Hungarians according to the 1941 census). Between 5 November and 10 November, Hungarian armed forces peacefully occupied the newly transferred territories. Thomas, ''The Royal Hungarian Army in World War II'', pg. 11 Hitler later promised to transfer all of Slovakia to Hungary in exchange for a military alliance, but his offer was rejected. Instead, Horthy chose to pursue a territorial revision to be decided along ethnic lines. In March 1939, the Czecho-Slovak Republic was dissolved, Germany invaded it (German occupation of Czechoslovakia), and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was established. On 14 March, Slovakia (Slovak Republic (1939–1945)) declared itself to be an independent state. On 15 March, Carpatho-Ukraine declared itself to be an independent state. Hungary rejected the independence of Carpatho-Ukraine and, between 14 March and 18 March, Hungarian armed forces occupied the rest of Carpathian Ruthenia and ousted the government of Avgustyn Voloshyn. By contrast, Hungary recognized the Nazi puppet state of Slovakia led by the Clerical Fascist (Clerical fascism) Jozef Tiso. Slovakia – US State Department In September 1940, with troops massing on both sides of the Hungarian-Romanian border, war was averted by the Second Vienna Award. This award transferred the northern half of Transylvania to Hungary, with a total area of 43,492 km² and a total population of 2,578,100 with a 53.5% Hungarian majority according to the 1941 census. By dividing Transylvania between Romania and Hungary, Hitler was able to ease tensions in Hungary. In October 1940, the Germans initiated a reciprocity policy between Romania and Hungary which was continued until the end of World War II. The region of Sub-Carpathia (Carpathian Ruthenia) was given special autonomous status with the intention that (eventually) it would be self-governed by the Ruthenian minority. thumb right The Kingdom of Hungary in 1942, during World War II. (File:Kingdom of Hungary (1942).svg) During World War II 1941–1945 the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) From then onwards, it was a centre of mining and metallurgy until the end of the 20th century, particularly focussed on the iron and copper industries. At the start of the 20th century, the Krompachy Ironworks (Krompašská železiareň) had around 3,500 employees and was the biggest ironworks of its time in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ironworks closed after World War I. '''János Bottyán''' (1643, Esztergom, Hungary – September 27, 1709), also known as '''Blind Bottyán''', '''Vak Bottyán János''' was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) kuruc general. Such super-sized bombards had been employed in Western Europe siege warfare since the beginning of the 15th century, Schmidtchen (1977a), pp. 153–157 and were introduced to the Ottoman army in 1453 by the gunfounder Orban (from Brasov, Kingdom of Hungary) on the occasion of the Siege of Constantinople (Fall of Constantinople). Schmidtchen (1977b), p. 226 Ali's piece is assumed to have followed closely the outline of these guns. Bruck was born in Temesvár, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, since 1920 Timişoara, since 1920 in Romania.


year working

, and Zürich. He studied chemistry in Bern and received his PhD in physics on the subject: "Fast way of determining molecular weight" from the University of Budapest (Eötvös Loránd University) in 1926. He then spent one year working in an engineering firm. He published his first paper on the pattern of vibrations of the inner ear in 1928. He was offered a position at Uppsala University by Róbert Bárány, which he dismissed because of the hard Swedish winters. Békésy was born on June 3, 1899 in Budapest, Hungary, the first of three children (György 1899, Lola 1901 and Miklós 1903) to Alexander von Békésy (1860–1923), an economic diplomat born in Kolozsvár, Transylvania, Kingdom of Hungary, and his wife Paula Mazaly (1879–1974) born in Cadavica, Slavonia, Kingdom of Hungary. He went to school in Budapest, Munich, and Zürich. He studied chemistry in Bern and received his PhD in physics on the subject: "Fast way of determining molecular weight" from the University of Budapest (Eötvös Loránd University) in 1926. He then spent one year working in an engineering firm. He published his first paper on the pattern of vibrations of the inner ear in 1928. He was offered a position at Uppsala University by Róbert Bárány, which he dismissed because of the hard Swedish winters. It was first called the Holy Crown in 1256. During the 14th century royal power came to be represented not simply by a crown, but by just one specific object: the Holy Crown. This also meant that the Kingdom of Hungary was a special state: they were not looking for a crown to inaugurate a king, but rather, they were looking for a king for the crown; as written by Crown Guard Péter Révay. He also depicts that "the Holy Crown is the same for the Hungarians as the Lost Ark (Ark of the Covenant) is for the Jewish". "De sacra corona regni Hungariae ortu, virtuti, victoria, fortuna... brevis commentarius, 1613 thumb 200px The Crown, Sword, Sceptre and Globus cruciger (File:Crown, Sword and Globus Cruciger of Hungary2.jpg) of Hungary, in the Hungarian Parliament Building As is the case with all European Christian crowns, it symbolizes a halo and thus signifies that the wearer rules by Divine Right (Divine right of kings). According to popular tradition, St Stephen I (Stephen I of Hungary) held up the crown during the coronation (in the year 1000) to offer it to the "Nagyboldogasszony (Virgin Mary)" (the Virgin Mary) to seal a divine contract between her and the divine crown. After this, the "Nagyboldogasszony" was depicted not only as ''patrona'' (patron saint) for the Kingdom of Hungary but also as ''regina'' (i.e. "queen"). This contract was supposed to empower the crown with divine force to help the future kings of Hungary and did help reinforce the political system based on the so-called "Doctrine of the Holy Crown" (Hungarian (Hungarian language): ''Szentkorona-tan''). Péter Révay, a Crown Guard, expounded this doctrine in his works ''Commentarius De Sacra Regni Hungariae Corona'' (Explanation of the Holy Crown of the Kingdom of Hungary, published in Augsburg, 1613) and ''De monarchia et Sacra Corona Regni Hungariae'' (About the Monarchy and the Holy Crown of Hungary, Frankfurt, 1659). At the core of this doctrine was the notion that the crown itself had personhood and as a legal entity is identical to the state of Hungary. It is superior to the ruling monarch, who rules "in the name of the crown". date 6 August 1566 – 8 September 1566 place the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) From then onwards, it was a centre of mining and metallurgy until the end of the 20th century, particularly focussed on the iron and copper industries. At the start of the 20th century, the Krompachy Ironworks (Krompašská železiareň) had around 3,500 employees and was the biggest ironworks of its time in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ironworks closed after World War I. '''János Bottyán''' (1643, Esztergom, Hungary – September 27, 1709), also known as '''Blind Bottyán''', '''Vak Bottyán János''' was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) kuruc general. Such super-sized bombards had been employed in Western Europe siege warfare since the beginning of the 15th century, Schmidtchen (1977a), pp. 153–157 and were introduced to the Ottoman army in 1453 by the gunfounder Orban (from Brasov, Kingdom of Hungary) on the occasion of the Siege of Constantinople (Fall of Constantinople). Schmidtchen (1977b), p. 226 Ali's piece is assumed to have followed closely the outline of these guns. Bruck was born in Temesvár, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, since 1920 Timişoara, since 1920 in Romania.


friendship association

Friendship Association year 2007 accessdate 2008-07-08 a French colonel, Polish military commander, and Austrian soldier. Benyovszky could speak more than five languages. Regardless of his nationality, he is a pride of three nations: Hungarian (Hungarian people), Benyovszky has a statue and a street named after him in Budapest, and several cultural events were organized in his honor in 2008, including the publication of his diary, and a dance

Kingdom of Hungary

The '''Kingdom of Hungary''' was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1918, 1920–1946). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation (Coronation of the Hungarian monarch) of the first king Stephen I (Stephen I of Hungary) at Esztergom in 1000 or 1001; Kristó Gyula - Barta János - Gergely Jenő: Magyarország története előidőktől 2000-ig (History of Hungary from the prehistory to 2000), Pannonica Kiadó, Budapest, 2002, ISBN 963-9252-56-5, p. 687, pp. 37, pp. 113 ("Magyarország a 12. század második felére jelentős európai tényezővé, középhatalommá vált." "By the 12th century Hungary became an important European constituent, became a middle power.", "A Nyugat részévé vált Magyarország... Hungary became part of the West"), pp. 616–644 his family (the Árpád dynasty) led the monarchy for 300 years. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European (Europe) middle power within the Western world.

Due to the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) occupation of the central and southern territories in the 16th century, the monarchy split into three parts: the Habsburg Royal Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867)), Ottoman Hungary and the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania (Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)). The Habsburg dynasty held the Hungarian throne after the Battle of Mohács and also played a key role in the liberation wars against the Ottoman Empire.

From 1867, territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into Austria-Hungary under the name of Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. The monarchy ended with the deposition of the last king Charles IV (Charles I of Austria) in 1918, after which Hungary became a republic. The kingdom was nominally restored during the "Regency (Kingdom of Hungary (1920–46))" of 1920–1946, ending with the Soviet occupation (Soviet occupation of Hungary) in 1946.

The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic Gerhard Stickel: National, Regional and Minority Languages in Europe state before the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Slovakia, Transylvania and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia (now part of Ukraine), Vojvodina (now part of Serbia), Burgenland (now part of Austria), and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders. From 1102 it also included Croatia (except Istria), being in personal union (Croatia in the union with Hungary) with it, united under the King of Hungary.

Today the feast day of the first king Stephen I (Stephen I of Hungary) (20 August) is a national holiday (Public holidays in Hungary) in Hungary, commemorating the foundation of the state (''Foundation Day''). St. Stephen's Day, National Holidays in Hungary (officeholidays.com) (English)

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