Kingdom of Egypt

What is Kingdom of Egypt known for?


dark green

, but as a compensation Great Britain gave it the Oltre Giuba and France agreed to give some Saharan territories to the Italian Libya. right thumb Dark green: original signatories Green: subsequent adherents Light blue: territories of parties Dark blue: League of Nations mandate (File:Kellogg Briand Pact countries.png)s administered by parties After negotiations, the pact was signed in Paris at the Minister of Foreign Affairs (France) French


campaign world

to Germany arose during the disastrous Greco-Italian War. Mussolini had intended the invasion of Greece to prove Italy strategic autonomy, but the Greeks humiliatingly put Italian forces on the defensive. Smith, 1997. p408 p409 To gain back ground in Greece, Germany reluctantly began a Balkans Campaign (Balkans Campaign (World War II)) which resulted also in the dissolution of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the ceding of Dalmatia to Italy. But despite


political studies

23px (Image:Flag of the Arab League.svg) Arab Liberation Army 23px (Image:Muslim Brotherhood Emblem.jpg) Muslim Brotherhood Ex Nazis (Nazi) Zeev Schiff, A History of the Israeli Army (1870-1974) Straight Arrow (1974) p.29 ref>


taking power

of 4 February 1942, British troops and tanks surrounded Abdeen Palace in Cairo and Lampson presented Farouk with an ultimatum (Abdeen Palace Incident of 1942). Farouk capitulated, and Nahhas formed a government shortly thereafter. However, the humiliation meted out to Farouk, and the actions of the Wafd in cooperating with the British and taking power, lost support for both the British and the Wafd among both civilians and, more importantly, the Military of Egypt Egyptian military


poor performance

. British troops were withdrawn to the Suez Canal area in 1947, but nationalist, anti-British feelings continued to grow after the War. On July 22–July 23, 1952, the Free Officers Movement (Free Officers Movement (Egypt)), led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew King Farouk, whom the military blamed for Egypt's poor performance in the 1948 war with Israel, thereby launching the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Popular expectations for immediate reforms led to the workers' riots in Kafr Dawar on 12 August 1952, which resulted in two death sentences. Following a brief experiment with civilian rule, the Free Officers abrogated the 1953 constitution and declared Egypt a republic on 18 June 1953. Nasser evolved into a charismatic leader, not only of Egypt but of the Arab World, promoting and implementing "Arab socialism." Dissolution The reign of Farouk was characterized by ever increasing nationalist discontent over the British occupation, royal corruption and incompetence, and the disastrous 1948 Arab-Israeli War. All these factors served to terminally undermine Farouk's position and paved the way for the Revolution of 1952 (1952 Revolution). Farouk was forced to abdicate in favor of his infant son Ahmed-Fuad who became King Fuad II (Fuad II of Egypt), while administration of the country passed to the Free Officers Movement (Free Officers Movement (Egypt)) under Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. The infant king's reign—now a pure legal fiction—lasted less than a year and on 18 June 1953, the revolutionaries formally abolished the monarchy and declared Egypt a republic, ending a century and a half of the Muhammad Ali dynasty. See also * Egyptian Revolution of 1952 * History of modern Egypt - align center June 13 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Egyptian Republic''' supersedes the Kingdom of Egypt. Cairo remains the capital. - - align center February 2 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Kingdom of Egypt''' gains independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo is the capital. -


agricultural nature

of Egypt interbellum period Egypt and in early Egyptian cinema. The three stars symbolised the three component territories of the Kingdom (Kingdom of Egypt), namely Egypt, Nubia, and Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian Sudan), - align center June 13 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Egyptian Republic''' supersedes the Kingdom of Egypt. Cairo remains the capital. - - align center February 2 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Kingdom of Egypt''' gains independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo is the capital. -


quot sports

Egypt ''' competed at the '''1936 Summer Olympics''' in Berlin, Germany. 53 competitors, all men, took part in 30 events in 10 sports. '''Egypt (Kingdom of Egypt)''' competed at the '''1948 Summer Olympics''' in London, England. 85

competitors, all men, took part in 53 events in 12 sports. '''Egypt (Kingdom of Egypt)''' competed at the '''1952 Summer Olympics''' in Helsinki, Finland. 106 competitors, all men, took part in 65 events in 14 sports. ref name "sports-reference


military presence

- align center June 13 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Egyptian Republic''' supersedes the Kingdom of Egypt. Cairo remains the capital. - - align center February 2 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Kingdom of Egypt''' gains independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo is the capital. -


light blue

, but as a compensation Great Britain gave it the Oltre Giuba and France agreed to give some Saharan territories to the Italian Libya. right thumb Dark green: original signatories Green: subsequent adherents Light blue: territories of parties Dark blue: League of Nations mandate (File:Kellogg Briand Pact countries.png)s administered by parties After negotiations, the pact was signed in Paris at the French Foreign Ministry (Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)) by the representatives from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)), France, Germany, British India, the Irish Free State, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland (Second Polish Republic), South Africa (Union of South Africa), the United Kingdom - align center June 13 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Egyptian Republic''' supersedes the Kingdom of Egypt. Cairo remains the capital. - - align center February 2 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Kingdom of Egypt''' gains independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo is the capital. -


summer games'

Egypt ''' competed at the '''1936 Summer Olympics''' in Berlin, Germany. 53 competitors, all men, took part in 30 events in 10 sports. '''Egypt (Kingdom of Egypt)''' competed at the '''1948 Summer Olympics''' in London, England. 85

competitors, all men, took part in 53 events in 12 sports. '''Egypt (Kingdom of Egypt)''' competed at the '''1952 Summer Olympics''' in Helsinki, Finland. 106 competitors, all men, took part in 65 events in 14 sports. ref name "sports

-reference" - align center June 13 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Egyptian Republic''' supersedes the Kingdom of Egypt. Cairo remains the capital. - - align center February 2 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Kingdom of Egypt''' gains independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo is the capital. -

Kingdom of Egypt

The '''Kingdom of Egypt''' ( ''al-Mamlakah al-Miṣriyyah'', "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the independent Egyptian state (Egypt) established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom. Until the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, the Kingdom was only nominally independent, since the British retained control of foreign relations, communications, the military and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Between 1936-52, the British continued to maintain military presence and political advisors, at a reduced level.

The legal status of Egypt had hitherto been highly convoluted, due to its ''de facto'' breakaway from the Ottoman Empire in 1805, its occupation by Britain in 1882, and its transformation into a sultanate and British protectorate in 1914. In line with the change in status from sultanate to kingdom, the Sultan of Egypt, Fuad I (Fuad I of Egypt), saw his title changed to King.

The kingdom's sovereignty was subject to severe limitations imposed by the British, who retained enormous control over Egyptian affairs, and whose military continued to occupy the country. Throughout the kingdom's existence Sudan was formally united with Egypt. However, actual Egyptian authority in Sudan was largely nominal due to Britain's role as the dominant power in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

During the reign of King Fuad, the monarchy struggled with the Wafd Party (New Delegation Party), a broadly based nationalist political organization strongly opposed to British domination, and with the British themselves, who were determined to maintain control over the Suez Canal. Other political forces emerging in this period included the Communist Party (1925), and the Muslim Brotherhood (1928), which eventually became a potent political and religious force.

King Fuad died in 1936 and Farouk (Farouk of Egypt) inherited the throne at the age of sixteen. Alarmed by Italy's recent invasion (Second Italo-Abyssinian War) of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), he signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, requiring Britain to withdraw all troops from Egypt, except in the Suez Canal Zone (agreed to be evacuated by 1949).

The kingdom was plagued by corruption, and its citizens saw it as a puppet of the British. This, coupled with the defeat in the 1948-1949 Palestine War (1948 Arab-Israeli War), led to the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 by the Free Officers Movement (Free Officers Movement (Egypt)). Farouk abdicated in favour of his infant son Fuad II (Fuad II of Egypt). In 1953 the monarchy was formally abolished and the Republic of Egypt (Egypt) was established. The legal status of Sudan was only resolved in 1954, when Egypt and Britain agreed that it should be granted independence in 1956.

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