Khanate of Khiva

What is Khanate of Khiva known for?


great game

episode during The Great Game involved a Russian expedition to Khiva in 1839. The nominal purpose of the mission was to free the slaves captured and sold by Turkmen (Turkmens) raiders from the Russian frontiers on the Caspian Sea, but the expedition was also an attempt to extend Russia's borders while the British Empire entangled itself in the First Anglo-Afghan War. The expedition, led by General V.A. Perovsky (Vasily Alekseevich Perovsky), the commander of the Orenburg garrison, consisted of 5,200 infantry, and ten thousand camels. Due to poor planning and a bit of bad luck, they set off in November 1839, into one of the worst winters in memory, and were forced to turn back on 1 February 1840, arriving back into Orenburg in May, having suffered over a thousand casualties. thumb 275px The painter Vasily Vereshchagin (File:У крепостной стены.jpg) was present at the taking of Khiva by Russian forces in 1873. At the same time, Britain, anxious to remove the pretext for the Russian attempt to annex Khiva, launched its own effort to free the slaves. Major Todd, the senior British political officer (Political officer (British Empire)) stationed in Herat (in Afghanistan) dispatched Captain James Abbott (James Abbott (Indian Army officer)), disguised as an Afghan, on Christmas Eve, 1839, for Khiva. Abbott arrived in late January 1840 and, although the khan was suspicious of his identity, he succeeded in talking the khan into allowing him to carry a letter for the Tsar regarding the slave issue. He left on 7 March 1840, for Fort Alexandrovsk (Aqtau) (Aqtau), and was subsequently betrayed by his guide, robbed, then released when the bandits realized the origin and destination of his letter. His superiors in Herat, not knowing of his fate, sent another officer, Lieutenant Richmond Shakespear, after him. Shakespear had more success than Abbott: he convinced the khan to free all Russian subjects under his control, and also to make the ownership of Russian slaves a crime punishable by death. The freed slaves and Shakespear arrived in Fort Alexandrovsk on 15 August 1840, and Russia lost its primary motive for the conquest of Khiva, for the time being. thumb left A 1903 Polish map showing Khiva (''Chiwa'', in Polish) within the much reduced borders the Khanate had during 1874-1920 (File:Zakaukazie-Turkestan1903.jpg) A permanent Russian presence in Khwarezm began in 1848 with the building of Fort Aralsk at the mouth of the Syr Darya. The Empire's military superiority was such that Khiva and the other Central Asian principalities, Bukhara (Emirate of Bukhara) and Kokand (Khanate of Kokand), had no chance of repelling the Russian advance, despite years of fighting. John Ayde, ''Indian Frontier Policy''. Khiva was gradually reduced in size by Russian expansion in Turkestan and, in 1873, after Russia conquered the neighbouring cities of Tashkent and Samarkand, General Von Kaufman (Konstantin Petrovich Von Kaufman) launched an attack on Khiva consisting of 13,000 infantry and cavalry. The city of Khiva fell on 28 May 1873 and, on 12 August 1873, a peace treaty was signed that established Khiva as a quasi-independent Russian protectorate. The first significant settlement of Europeans in the Khanate was a group of Mennonites who migrated to Khiva in 1882. The German-speaking Mennonites had come from the Volga (Volga Germans) region and the Molotschna colony under the leadership of Claas Epp, Jr. The Mennonites played an important role in modernizing the Khanate in the decades prior to the October Revolution by introducing photography, which resulted with the development of the Uzbek photography and filmmaking, more efficient methods for cotton harvesting, electrical generators, and other technological innovations. ) was a Central Asian Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek, Julia Katschnig (2005), ''European Society for Central Asian Studies. International Conference'', p.31 state that existed from 1785 to 1920. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River (Zeravshan), and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarkand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarezm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana (Fergana Valley). It is now within the boundaries of Uzbekistan. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. With the Russian Empire continuously advancing south in the course of two wars against Persia, and the treaties of Turkmanchai and Golestan in the western frontiers, plus the unexpected death of Abbas Mirza in 1823, and the murder of Persia's Grand Vizier (''Mirza AbolQasem Qa'im Maqām''), Persia lost its traditional foothold in Central Asia to the Russian Tsarist armies. '' Nasser Takmil Homayoun. ''Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?''. 2004. ISBN 964-379-023-1 p.78 '' The Russian armies occupied the Aral (Aral Sea) coast in 1849, Tashkent in 1864, Bukhara (Emirate of Bukhara) in 1867, Samarkand in 1868, and Khiva (Khanate of Khiva) and Amudarya in 1873. The Treaty of Akhal, in which the Qajarid's were forced to cede Khwarazm, topped off Persian losses to the global emerging power of Imperial Russia. After the Russian revolution of 1917, the entire space occupied today by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and the southern part of Kazakhstan consisted of three administrative territorial units: the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR), created in April 1918 within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), and the two successor states of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva, which were transformed into Bukhara (Bukharan People's Soviet Republic) and Khorezm People's Soviet Republics following the takeover by the Red Army in 1920. North of Turkestan ASSR lay the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz ASSR, Kirgizistan ASSR on the map), which was created on 26 August 1920 in the territory coinciding with the northern part of today's Kazakhstan (the southern part of Kazakhstan, south of the Aral Sea–Balkhash Lake line, was part of Turkestan ASSR in 1920).


studies international

to Tehran, and from there, via Trebizond and Erzerum, to Constantinople, arriving there in March 1864. ) was a Central Asian Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek, Julia Katschnig (2005), ''European Society for Central Asian Studies. International Conference'', p.31 state that existed from 1785 to 1920. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly


life style

of Khiva ''' - Muhammad Shaybani (1506–1510) * '''China''' (Ming Dynasty) - Zhengde Emperor (1505–1521) The Turkmen largely survived the Mongol period due to their semi-nomadic life-style and became traders along the Caspian (Caspian Sea), which led to contacts with Eastern Europe. Following the decline of the Mongols, Tamerlane conquered the area and his Timurid Empire would rule, until it too fractured, as the Safavids, Uzbeks, and Khanate


energetic

, the most powerful, the Khanate of Bukhoro, centered on the city of Bukhoro. The khanate controlled Mawarannahr, especially the region of Tashkent, the Fergana Valley in the east, and northern Afghanistan. A second Uzbek state, the Khanate of Khiva was established in the oasis of Khorazm at the mouth of the Amu Darya. The Khanate of Bukhoro was initially led by the energetic Shaybanid Dynasty. The Shaybanids competed against Iran, which was led by the Safavid Dynasty

of the present-day Uzbekistan. Of the states they established, the most powerful, the Khanate of Bukhoro, centered on the city of Bukhoro. The khanate controlled Mawarannahr, especially the region of Tashkent, the Fergana Valley in the east, and northern Afghanistan. A second Uzbek state, the Khanate of Khiva was established in the oasis of Khorazm at the mouth of the Amu Darya. The Khanate of Bukhoro was initially led by the energetic Shaybanid Dynasty. The Shaybanids competed


century starting

. The Kuban Cossacks continued to make an active part in the Russian affairs of the 19th century starting from the finale of the Russian-Circassian War which ceased shortly after the hosts' formation. A small group took part in the 1873 conquest that brought the Khanate of Khiva under Russian control. Their largest military campaign was the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), on both the Balkan and the Caucasus fronts. The latter in particular was a strong contribution as the Kuban Cossacks made 90% of the Russian cavalry. Famous achievements in the numerous Battles of Shipka (Battle of Shipka Pass), the defence of Bayazet (Doğubeyazıt) and finally in decisive and victorious Battle of Kars where the Cossacks were the first to enter. Three Kuban Cossack regiments took part in the storming of Geok Tepe in Turkmenistan in 1881. During the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), the host mobilised six cavalry regiments, five plastun battalions and one battery to the distant region of Russia. He commanded the advanced guard of General Lomakin (Nikolay Lomakin)'s column from Kinderly Bay, in the Caspian Sea, to join General Verevkin, from Orenburg, in the expedition to the Khanate of Khiva in 1874, and, after great suffering on the desert march, took a prominent part in the capture of the Khivan capital. Dressed as a Turkoman (Turkmen people), he intrepidly explored in a hostile country the route from Khiva to Igdy, and also the old bed of the Oxus. In 1875 he was given an important command in the expedition against the Khanate of Kokand under General Konstantin Petrovich Kaufman, showing great capacity in the action of Makram, where he outmanoeuvered a greatly superior force and captured 58 guns, and in a brilliant night attack in the retreat from Andijan, when he routed a large force with a handful of cavalry. * 1805: Faraizi movement launched in Bengal. Muhammad Ali (Muhammad Ali of Egypt) appointed Pasha of Egypt by the Ottoman Empire. * 1806: Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan. * 1807: Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish (Ottoman Empire) domination. Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria. * 1871: Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Ottoman Empire through a firman (firman (decree)). * 1873: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva made protectorates by Russia. * 1876: Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal (Suez Canal) and got involved in Egyptian affairs. * 1920: Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI (Mehmed VI) signs the Treaty of Sèvres, reducing the Empire to a fraction of its previous size and allowing for the indefinite presence of Allied forces in Turkey. The treaty is rejected by nationalist leaders, who vow to block its implementation. * 1920: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva conquered by Bolshevik Russia. * 1920-1922: Turkish War of Independence. Central Asia One area where Soviet division of power was not resolved at time of the Treaty's signing, was Soviet Central Asia which contained several problems. A major battleground during the Russian Civil War the region would remain unstable afterwards. Turkestan came under Russian control (Russian Turkestan) fairly recently, between 1867 and 1885. Moreover, unlike other ethnic borders of the former Russian Empire, which were delimited during the Tsarist days (e.g. Transcaucasia lost its feudal administration by the mid-19th century), the Soviet authorities inherited two provinces that were de jure never part of Russia proper, the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva. During the Russian Civil War, these too shared the fate of the other republics, but even here their special status was preserved, and they were established as the Bukharan (Bukharan People's Soviet Republic) and Khorezm (Khorezm People's Soviet Republic) ''People's'' Soviet Republics. Despite Mikhail Frunze's victories the conflict was ongoing and whole provinces were under control of the Basmachi movement in 1922. Expansion In 1867 Turkestan was made a separate Governor-Generalship, under its first Governor-General, Konstantin Petrovich Von Kaufman. Its capital was Tashkent and it consisted initially of three oblasts (Oblasts of the Russian Empire) (provinces): Syr Darya, Semirechye (Zhetysu) and the Zeravshan Okrug (later Samarkand Oblast). To these were added in 1873 the Amu Darya Division ( ) was a Central Asian Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek, Julia Katschnig (2005), ''European Society for Central Asian Studies. International Conference'', p.31 state that existed from 1785 to 1920. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River (Zeravshan), and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarkand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarezm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana (Fergana Valley). It is now within the boundaries of Uzbekistan. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. With the Russian Empire continuously advancing south in the course of two wars against Persia, and the treaties of Turkmanchai and Golestan in the western frontiers, plus the unexpected death of Abbas Mirza in 1823, and the murder of Persia's Grand Vizier (''Mirza AbolQasem Qa'im Maqām''), Persia lost its traditional foothold in Central Asia to the Russian Tsarist armies. '' Nasser Takmil Homayoun. ''Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?''. 2004. ISBN 964-379-023-1 p.78 '' The Russian armies occupied the Aral (Aral Sea) coast in 1849, Tashkent in 1864, Bukhara (Emirate of Bukhara) in 1867, Samarkand in 1868, and Khiva (Khanate of Khiva) and Amudarya in 1873. The Treaty of Akhal, in which the Qajarid's were forced to cede Khwarazm, topped off Persian losses to the global emerging power of Imperial Russia. After the Russian revolution of 1917, the entire space occupied today by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and the southern part of Kazakhstan consisted of three administrative territorial units: the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR), created in April 1918 within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), and the two successor states of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva, which were transformed into Bukhara (Bukharan People's Soviet Republic) and Khorezm People's Soviet Republics following the takeover by the Red Army in 1920. North of Turkestan ASSR lay the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz ASSR, Kirgizistan ASSR on the map), which was created on 26 August 1920 in the territory coinciding with the northern part of today's Kazakhstan (the southern part of Kazakhstan, south of the Aral Sea–Balkhash Lake line, was part of Turkestan ASSR in 1920).


strong contribution

. The Kuban Cossacks continued to make an active part in the Russian affairs of the 19th century starting from the finale of the Russian-Circassian War which ceased shortly after the hosts' formation. A small group took part in the 1873 conquest that brought the Khanate of Khiva under Russian control. Their largest military campaign was the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), on both the Balkan and the Caucasus fronts. The latter in particular was a strong contribution as the Kuban Cossacks made 90% of the Russian cavalry. Famous achievements in the numerous Battles of Shipka (Battle of Shipka Pass), the defence of Bayazet (Doğubeyazıt) and finally in decisive and victorious Battle of Kars where the Cossacks were the first to enter. Three Kuban Cossack regiments took part in the storming of Geok Tepe in Turkmenistan in 1881. During the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), the host mobilised six cavalry regiments, five plastun battalions and one battery to the distant region of Russia. He commanded the advanced guard of General Lomakin (Nikolay Lomakin)'s column from Kinderly Bay, in the Caspian Sea, to join General Verevkin, from Orenburg, in the expedition to the Khanate of Khiva in 1874, and, after great suffering on the desert march, took a prominent part in the capture of the Khivan capital. Dressed as a Turkoman (Turkmen people), he intrepidly explored in a hostile country the route from Khiva to Igdy, and also the old bed of the Oxus. In 1875 he was given an important command in the expedition against the Khanate of Kokand under General Konstantin Petrovich Kaufman, showing great capacity in the action of Makram, where he outmanoeuvered a greatly superior force and captured 58 guns, and in a brilliant night attack in the retreat from Andijan, when he routed a large force with a handful of cavalry. * 1805: Faraizi movement launched in Bengal. Muhammad Ali (Muhammad Ali of Egypt) appointed Pasha of Egypt by the Ottoman Empire. * 1806: Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan. * 1807: Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish (Ottoman Empire) domination. Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria. * 1871: Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Ottoman Empire through a firman (firman (decree)). * 1873: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva made protectorates by Russia. * 1876: Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal (Suez Canal) and got involved in Egyptian affairs. * 1920: Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI (Mehmed VI) signs the Treaty of Sèvres, reducing the Empire to a fraction of its previous size and allowing for the indefinite presence of Allied forces in Turkey. The treaty is rejected by nationalist leaders, who vow to block its implementation. * 1920: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva conquered by Bolshevik Russia. * 1920-1922: Turkish War of Independence. Central Asia One area where Soviet division of power was not resolved at time of the Treaty's signing, was Soviet Central Asia which contained several problems. A major battleground during the Russian Civil War the region would remain unstable afterwards. Turkestan came under Russian control (Russian Turkestan) fairly recently, between 1867 and 1885. Moreover, unlike other ethnic borders of the former Russian Empire, which were delimited during the Tsarist days (e.g. Transcaucasia lost its feudal administration by the mid-19th century), the Soviet authorities inherited two provinces that were de jure never part of Russia proper, the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva. During the Russian Civil War, these too shared the fate of the other republics, but even here their special status was preserved, and they were established as the Bukharan (Bukharan People's Soviet Republic) and Khorezm (Khorezm People's Soviet Republic) ''People's'' Soviet Republics. Despite Mikhail Frunze's victories the conflict was ongoing and whole provinces were under control of the Basmachi movement in 1922. Expansion In 1867 Turkestan was made a separate Governor-Generalship, under its first Governor-General, Konstantin Petrovich Von Kaufman. Its capital was Tashkent and it consisted initially of three oblasts (Oblasts of the Russian Empire) (provinces): Syr Darya, Semirechye (Zhetysu) and the Zeravshan Okrug (later Samarkand Oblast). To these were added in 1873 the Amu Darya Division ( ) was a Central Asian Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek, Julia Katschnig (2005), ''European Society for Central Asian Studies. International Conference'', p.31 state that existed from 1785 to 1920. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River (Zeravshan), and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarkand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarezm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana (Fergana Valley). It is now within the boundaries of Uzbekistan. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. With the Russian Empire continuously advancing south in the course of two wars against Persia, and the treaties of Turkmanchai and Golestan in the western frontiers, plus the unexpected death of Abbas Mirza in 1823, and the murder of Persia's Grand Vizier (''Mirza AbolQasem Qa'im Maqām''), Persia lost its traditional foothold in Central Asia to the Russian Tsarist armies. '' Nasser Takmil Homayoun. ''Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?''. 2004. ISBN 964-379-023-1 p.78 '' The Russian armies occupied the Aral (Aral Sea) coast in 1849, Tashkent in 1864, Bukhara (Emirate of Bukhara) in 1867, Samarkand in 1868, and Khiva (Khanate of Khiva) and Amudarya in 1873. The Treaty of Akhal, in which the Qajarid's were forced to cede Khwarazm, topped off Persian losses to the global emerging power of Imperial Russia. After the Russian revolution of 1917, the entire space occupied today by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and the southern part of Kazakhstan consisted of three administrative territorial units: the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR), created in April 1918 within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), and the two successor states of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva, which were transformed into Bukhara (Bukharan People's Soviet Republic) and Khorezm People's Soviet Republics following the takeover by the Red Army in 1920. North of Turkestan ASSR lay the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz ASSR, Kirgizistan ASSR on the map), which was created on 26 August 1920 in the territory coinciding with the northern part of today's Kazakhstan (the southern part of Kazakhstan, south of the Aral Sea–Balkhash Lake line, was part of Turkestan ASSR in 1920).


famous achievements

90% of the Russian cavalry. Famous achievements in the numerous Battles of Shipka (Battle of Shipka Pass), the defence of Bayazet (Doğubeyazıt) and finally in decisive and victorious Battle of Kars where the Cossacks were the first to enter. Three Kuban Cossack regiments took part in the storming of Geok Tepe in Turkmenistan in 1881. During the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), the host mobilised six cavalry regiments, five plastun battalions and one battery to the distant region of Russia. He commanded the advanced guard of General Lomakin (Nikolay Lomakin)'s column from Kinderly Bay, in the Caspian Sea, to join General Verevkin, from Orenburg, in the expedition to the Khanate of Khiva in 1874, and, after great suffering on the desert march, took a prominent part in the capture of the Khivan capital. Dressed as a Turkoman (Turkmen people), he intrepidly explored in a hostile country the route from Khiva to Igdy, and also the old bed of the Oxus. In 1875 he was given an important command in the expedition against the Khanate of Kokand under General Konstantin Petrovich Kaufman, showing great capacity in the action of Makram, where he outmanoeuvered a greatly superior force and captured 58 guns, and in a brilliant night attack in the retreat from Andijan, when he routed a large force with a handful of cavalry. * 1805: Faraizi movement launched in Bengal. Muhammad Ali (Muhammad Ali of Egypt) appointed Pasha of Egypt by the Ottoman Empire. * 1806: Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan. * 1807: Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish (Ottoman Empire) domination. Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria. * 1871: Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Ottoman Empire through a firman (firman (decree)). * 1873: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva made protectorates by Russia. * 1876: Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal (Suez Canal) and got involved in Egyptian affairs. * 1920: Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI (Mehmed VI) signs the Treaty of Sèvres, reducing the Empire to a fraction of its previous size and allowing for the indefinite presence of Allied forces in Turkey. The treaty is rejected by nationalist leaders, who vow to block its implementation. * 1920: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva conquered by Bolshevik Russia. * 1920-1922: Turkish War of Independence. Central Asia One area where Soviet division of power was not resolved at time of the Treaty's signing, was Soviet Central Asia which contained several problems. A major battleground during the Russian Civil War the region would remain unstable afterwards. Turkestan came under Russian control (Russian Turkestan) fairly recently, between 1867 and 1885. Moreover, unlike other ethnic borders of the former Russian Empire, which were delimited during the Tsarist days (e.g. Transcaucasia lost its feudal administration by the mid-19th century), the Soviet authorities inherited two provinces that were de jure never part of Russia proper, the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva. During the Russian Civil War, these too shared the fate of the other republics, but even here their special status was preserved, and they were established as the Bukharan (Bukharan People's Soviet Republic) and Khorezm (Khorezm People's Soviet Republic) ''People's'' Soviet Republics. Despite Mikhail Frunze's victories the conflict was ongoing and whole provinces were under control of the Basmachi movement in 1922. Expansion In 1867 Turkestan was made a separate Governor-Generalship, under its first Governor-General, Konstantin Petrovich Von Kaufman. Its capital was Tashkent and it consisted initially of three oblasts (Oblasts of the Russian Empire) (provinces): Syr Darya, Semirechye (Zhetysu) and the Zeravshan Okrug (later Samarkand Oblast). To these were added in 1873 the Amu Darya Division ( ) was a Central Asian Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek, Julia Katschnig (2005), ''European Society for Central Asian Studies. International Conference'', p.31 state that existed from 1785 to 1920. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River (Zeravshan), and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarkand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarezm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana (Fergana Valley). It is now within the boundaries of Uzbekistan. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. With the Russian Empire continuously advancing south in the course of two wars against Persia, and the treaties of Turkmanchai and Golestan in the western frontiers, plus the unexpected death of Abbas Mirza in 1823, and the murder of Persia's Grand Vizier (''Mirza AbolQasem Qa'im Maqām''), Persia lost its traditional foothold in Central Asia to the Russian Tsarist armies. '' Nasser Takmil Homayoun. ''Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?''. 2004. ISBN 964-379-023-1 p.78 '' The Russian armies occupied the Aral (Aral Sea) coast in 1849, Tashkent in 1864, Bukhara (Emirate of Bukhara) in 1867, Samarkand in 1868, and Khiva (Khanate of Khiva) and Amudarya in 1873. The Treaty of Akhal, in which the Qajarid's were forced to cede Khwarazm, topped off Persian losses to the global emerging power of Imperial Russia. After the Russian revolution of 1917, the entire space occupied today by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and the southern part of Kazakhstan consisted of three administrative territorial units: the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR), created in April 1918 within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), and the two successor states of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva, which were transformed into Bukhara (Bukharan People's Soviet Republic) and Khorezm People's Soviet Republics following the takeover by the Red Army in 1920. North of Turkestan ASSR lay the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz ASSR, Kirgizistan ASSR on the map), which was created on 26 August 1920 in the territory coinciding with the northern part of today's Kazakhstan (the southern part of Kazakhstan, south of the Aral Sea–Balkhash Lake line, was part of Turkestan ASSR in 1920).


Changsha bowl was inscribed with a date: "16th day of the seventh month of the second year of the Baoli reign", or 826 AD

, began the full military conquest of Central Asia. By 1876 Russia had incorporated all three khanates (hence all of present-day Uzbekistan) into its empire, granting the khanates limited autonomy. In the second half of the nineteenth century, the Russian population of Uzbekistan grew and some industrialization occurred. By 1510 the Uzbeks had completed their conquest of Central Asia, including the territory of the present-day Uzbekistan. Of the states they established

of the present-day Uzbekistan. Of the states they established, the most powerful, the Khanate of Bukhoro, centered on the city of Bukhoro. The khanate controlled Mawarannahr, especially the region of Tashkent, the Fergana Valley in the east, and northern Afghanistan. A second Uzbek state, the Khanate of Khiva was established in the oasis of Khorazm at the mouth of the Amu Darya. The Khanate of Bukhoro was initially led by the energetic Shaybanid Dynasty. The Shaybanids competed

recorded in the 16th century. Karakapakstan was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Khanate of Khiva in 1867. Under Soviet (Soviet Union) rule it was originally an autonomous area within Kazakhstan before becoming part of Uzbekistan in 1936.


largest military

) was a Central Asian Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek, Julia Katschnig (2005), ''European Society for Central Asian Studies. International Conference'', p.31 state that existed from 1785 to 1920. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River (Zeravshan), and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarkand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarezm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana (Fergana Valley). It is now within the boundaries of Uzbekistan. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. With the Russian Empire continuously advancing south in the course of two wars against Persia, and the treaties of Turkmanchai and Golestan in the western frontiers, plus the unexpected death of Abbas Mirza in 1823, and the murder of Persia's Grand Vizier (''Mirza AbolQasem Qa'im Maqām''), Persia lost its traditional foothold in Central Asia to the Russian Tsarist armies. '' Nasser Takmil Homayoun. ''Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?''. 2004. ISBN 964-379-023-1 p.78 '' The Russian armies occupied the Aral (Aral Sea) coast in 1849, Tashkent in 1864, Bukhara (Emirate of Bukhara) in 1867, Samarkand in 1868, and Khiva (Khanate of Khiva) and Amudarya in 1873. The Treaty of Akhal, in which the Qajarid's were forced to cede Khwarazm, topped off Persian losses to the global emerging power of Imperial Russia. After the Russian revolution of 1917, the entire space occupied today by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and the southern part of Kazakhstan consisted of three administrative territorial units: the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR), created in April 1918 within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), and the two successor states of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva, which were transformed into Bukhara (Bukharan People's Soviet Republic) and Khorezm People's Soviet Republics following the takeover by the Red Army in 1920. North of Turkestan ASSR lay the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz ASSR, Kirgizistan ASSR on the map), which was created on 26 August 1920 in the territory coinciding with the northern part of today's Kazakhstan (the southern part of Kazakhstan, south of the Aral Sea–Balkhash Lake line, was part of Turkestan ASSR in 1920).


active service

Villebois of Marham House, Norfolk († 1883). He was educated at Bedford School, Harrow (Harrow School), Oswestry School (where he was a contemporary with Spooner (William Archibald Spooner)), and in Germany. He entered the Royal Horse Guards in 1859. Finding no chance for active service, his spirit of adventure sought outlets in balloon-ascents and in travels through Spain and Russia. In the summer of 1874 he accompanied the Carlist forces as correspondent

Khanate of Khiva

The '''Khanate of Khiva''' ( ) was the name of an Uzbek (Uzbeks) http: www.britannica.com EBchecked topic 621041 Uzbek-khanate#ref117856 Uzbek khanate state that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm from 1511 to 1920, except for a period of Persian occupation by Nadir Shah between 1740–1746. The Khans were the patrilineal descendants of Shayban (Shiban) (Shiban), the fifth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. Centered in the irrigated plains of the lower Amu Darya, south of the Aral Sea, with the capital in Khiva City, the country was ruled by a turkified branch of Mongolian tribe the Khongirads (Khongirad), that came from Astrakhan (Astrakhan Khanate). It covered present western Uzbekistan, southwestern Kazakhstan and much of Turkmenistan before Russian arrival at second half of 19th century.

In 1873, the Khanate of Khiva was much reduced in size and became a Russian (Russian Empire) protectorate. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 (October Revolution), Khiva had a revolution too, and in 1920 the Khanate was replaced by the Khorezm People’s Soviet Republic (Khorezm SSR). In 1924, the area was formally incorporated into the Soviet Union and today is largely a part of Karakalpakstan and Xorazm Province in Uzbekistan.

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