Kenzō Tange

What is Kenzō Tange known for?


personal view

publisher Edition Axel Menges location London, United Kingdom isbn 3-930698-96-X * *


century+combining

of the most significant architects of the 20th century, combining traditional Japanese styles with modernism (Modern Architecture), and designed major buildings on five continents. Tange was also an influential patron of the Metabolist movement (Metabolism (architecture)). He said: "It was, I believe, around 1959 or at the beginning of the sixties that I began to think about what I was later to call structuralism (Structuralism (architecture))", (cited in ''Plan'' 2 1982


atomic bomb

for an airport in Kanon was accepted and built, but a seaside park in Ujina was not. Norioki (2003), p. 92 The Hiroshima authorities took a lot of advice about the city's reconstruction from foreign consultants and in 1947 Tam Deling, an American park planner, suggested to build a Peace Memorial and to preserve buildings situated near ground zero (directly below the explosion of the atomic bomb). Norioki (2003), p. 96 In 1949 the authorities

enacted the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Reconstruction Act, which gave the city access to special grant aid, and in August that year, an international competition was announced for the design of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Diedfendorf, Hein & Yorifusa (2003), p. 95 Tange was awarded first prize for a design that proposed a museum whose axis runs through the park, intersecting Peace Boulevard (Peace Boulevard (Hiroshima)) and the atomic bomb dome. The building is raised on massive piloti (columns), which frame the views along the structure's axis. Diedfendorf, Hein & Yorifusa (2003), p. 98 Projects Peace Centre in Hiroshima thumb Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, view along axis (1955) (File:Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum 2009.jpg) Work on the Peace Centre commenced in 1950. In addition to the axial nature of the design, the layout is similar to Tange's early competition arrangement for the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Memorial Hall. In the initial design the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum was dominated by adjoining utility buildings, which were linked to it by high-level walkways. Tange refined this concept to place the museum prominently at the centre, separate from the utility buildings (only one of which was subsequently designed by him). In addition to architectural symbolism, he thought it important for the design to centre around the building that houses the information about the atomic explosion. Kulterman (1970), p. 17 The museum is constructed from bare reinforced concrete. The primary museum floor is lifted six metres above the ground on huge piloti and is accessible via a free-standing staircase. The rhythmical facade comprises vertical elements that repeat outwards from the centre. Like the exterior, the interior is finished with rough concrete; the idea was to keep the surfaces plain so that nothing could distract the visitor from the contents of the exhibits. Kulterman (1970), p. 18 The Peace Plaza is the backdrop for the museum. The plaza was designed to allow 50 thousand people to gather around the peace monument in the centre. Tange also designed the monument as an arch composed of two hyperbolic paraboloids, said to be based on traditional Japanese ceremonial tombs from the Kofun Period. The Ise Shrine In 1953 Tange and the architectural journalist and critic Noboru Kawazoe were invited to attend the reconstruction of the Ise Shrine (Ise Grand Shrine). The shrine has been reconstructed every 20 years and in 1953 it was the 59th iteration. Normally the reconstruction process was a very closed affair but this time the ceremony was opened to architects and journalists to document the event. The ceremony coincided with the end of the American Occupation (Occupied Japan) and it seemed to symbolise a new start in Japanese architecture. In 1961 when Tange and Kawazoe published the book ''Ise: Prototype of Japanese Architecture'', he likened the building to a modernist structure: an honest expression of materials, a functional design and prefabricated elements. Diedfendorf, Hein & Yorifusa (2003), p. 197 The Kagawa Prefectural Government Hall The Kagawa Prefectural Government Hall on the island of Shikoku was completed in 1958. Its expressive construction could be likened to the Daibutsu style seen at the Todai-ji in Nara (Nara, Nara). Stewart (1987), p. 207 The columns on the elevation bore only vertical loads so Tange was able to design them to be thin, maximising the surfaces for glazing. Although the hall has been called one of his finest projects, Japan Architect (2005), p. 100 it drew criticism at the time of its construction for relying too heavily on tradition. Kulterman (1970), p. 56 thumb Kenzō Tange's own house (1953) (File:Tange House.jpg) Tange's own home Tange's own home, designed in 1951 and completed in 1953, uses a similar skeleton structure raised off the ground as the Hiroshima Peace Museum; however, it is fused with a more traditional Japanese design that uses timber and paper. The house is based on the traditional Japanese module of the tatami mat, with the largest rooms designed to have flexibility so that they can be separated into three smaller rooms by fusuma sliding doors. Kulterman (1970), p. 28 The facade is designed with a rhythmic pattern; it comprises two types of facade designs ("a" and "b") that are ordered laterally in an a-b-a-a-b-a arrangement. The house is topped with a two-tier roof. Kazuo Shinohara's (Kazuo Shinohara) 1954 house at Kugayama is remarkably similar in its design, although it is built with steel and has a simpler rhythm in its facade. Stewart (1987), p. 197 Town Hall, Kurashiki The fortress-like town hall in Kurashiki was designed in 1958 and completed in 1960. When it was constructed it was situated on the edge of the old town centre connecting it with the newer areas of the town. Kurashiki is better known as a tourist spot for its old Machiya style houses. Kulterman (1970), p. 92 Set in an open square, the building sits on massive columns that taper inwards as they rise. The elevation consists of horizontal planks (some of which are omitted to create windows) which overlap at the corners in a "log cabin" effect. The entrance is covered with a heavy projecting concrete canopy which leads to a monumental entrance hall. The stair to this hall ascends in cantilevered straight flights to the left and right. The walls to this interior are bare shuttered concrete punctured by windows reminiscent of Le Corbusier's La Tourette (La Tourette Monastery). The Council Chamber is a separate building whose raked roof has seating on top of it to form an external performance space. Banham (1978), p. 82 Tokyo Olympic arenas thumb Yoyogi National Gymnasium (1964) (File:Yoyogi National Gymnasium 2008.jpg) The Yoyogi National Gymnasium is situated in an open area in Yoyogi Park on an adjacent axis to the Meiji Shrine. The gymnasium and swimming pool were designed by Tange for the 1964 Tokyo Olympics (1964 Summer Olympics), which were the first Olympics held in Asia. Tange began his designs in 1961 and the plans were approved by the Ministry of Education in January 1963. The buildings were placed to optimize space available for parking and to permit the smoothest transition of incoming and outgoing people. Kulterman (1970), p. 204 Inspired by the skyline of the Colosseum in Rome, the roofs have a skin suspended from two masts. The buildings were inspired by Le Corbusier's Philips Pavilion designed for Brussel's World Fair and the Ingalls Rink Yale University's hockey stadium by Eero Saarinen (both structures completed in 1958). The roof of the Philips pavilion was created by complex hyperbolic paraboloid surfaces stretched between cables. In both cases Tange took Western ideas and adapted them to meet Japanese requirements. Stewart (1987), p. 218 The gymnasium has a capacity of approximately 16,000 and the smaller building can accommodate up 5,300 depending on the events that are taking place. At the time it was built, the gymnasium had the world's largest suspended roof span. Two reinforced concrete pillars support a pre-stressed steel net onto which steel plates are attached. The bottom anchoring of this steel net is a heavy concrete support system which forms a distinct curve on the interior and exterior of the building. In the interior, this structural anchor is used to support the grandstand seats. The overall curvature of the roof helps protect the building from the damaging effects of strong winds. Tange won a Pritzker Prize for the design; the citation described the gynasium as "among the most beautiful buildings of the 20th century". Category:1913 births Category:2005 deaths Category:Japanese architects Category:Pritzker Architecture Prize winners Category:Recipients of the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st class Category:Recipients of the Pour le Mérite (civil class) Category:Recipients of the Praemium Imperiale Category:Recipients of the Royal Gold Medal Category:Recipients of the Order of Culture Category:Légion d'honneur recipients Category:People from Sakai, Osaka Category:University of Tokyo alumni Category:Nihon University alumni Category:Expo '70 Category:Japanese Roman Catholics


building main

Category:1913 births Category:2005 deaths Category:Japanese architects Category:Pritzker Architecture Prize winners Category:Recipients of the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st class Category:Recipients of the Pour le Mérite (civil class) Category:Recipients of the Praemium Imperiale Category:Recipients of the Royal Gold Medal Category:Recipients of the Order of Culture Category:Légion d'honneur recipients Category:People from Sakai, Osaka Category:University of Tokyo alumni Category:Nihon University alumni Category:Expo '70 Category:Japanese Roman Catholics


world early

10 in the 1960s, as well as the group that became Metabolism (Metabolist Movement). His university studies on urbanism put him in an ideal position to handle redevelopment projects after the Second World War. His ideas were explored in designs for Tokyo and Skopje. Tange's work influenced a generation of architects across the world. Early life Born on 4 September 1913 in Osaka, Japan, Tange spent his early life in the Chinese cities of Hankow and Shanghai; he and his


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the destruction of Hiroshima. The discussions at Hoddesdon sowed discontent within CIAM that eventually contributed to its breakup after their Dubrovnik meeting in 1956; Stewart (1987), p. 173-176 the younger members of CIAM formed a splinter group known as Team X, which Tange later joined. Tange presented various designs to Team X in their meetings. At a 1959 meeting in Otterlo, Holland, one of his presentations included an unrealised project by Kiyonori Kikutake

; this project became the basis of the Metabolist Movement. Stewart (1987), pp. 176–177 When Tange travelled back to Japan from the 1951 CIAM meeting, he visited Le Corbusier's nearly complete Unité d'Habitation in Marseilles, France. He also looked at the sketches for the new capital of Punjab (Punjab (India)) at Chandigarh, India. Stewart (1987), p. 175 Tokyo World Design Conference and urban


architectural design

project was a seventeen-hectare (42-acre) development set in Tokyo's Hibiya Park. Stewart (1987), p. 171 Early career After graduating from the university, Tange started to work as an architect at the office of Kunio Maekawa. During his employment, he travelled to Manchuria, participating in an architectural design competition for a bank, and toured Japanese-occupied Jehol (Jehol Province) on his return. When the Second World War started, he left Maekawa to rejoin the University of Tokyo as a postgraduate student. He developed an interest in urban design, and referencing only the resources available in the university library, he embarked on a study of Greek and Roman marketplaces. In 1942, Tange entered a competition for the design of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Memorial Hall. He was awarded first prize for a design that would have been situated at the base of Mount Fuji; the hall he conceived was a fusion of Shinto shrine architecture and the plaza on Capitoline Hill in Rome. The design was not realised. Reynolds (2001), p. 126 In 1946, Tange became an assistant professor at the university and opened Tange Laboratory. In 1963, he was promoted to professor of the Department of Urban Engineering. His students included Sachio Otani, Kisho Kurokawa, Arata Isozaki, Hajime Yatsuka and Fumihiko Maki. Category:1913 births Category:2005 deaths Category:Japanese architects Category:Pritzker Architecture Prize winners Category:Recipients of the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st class Category:Recipients of the Pour le Mérite (civil class) Category:Recipients of the Praemium Imperiale Category:Recipients of the Royal Gold Medal Category:Recipients of the Order of Culture Category:Légion d'honneur recipients Category:People from Sakai, Osaka Category:University of Tokyo alumni Category:Nihon University alumni Category:Expo '70 Category:Japanese Roman Catholics


art building'

designed a large civic centre with a plaza dominated by two skyscrapers. These house the administration offices whilst a smaller seven-storey building contains assembly facilities. In his design of a high tech version of Kofu Communications Centre, Tange equipped all three buildings with state-of-the-art building management systems that monitored air quality, light levels and security. The external skin of the building makes dual references to both tradition and the modern condition. Tange


great influence

) year 2004 work publisher Royal Academy of Arts (Royal Academy) location London, United Kingdom archiveurl archivedate accessdate 16 June 2010 For Reyner Banham, Tange was a prime exemplar of the use of Brutalist architecture. His use of Béton brut concrete finishes in a raw and undecorated way combined with his civic projects such as the redevelopment of Tokyo Bay made him a great influence on British architects during the 1960s. ref name "Guardian


development set

project was a seventeen-hectare (42-acre) development set in Tokyo's Hibiya Park. Stewart (1987), p. 171 Early career After graduating from the university, Tange started to work as an architect at the office of Kunio Maekawa. During his employment, he travelled to Manchuria, participating in an architectural design competition for a bank, and toured Japanese-occupied Jehol (Jehol Province) on his return. When

Kenzō Tange

was a Japanese architect, and winner of the 1987 Pritzker Prize for architecture. He was one of the most significant architects of the 20th century, combining traditional Japanese styles with modernism (Modern Architecture), and designed major buildings on five continents. Tange was also an influential patron of the Metabolist movement (Metabolism (architecture)). He said: "It was, I believe, around 1959 or at the beginning of the sixties that I began to think about what I was later to call structuralism (Structuralism (architecture))", (cited in ''Plan'' 2 1982, Amsterdam), a reference to the architectural movement known as Dutch Structuralism.

Influenced from an early age by the Swiss modernist, Le Corbusier, Tange gained international recognition in 1949 when he won the competition for the design of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. He was a member of CIAM (Congres Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne) in the 1950s. He did not join the group of younger CIAM architects known as Team X (Team 10), though his 1960 Tokyo Bay plan was influential for Team 10 in the 1960s, as well as the group that became Metabolism (Metabolist Movement).

His university studies on urbanism put him in an ideal position to handle redevelopment projects after the Second World War. His ideas were explored in designs for Tokyo and Skopje. Tange's work influenced a generation of architects across the world.

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