Kassala

What is Kassala known for?


campaign world

. In 1897, the Kingdom of Italy returned Kassala to the Kingdom of Egypt. In 1899, Kassala fell under the purview of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan until Sudanese independence in 1956. thumb left Swissair (File:Mittelholzer-fokker.jpg) Fokker F.VIIb-3 m (CH-192) piloted by Walter Mittelholzer in Kassala, February 1934. In July 1940, during the East African Campaign (East African Campaign (World War II)), Italian forces advancing from Italian East Africa forced a small

the process, started under Muhammad Ali Pasha (Muhammad Ali of Egypt), of uniting the Nile Valley under Egyptian leadership, and sought to frustrate all efforts aimed at further uniting the two countries. During World War II, Sudan was directly involved militarily in the East African Campaign (East African Campaign (World War II)). Formed in 1925, the Sudan Defence Force (SDF) played an active part in responding to the early incursions (occupation by Italian troops of Kassala

); many garrison towns also developed into administrative centers in their respective regions. At the local level, shaykhs and traditional tribal chieftains assumed administrative responsibilities. The road to independence As World War II approached, the Sudan Defence Force assumed the mission of guarding the Sudanese frontier with Italian East Africa (present-day Ethiopia and Eritrea). During the summer of 1940, in what became the first moves of the East African Campaign


current national

. With the military takeover of the current National Islamic Front government in 1989, the BC was once again banned. In 1993 the group joined the National Democratic Alliance (National Democratic Alliance (Sudan)) (NDA) based in Asmara, which had been founded by the DUP and the Umma Party (Umma Party (Sudan)) in 1989. In the 1995 the BC signed the Asmara Declaration. Aided by the Sudan Liberation Movement Army (SPLA) and the Eritrean military, armed fighters of the BC made a series


early+fighting

, including Jane Goodall, E.O. Wilson and Stuart Pimm, in a February 2005 letter to the president of Ecuador. In early March 1941, Messervy was promoted acting brigadier to command Indian 5th Infantry Division's 9th Infantry Brigade and played a significant role in the third Battle of Keren during the second half of March 1941. His promotion was in part related to his actions during the advance from Kassala through Agordat to the early fighting at Keren (Keren, Eritrea) during


rock+serving

in a roofless dome next to a semi-ruined mosque. Locals tell you that he is so holy that when it rains, not a drop falls through the hole in the roof. Next to the tomb is a Qur'anic school for boys. *Behind the tomb, you can climb the slopes of '''Jebel Totil'''. On the lower slopes, there are several cafes built into the rock, serving the best coffee in Kassala. There is also the famous '''well of Totil'''. If you drink from it, legend has it that you will return to Kassala one day. *The '''Gash


major historical

and Islamist political leader in Sudan, who may have been instrumental in institutionalizing sharia in the northern part of the country. He has been called a "longtime hard-line ideological leader.". The Appendix of the ''9 11 Commission Report'' * Kintampo — archaeological site of major historical interest in Ghana. Ceramic Late Stone Age cultural complex dating around fourth millenium BP. Sometimes thought to be the first agriculturalist settlement in West Africa. Also known for its waterfalls. * New Halfa — place in the Kassala state of Sudan where housing and work was provided by the Sudanian government for Nubians (Nubian people) from the inundated areas around Wadi Halfa. The forced resettlement raised much controversy. * Yasuní National Park, in Ecuador. "Yasuní may well be the single most biodiverse forest on earth," state some of the world's leading biologists, including Jane Goodall, E.O. Wilson and Stuart Pimm, in a February 2005 letter to the president of Ecuador. In early March 1941, Messervy was promoted acting brigadier to command Indian 5th Infantry Division's 9th Infantry Brigade and played a significant role in the third Battle of Keren during the second half of March 1941. His promotion was in part related to his actions during the advance from Kassala through Agordat to the early fighting at Keren (Keren, Eritrea) during February. February events * February 10–March 11 – British Army constructs a 60 cm narrow gauge railway from Kassala in Sudan 90 km east to Tessenei (Teseney) in Eritrea to support military advance. Commons:Category:Kassala fr:Kassala


significant fighting

of attacks along the Sudanese-Eritrean border, concentrating on strategic assets, such as the Khartoum-Port Sudan road, the oil pipeline, and the military installations defending them. Despite their successes, Young notes, these attacks "did not close the road for more than a few hours or stop the flow of oil for more than a few days." Young, ''The Eastern Front'', p. 23 Although never a significant fighting presence, having fewer than a few hundred fighters and operating


popular support

for Khartoum are discharged. One of Sudan's major motorways, links Port Sudan to Khartoum via Wad Medani, Gedaref, and Kassala. There is a major road that goes north to Halaib, but it is neglected. Also since 2009 a new highway linking Port Sudan via Atbara has been opened, reducing the travel time between Khartoum and Port Sudan drastically. The Khatmiyya sufi order which had enjoyed popular support in east and north Sudan rejected the Mahdi's claim outright. Mahdist


popular place

River''' runs through Kassala, but for most of the year it is a dry sandy riverbed, used for football practice in the evenings. In the rainy season, water cascades down from the Eritrean mountains and charges through the city, making the riverbanks a popular place to walk in the evenings. However, the Gash is a dangerous river, having flooded twice recently (07 and 03) causing huge amounts of damage to the whole city. *On the other side of the Gash, you reach an area called '''Sikka Hadiid

''', which is the old railway quarter. The original railway station still stands, all impressive and colonial but abandoned now. Around this are British built round brick huts, which used to house railway workers and is now a popular place for students to live. *To the south, the '''Sawagi Janubiyya''' (southern gardens) is a collection of villages surrounded by mango and guava orchards alongside the Gash. Do *'''Climb Totil Mountain''' for fantastic views of Kassala, and beyond to Wad Sherifei


quot water

Resources (Ethiopia) Ministry of Water Resources reports its catchment area as , with an annual runoff of 0.26 billion cubic meters. "Water Sector Development Program (Vol.2)" Ministry of Water Resources (accessed 21 January 2009) Its headwaters rise north of Amba Takara in central Eritrea, on the landward side of the eastern escarpment


attacks quot

of attacks along the Sudanese-Eritrean border, concentrating on strategic assets, such as the Khartoum-Port Sudan road, the oil pipeline, and the military installations defending them. Despite their successes, Young notes, these attacks "did not close the road for more than a few hours or stop the flow of oil for more than a few days." Young, ''The Eastern Front'', p. 23 Although never a significant fighting presence, having fewer than a few hundred fighters and operating under the close control of the Eritrean military, the BC did achieve a number of modest military victories. With the help of the SPLA, the NDA twice captured Hamishkoreb, before finally holding it from October 2002 until April 2006 when the SPLA withdrew from the NDA. By itself the BC held territory around Tokar (Tokar, Sudan), one of their historic strongholds, and the town of Khor Telkok near Kassala, which the NDA had declared to be their "capital". Young, ''The Eastern Front'', pp. 23f Politically the BC was far more effective, capitalizing on two different incidents in January 2005 where Sudanese security attacked and killed unarmed civilians. Shortly after these events the BC organized a national conference in which Musa Mohamed Ahmed, who until then had been an unknown soldier, was elected chairman of the group. Further, the BC has enjoyed some success in uniting its fractious and isolated people: internal clashes are reported to be down in numbers. The BC has been particularly successful at mobilizing its young people: the student administrations at two of the three main universities in the east are controlled by the BC and the party is making inroads into even secondary and primary schools. Young observes, "Beja resentment and support for the BC is clear to anyone spending just a short time in the coffee shops of Port Sudan." Young, ''The Eastern Front'', p. 28 As Egyptian rule became more secure, the government became less harsh. Egypt saddled Sudan with a burdensome bureaucracy, however, and expected the country to be self-supporting. Nevertheless, farmers and herders gradually returned to Al Jazirah. Muhammad Ali also won the allegiance of some tribal and religious leaders by granting them a tax exemption. Egyptian soldiers and Sudanese jahidiyah (conscripted soldiers), supplemented by mercenaries, manned garrisons in Khartoum, Kassala, and Al Ubayyid (Al-Ubayyid) and at several smaller outposts. The Shaiqiyah (Shaigiya), Arabic speakers who had resisted Egyptian occupation, were defeated and allowed to serve the Egyptian rulers as tax collectors and irregular cavalry under their own shaykhs. The Egyptians divided Sudan into provinces, which they then subdivided into smaller administrative units that usually corresponded to tribal territories. In 1835 Khartoum became the seat of the ''Hakimadar'' (governor general); many garrison towns also developed into administrative centers in their respective regions. At the local level, shaykhs and traditional tribal chieftains assumed administrative responsibilities. The road to independence As World War II approached, the Sudan Defence Force assumed the mission of guarding the Sudanese frontier with Italian East Africa (present-day Ethiopia and Eritrea). During the summer of 1940, in what became the first moves of the East African Campaign (East African Campaign (World War II)), Italian forces invaded the Sudan at several points and captured the railway junction at Kassala and other villages along the border. However, while Port Sudan was raided by irregular Eritrean forces in August 1940, the SDF prevented an Italian advance on the Red Sea port city. Commons:Category:Kassala fr:Kassala

Kassala

'''Kassala''' (Italian (Italian language): ''Cassala'' ) is the capital of the state of Kassala (Kassala (state)) in eastern Sudan. Its 2008 population was recorded to be 419,030. Built on the banks of the Gash River (Mareb River), it is a market town and is famous for its fruit gardens. Many of its inhabitants are from the Hadendoa group, with others being of Rashaida origin. It was formerly a railroad hub, however, as of 2006 there was no operational railway station in Kassala and much of the track leading to and from the town has been salvaged or fallen into disrepair. Kassala's location along the main Khartoum-Port Sudan highway makes it an important trade center.

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