Harim Levin in Tel Aviv, Beit Shemesh and Kiryat Gat. Ger maintains a well-developed educational network of Talmud Torahs, yeshivas, and kollels, as well as Beis Yaakov schools for girls. Its leaders dominate the Agudat Israel religious movement and political party in Israel. It is also commonly cultivated outside its native range, showing tolerance of a wide range of climates, growing successfully as far north as central Norway and south to Orlando, Florida. It can thrive in a Mediterranean climate, as at Jerusalem and Los Angeles, if summer water is provided. It is also grown in temperate parts of the Southern Hemisphere: Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela, the southern states of Brazil (Brazil), as well as in a few lower temperature locations within the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, (also in Brazil). Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem
Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem
developed a strong position in the Salfit village outside of Nablus, from where many prominent JCP leaders hailed. Other areas in which the party was active were Ramallah, Bethlehem and amongst refugees near Jericho. The main party organ was ''al-Muqawamah ash-Shabiya'' (المقاومة الشعبية, 'People's Resistance'), a monthly publication. Representing the Pope, Tauran attended the March 2005 dedication of the new Holocaust (The Holocaust) museum at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem
vpe_introduction.htm Virtual Palm Encyclopedia - Introduction His first measure addressed a need for increasing the land resources and revenues available to the state, by "secularizing" (confiscating) monastic assets (Secularization of monastery estates in Romania) (1863). Probably more than a quarter of Romania's farmland was controlled by untaxed Eastern Orthodox (Eastern Orthodox Church) "Dedicated (Dedication) Monasteries", which supported Greeks
"ohana146" The 1936–1939 Arab revolt (1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine) made life intolerable for the residents, who returned to Jerusalem in 1937. The Jewish National Fund organized a third attempt at settlement in 1943 with the refounding of Kfar Etzion by members of a religious group called ''Kvutzat Avraham''. Despite the rocky soil, shortage of potable water, harsh winters, and constant threat of attack, this group managed to succeed. As one prominent journal has noted, al-Ḥākim has attracted the interest of modern historians more than any other member of the Fatimid dynasty because of... Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem
: www.ninjutsu.co.uk uraomote 96 june.html "Back to Basics" The Most
could also use that. Another system goes back to the completion of the First Temple, said to be 1000BCE for a system called Anno Depositionis. See some of these discussed at Calendar era. In short, people, widen your narrow view and REALLY get a neutral POV. Am I stirring? Only a lot! Peter Ellis (User:Peter Ellis) 14:32, 16 May 2005 (UTC) :Peter, a major reason I proposed this was to initiate a discussion of, and raise consciousness about, NPOV and in this context I appreciate your
), incorporating large portions of that text. It seems very likely that Bacharach borrowed heavily from many sources (including Sarug, Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, and Shabbetai Horowitz) without acknowledging the debt (Scholem 1974). The book had a major impact on later kabbalah as it was regarded among many, including the Chabbad Hasidim and the followers of the Vilna Gaon, as an authoritative statement of Luria's kabbala. Its influence is also evident in Ramchal's system. The book indicates that, prior to the conquest of Jerusalem and the Babylonian captivity, the prophet Jeremiah hid the treasures of Solomon's Temple, with the assistance of five others. Charles Warren excavated the first two specimens in the original 1868-1869 excavations at Jerusalem (Warren, 1870); however, those were both only partial impressions showing the final two letters ''ST''. The first complete inscription was published by Frederick Jones Bliss after excavating it from Tell Ej-Judeideh (Bliss, 1900), later determined to be Biblical Moreseth-Gath. Beginning then, here is a list of all the ancient sites scholars have associated with it: These proposals fall into two main streams of thought. One philosophical school places MMST in a geographical region based on the identification of three other regions surrounding Hebron, Socoh, and Ziph (the other words on the LMLK seals). The chief problem is that the majority of the seal impressions were not found in any particular region associated with one of the four inscriptions. For example, the majority of HBRN stamps were found at Lachish significantly to the west. An alternative strategy identifies MMST in the vicinity of Jerusalem (which includes Ramat Rahel) based upon the datum that the majority of MMST stamps were excavated in and around there. The chief problem is that there were more HBRN stamps than MMST found at Jerusalem and more Z(Y)F stamps than MMST found at Ramat Rahel (Grena, 2004, pp. 354–60). These proposals fall into two main streams of thought. One philosophical school places MMST in a geographical region based on the identification of three other regions surrounding Hebron, Socoh, and Ziph (the other words on the LMLK seals). The chief problem is that the majority of the seal impressions were not found in any particular region associated with one of the four inscriptions. For example, the majority of HBRN stamps were found at Lachish significantly to the west. An alternative strategy identifies MMST in the vicinity of Jerusalem (which includes Ramat Rahel) based upon the datum that the majority of MMST stamps were excavated in and around there. The chief problem is that there were more HBRN stamps than MMST found at Jerusalem and more Z(Y)F stamps than MMST found at Ramat Rahel (Grena, 2004, pp. 354–60). :''After this Sennacherib king of Assyria sent his servants to Jerusalem (but he and all the'' '''''forces''''' ''with him laid siege against Lachish), to Hezekiah king of Judah (Kingdom of Judah), and to all Judah (Kingdom of Judah) who were in Jerusalem...'' '''The Destruction of Sennacherib''' For full text, see englishhistory.net. Retrieved on 6 December 2008. is a poem by Lord Byron (George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron) first published in 1815 in his Hebrew Melodies. It is based on an event described in the Bible (2 Kings 18-19) during the campaign by Assyrian king Sennacherib to capture Jerusalem. The rhythm of the poem has a feel of the beat of a galloping horse's hooves (an anapestic tetrameter (Anapaest)) as the Assyrian rides into battle. Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem
against the Romans was put down. The Romans responded by banning all Jews from Jerusalem. The center of Jewish culture and learning shifted to the region of the Kinneret, particularly the city of Tiberias. It was in this region that the so-called "Jerusalem Talmud" is thought to have been compiled. A famine lasting three years hit Israel during the earlier half of David's reign at Jerusalem. This calamity was believed to have happened because of "Saul
, are invited to light the torches. Many cities hold outdoor performances in cities' squares featuring leading Israeli singers and fireworks displays. Streets around the squares are closed to cars, allowing people to sing and dance in the streets. He was born in Washington, D.C. to a Jewish family and raised in the United States. His father was Bertram Myron Gross (1912–1998). Gross received his bachelor's degree and master's degree from the Hebrew University
'''Jerusalem''' ( located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is considered holy (Holy city) to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Israelis (Israeli people) and Palestinians (Palestinian people) both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.
During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times. In 1538, walls were built (Walls of Jerusalem) around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City (Old City (Jerusalem)), which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian (Armenian Quarter), Christian (Christian Quarter), Jewish (Jewish Quarter (Jerusalem)), and Muslim (Muslim Quarter) Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries.
According to the Biblical tradition (Tanakh), King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel (Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)), and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple (Temple in Jerusalem); there is no archaeological evidence that Solomon's Temple existed or any record of it, other than the Bible. BBC Science and Nature These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. Since the 10th century BCE: * "Israel was first forged into a unified nation from Jerusalem some 3,000 years ago, when King David (David) seized the crown and united the twelve tribes (Israelites) from this city... For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration." Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht. ''To Rule Jerusalem'', University of California Press, 2000, p. 8. ISBN 0-520-22092-7 * "The centrality of Jerusalem to Judaism is so strong that even secular Jews express their devotion and attachment to the city, and cannot conceive of a modern State of Israel without it.... For Jews Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists... Though Jerusalem's sacred character goes back three millennia...". Leslie J. Hoppe. ''The Holy City: Jerusalem in the theology of the Old Testament'', Liturgical Press, 2000, p. 6. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3 * "Ever since King David made Jerusalem the capital of Israel 3,000 years ago, the city has played a central role in Jewish existence." Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, ''The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict'', Alpha Books, 2002, p. 330. ISBN 0-02-864410-7 * "Jerusalem became the center of the Jewish people some 3,000 years ago" Moshe Maoz, Sari Nusseibeh, ''Jerusalem: Points of Friction – And Beyond'', Brill Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 1. ISBN 90-411-8843-6 * "The Jewish people are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000 BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people's identity as a nation." Basic Facts you should know: Jerusalem, Anti-Defamation League, 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007. The sobriquet of holy city (''עיר הקודש'', transliterated ''‘ir haqodesh'') was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic (Babylonian captivity) times. Reinoud Oosting, The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint Isaiah 52:1 πόλις ἡ ἁγία. which Christians adopted as their own authority, Joseph T. Lienhard,''The Bible, the Church, and Authority: The Canon of the Christian Bible in History and Theology,'' Liturgical Press, 1995 pp.65–66:'The Septuagint is a Jewish translation and was also used in the synagogue. But at the end of the first century C.E. many Jews ceased to use the Septuagint because the early Chritians had adopted it as their own translation, and it began to be considered a Christian translation.' was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion (Crucifixion of Jesus) there. In Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina. Third-holiest city in Islam: * * * ''Middle East peace plans'' by Willard A. Beling: "The Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam after Mecca and Medina". In Islamic tradition (Islam) in 610 CE it became the first Qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (salat), and Muhammad made his Night Journey (Isra and Mi'raj) there ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran. As a result, despite having an area of only the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount and its Western Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Dome of the Rock, the Garden Tomb and al-Aqsa Mosque.
Today, the status of Jerusalem (Positions on Jerusalem) remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it. Israel's 1980 Basic Law (Basic Laws of Israel) the Jerusalem Law refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. The international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory (Palestinian territories) occupied (military occupation) by Israel. Resolution 298 September 25, 1971: "Recalling its resolutions... concerning measures and actions by Israel designed to change the status of the Israeli-occupied section of Jerusalem,..." The international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies.
In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000 (62%), Muslims 281,000 (35%), Christians 14,000 (around 2%) and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.
All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel's parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Israel) and President (President of Israel), and the Supreme Court (Supreme Court of Israel). Jerusalem is home to the Hebrew University (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) and to the Israel Museum with its Shrine of the Book.