Jerusalem

What is Jerusalem known for?


quot portraits

depicting people and animals, and a Torah shrine in the western wall facing Jerusalem. The paintings cover the walls of the main "Assembly Room", using three levels of pictures over a dado (dado (architecture)) frieze of symbols in most places, reaching a height of about 7 metres. The scenes depicted are drawn from the Hebrew Bible and include many narrative scenes, and some single figure "portraits"—58 scenes in total, probably representing about 60


defensive+reasons

The Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent sealed off the Golden Gate in 1541. While this may have been purely for defensive reasons, in Jewish tradition, this is the gate through which the Messiah will enter Jerusalem and it is suggested that Suleiman the Magnificent sealed off the Golden Gate to prevent the Messiah's entrance. The Muslims also built a cemetery in front of the gate, in the belief that the precursor to the Messiah, Elijah


buildings location

http: www.emporis.com statistics tallest-buildings-jerusalem-israel title Jerusalem's tallest buildings – Top 20 | Statistics publisher Emporis accessdate 7 December 2012 A new master plan for the city will see many high-rise buildings, including

– with skyscrapers publisher Israelity date 7 March 2011 accessdate 7 December 2012 Notable residents thumb upright King David's Tomb (File:Jerusalem Tomb of David BW 1.JPG) ;Ancient * Abdi-Heba


winning battle

Damascus, an ally until the attack. Failing in this attempt, they retired to Jerusalem, and then home. Before sailing for home, Eleanor got the terrible news that Raymond, with whom she had the winning battle plan for the Crusade, had been beheaded by the overpowering forces of the Muslim armies from Edessa. Josephus' reference to a "gate of the Essenes" in his description of the course of "the most ancient" of the three walls of Jerusalem, in the Mount Zion area, cf. map of ancient Jerusalem. perhaps suggests an Essene community living in this quarter of the city or regularly gathering at this part of the Temple precincts. thumb 190px Agostino Veneziano (Image:Suleiman Agostino.JPG)'s engraving of Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) emperor Suleiman the Magnificent. Agostino never saw the Sultan, but probably did see and sketch the helmet in Venice. Note the four tiers on the helmet, which he had commissioned from Venice, symbolizing his imperial power, and excelling the three-tiered papal tiara. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1968. "Turquerie" ''The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin'', New Series 26 (5): 229. This tiara was made for 115,000 ducats and offered to Suleiman by the French ambassador Antonio Rincon in 1532. Garnier, p.52 This was a most atypical piece of headgear for an Turkish sultan, which he probably never normally wore, but which he placed beside him when receiving visitors, especially ambassadors. It was crowned with an enormous feather. Levey, 65. Ottoman rulers (List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire) held several titles denoting their Imperial status. These included: Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem


accurate views

Peninsula Arabia could have derived the tale of the unicorn from these animals. However, classical authors seem to distinguish clearly between oryxes and unicorns. The ''Peregrinatio in terram sanctam'', published in 1486, was the first printed illustrated travel-book, describing a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and thence to Egypt by way of Mount Sinai. It featured many large woodcuts by Erhard Reuwich, who went on the trip, mostly detailed and accurate views of cities


collection show

4:20 '''Alice of Jerusalem''' (also '''Haalis''', '''Halis''', or '''Adelicia''') was a Princess of Jerusalem. She later became Princess of Antioch. Politically, the Psalms of Solomon are anti-Maccabee (Maccabees), and some psalms in the collection show a clear awareness of the Roman (Ancient Rome) conquest of Jerusalem under Pompey in 63 BCE, metaphorically treating him as a dragon who had been sent by God to punish the Maccabees. Some of the psalms are messianic


including attacks

headed the Izzedine al- Qasam brigades in the West Bank since 2003) of masterminding a string of suicide bombings including attacks on cafes and universities in Jerusalem (w:Jerusalem). Hamas, which has launched some of the biggest attacks against Israel, declared an informal truce 15 months ago. Since then, Hamas also won the palestinian parliamentary elections (w:Palestinian legislative election, 2006) in January of this year. At the beginning of the video ''Farfur'' (''Butterfly


original temple

up special yeshivas for married students known as ''Kodshim Kollels'' that would specialize in the study of the ''korbanot'' and study with greater intensity the ''kodshim'' sections of the Talmud in order to prepare for the arrival of the Jewish Messiah who would oversee the rebuilding of the original Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem that would be known as the Third Temple. His advice was taken seriously and today there are a number of well-established '' Haredi


quot distinct

a language isolate), Hittites (Indo-European speakers), as well as the Semitic Aramaeans, Moabites, and Ammonites, are also considered "distinct" from generic Canaanites Amorites, in scholarship or in tradition (although in the Biblical Book of Nations, ''"Heth"'', Hittites are a son of Canaan, despite the fact that it has been proven beyond doubt that the Hittites spoke an Indo-European language). As markets redeveloped, new trade


academic interest

to Jerusalem to research a paper. She became fascinated with the Israeli-Palestinian dispute, and spent the rest of the summer traveling for the first time to Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon. As a correspondent for ''The Progressive'' and ''National Public Radio'', Miller turned her academic interest into a professional one, traveling to the region and cultivating a network of sources. Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem

Jerusalem

'''Jerusalem''' ( located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is considered holy (Holy city) to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Israelis (Israeli people) and Palestinians (Palestinian people) both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.

During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times. In 1538, walls were built (Walls of Jerusalem) around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City (Old City (Jerusalem)), which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian (Armenian Quarter), Christian (Christian Quarter), Jewish (Jewish Quarter (Jerusalem)), and Muslim (Muslim Quarter) Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries.

According to the Biblical tradition (Tanakh), King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel (Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)), and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple (Temple in Jerusalem); there is no archaeological evidence that Solomon's Temple existed or any record of it, other than the Bible. BBC Science and Nature These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. Since the 10th century BCE: * "Israel was first forged into a unified nation from Jerusalem some 3,000 years ago, when King David (David) seized the crown and united the twelve tribes (Israelites) from this city... For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration." Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht. ''To Rule Jerusalem'', University of California Press, 2000, p. 8. ISBN 0-520-22092-7 * "The centrality of Jerusalem to Judaism is so strong that even secular Jews express their devotion and attachment to the city, and cannot conceive of a modern State of Israel without it.... For Jews Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists... Though Jerusalem's sacred character goes back three millennia...". Leslie J. Hoppe. ''The Holy City: Jerusalem in the theology of the Old Testament'', Liturgical Press, 2000, p. 6. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3 * "Ever since King David made Jerusalem the capital of Israel 3,000 years ago, the city has played a central role in Jewish existence." Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, ''The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict'', Alpha Books, 2002, p. 330. ISBN 0-02-864410-7 * "Jerusalem became the center of the Jewish people some 3,000 years ago" Moshe Maoz, Sari Nusseibeh, ''Jerusalem: Points of Friction – And Beyond'', Brill Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 1. ISBN 90-411-8843-6 * "The Jewish people are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000 BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people's identity as a nation." Basic Facts you should know: Jerusalem, Anti-Defamation League, 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007. The sobriquet of holy city (''עיר הקודש'', transliterated ''‘ir haqodesh'') was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic (Babylonian captivity) times. Reinoud Oosting, The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint Isaiah 52:1 πόλις ἡ ἁγία. which Christians adopted as their own authority, Joseph T. Lienhard,''The Bible, the Church, and Authority: The Canon of the Christian Bible in History and Theology,'' Liturgical Press, 1995 pp.65–66:'The Septuagint is a Jewish translation and was also used in the synagogue. But at the end of the first century C.E. many Jews ceased to use the Septuagint because the early Chritians had adopted it as their own translation, and it began to be considered a Christian translation.' was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion (Crucifixion of Jesus) there. In Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina. Third-holiest city in Islam: * * * ''Middle East peace plans'' by Willard A. Beling: "The Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam after Mecca and Medina". In Islamic tradition (Islam) in 610 CE it became the first Qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (salat), and Muhammad made his Night Journey (Isra and Mi'raj) there ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran. As a result, despite having an area of only the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount and its Western Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Dome of the Rock, the Garden Tomb and al-Aqsa Mosque.

Today, the status of Jerusalem (Positions on Jerusalem) remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it. Israel's 1980 Basic Law (Basic Laws of Israel) the Jerusalem Law refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. The international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory (Palestinian territories) occupied (military occupation) by Israel. Resolution 298 September 25, 1971: "Recalling its resolutions... concerning measures and actions by Israel designed to change the status of the Israeli-occupied section of Jerusalem,..." The international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies.

In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000 (62%), Muslims 281,000 (35%), Christians 14,000 (around 2%) and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.

All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel's parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Israel) and President (President of Israel), and the Supreme Court (Supreme Court of Israel). Jerusalem is home to the Hebrew University (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) and to the Israel Museum with its Shrine of the Book.

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