returned to Sweden. She was canonized in the year 1391 by Pope Boniface IX, which was confirmed by the Council of Constance in 1415. Because of new discussions about her works, the Council of Basel confirmed the orthodoxy of the revelations in 1436. thumb upright Plaster portrait study of a pharaoh, Ahkenaten or a coregent or successor. Discovered within the workshop of the royal sculptor Thutmose at Amarna, now part of the Egyptian Museum of Berlin Ägyptisches Museum collection in Berlin (File:PortraitStudyOfAkhenaten-ThutmoseWorkshop EgyptianMuseumBerlin.png). While Akhenaten was certainly not a close friend of Tushratta, he was evidently concerned at the expanding power of the Hittite (Hittites) Empire under its powerful ruler Suppiluliuma I. A successful Hittite attack on Mitanni and its ruler Tushratta would have disrupted the entire international balance of power in the Ancient Middle East at a time when Egypt had made peace with Mitanni; this would cause some of Egypt's vassals to switch their allegiances to the Hittites, as time would prove. A group of Egypt's allies who attempted to rebel against the Hittites were captured, and wrote letters begging Akhenaten for troops, but he did not respond to most of their pleas. Evidence suggests that the troubles on the northern frontier led to difficulties in Canaan, particularly in a struggle for power between Labaya of Shechem and Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem, which required the Pharaoh to intervene in the area by dispatching Medjay troops northwards. Akhenaten pointedly refused to save his vassal Rib-Hadda of Byblos whose kingdom was being besieged by the expanding state of Amurru (Amurru kingdom) under Abdi-Ashirta and later Aziru, son of Abdi-Ashirta, despite Rib-Hadda's numerous pleas for help from the pharaoh. Rib-Hadda wrote a total of 60 letters to Akhenaten pleading for aid from the pharaoh. Akhenaten wearied of Rib-Hadda's constant correspondences and once told Rib-Hadda: "''You are the one that writes to me more than all the (other) mayors''" or Egyptian vassals in EA 124. Moran (1992), p.203 What Rib-Hadda did not comprehend was that the Egyptian king would not organize and dispatch an entire army north just to preserve the political status quo of several minor city states on the fringes of Egypt's Asiatic Empire. Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem
with permitting and enabling the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their Temple; its reconstruction was affected "according to the decree of Cyrus (Cyrus the Great), and Darius (Darius the Great), and Artaxerxes king of Persia" (Ezra 6:14). This great event in Jewish history took place in the late sixth century BCE, by which time there was a well-established and influential Jewish community in Persia. In 1994, Suleiman moved to Jerusalem and began teaching at Birzeit
and rebuild their Temple; its reconstruction was carried out "according to the decree of Cyrus (Cyrus the Great), and Darius (Darius the Great), and Artaxerxes king of Persia" (Ezra 6:14). This great event in Jewish history took place in the late sixth century BC, by which time there was a well-established and influential Jewish community in Persia. Persian Jews have lived in the territories of today's Iran for over 2,700 years, since the first Jewish diaspora
; (Hardwicke (Catherine Hardwicke), 2006). The goal of the campaign depends on which type of campaign is played. The short campaign requires the player to defeat one or two enemy factions (for example, Holy Roman Empire must defeat its historical enemies Milan and Denmark) and control at least 15 settlements. The long campaign requires the player to control at least 45 territories and one or two significant cities, which are faction specific, such as Jerusalem, Granada, Rome or Constantinople. He was originally from Meer (Meer (Egypt)) and his lay name was ''Shenouda''. He became monk in the Monastery of Saint Pishoy in Scetes. He was ordained on Sunday, 16 Paoni, 1303 A.M. (June 20, 1587 AD). The enthronement celebration was headed by Avva Zacharias, Bishop of Jerusalem, and Avva Kyrellos El-Khiami, in the Church of Saint Mercurius (Saint Mercurius Church in Coptic Cairo) in Old Cairo. At the time of his ordination, the Copts were divided, and they chose for themselves four different patriarchs. His papacy was later confirmed by everyone. He was contemporary of the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Sultan Ahmed I. The major religions followed in Kerala are Hinduism (56.2% ), Islam (24.7% — Muslims of Kerala) and Christianity (19.00%). Indian Census Kerala also had a tiny Jewish population (Cochin Jews) until recently, said to date from 587 BC when they fled the occupation of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar (Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon). Edna Fernandes, The Last Jews of Kerala, Skyhorse Publishing, 2008 The 2001 Indian census recorded only 51 Jews in Kerala. The synagogue (Paradesi Synagogue) in Kochi (Kochi, India) is the oldest in the Commonwealth of Nations. The state has many famous Temples, Mosques, and Churches (church (building)). The oldest church in India is found in Palayoor, purportedly constructed in A.D. 52 by St. Thomas (Thomas the Apostle). Importantly, Kerala has one of the most secular majority populations in India. The ''' Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem
the Museum The Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem
of California. John M. G. Barclay of the University of Durham (Durham University) Philo of Alexandria, ''Flaccus'' The violence in Alexandria may have been caused by the Jews being portrayed as misanthropes (misanthropy). Van Der Horst, Pieter Willem, 2003. ''Philo's Flaccus: the First Pogrom'', Philo of Alexandria Commentary Series, Brill. Pieter Willem van der Horst<
station, a Tegart fort, to avoid detection by the British (United Kingdom), Arieh O'Sullivan, A Magnificent Disaster, ''Jerusalem Post'', Jan 16, 1998 but this took them close to a large training base erected by Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni. Newspaper interview with Yohanan Ben-Yaakov: "The 35's Second Battle" (הקרב השני של הל"ה), Makor Rishon, 14 January 2005. !-- dl url www.makorrishon.co.il
a strategically weak point in the Old City's defenses, the citadel that stands today was constructed during the 2nd century BCE and subsequently destroyed and rebuilt by, in succession, the Christian, Muslim, Mamluk, and Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) conquerors of Jerusalem. It contains important archaeological finds dating back 2,700 years, and is a popular venue for benefit events, craft shows, concerts, and sound-and-light performances. Seven such clock towers were erected in Palestine - in Safed, Acre, Haifa, Nazareth, Nablus, Jerusalem, and the famous tower in Jaffa. The fact that the Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem was selected for the clock tower indicates the gate's importance at the time, even more than the Damascus Gate. thumb (Image:AvrahamShapira.jpg) '''Avraham Elkanah Kahana Shapira''' ( Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem
studies in France but left for London after the Nazi invasion; in 1943 he was awarded a PhD from the London School of Economics. His main works are ''The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy'' and ''Political Messianism: The Romantic Phase''. Talmon argued that Rousseau's position may best be understood as "totalitarian democracy"; that is, as a philosophy in which liberty is realized "only in the pursuit and attainment of an absolute collective purpose." Seven scribes and illuminators, working in the scriptorium built by the crusaders in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, were involved in the creation of the psalter. It measures 21.6 centimetres by 14 centimetres. In the same year, Ashkenazi himself traveled to Palestine and settled in Jerusalem, where he was recognized as their chief by both the Sephardim and the Ashkenazim. The conditions in Jerusalem were at this time very critical; and it was mainly due to Ashkenazi's influence that the congregations of the city were not dissolved. The German Jews, who ordinarily did not recognize the jurisdiction of the Sephardim, and who, being largely scholars, refused to pay the Jews' tax, nevertheless bowed to Ashkenazi's authority. The Ashkenazim had to contribute to the Jews' tax one-sixth of the sum that was sent from Europe for their support (''see Halukka''); otherwise the Sephardim, who were on the verge of penury, could not have remained in Jerusalem under the merciless exploitation of the Turkish (Ottoman Empire) pashas. This peaceable arrangement between the Ashkenazim and the Sephardim was due solely to the personal influence of Ashkenazi; for immediately upon his death the Ashkenazim refused to keep their pledge. Hebrew Bible Offerings were practiced from earliest times, particularly for over one thousand years in the tabernacle and during the eras of the Temple of Solomon and the Second Temple in Jerusalem when the Israelites lived in the Land of Israel until the destruction of Judea, Jerusalem, and the Temple by the Roman Empire in 70 CE. Baruch A. Levine ''In the presence of the Lord: a study of cult and some cultic terms'' 1974 Page 99 "The Bible gives evidence of two modes of sacrifice in ancient Israel: 1) Altar sacrifices, of which at least some part was consumed by the altar fire, or was burnt as incense, and 2) Offerings placed before the deity and ..." Offerings are mentioned in Genesis (Book of Genesis), but codified in the later four books of the Torah outlining their origins and history. Michael Carasik ''The commentators' Bible: the JPS Miqra'ot gedolot Exodus '' 2005 Page 3 "The majority of Leviticus deals with the offerings: how they are to be made, by whom, and where, as well as the ancillary rules that go along ...." Every regular weekday, Sabbath, and many Jewish holidays had their own unique offerings. James E Smith ''The Pentateuch'' Page 392 2006 "Leviticus 23 presents in chronological order a list of "the Lord's appointed feasts. ... Special offerings were presented each day of the feast." The priests performed the offerings first in the ancient Tabernacle and then in the Temple of Solomon (the first Temple in Jerusalem) and later in the Second Temple in Jerusalem. Henry W. Soltau ''The Tabernacle, the Priesthood, and the Offerings''- 1972 The Hebrew Bible describes the priests as descendants of Aaron who meet certain marriage and ritual purity requirements. Martha Himmelfarb ''A kingdom of priests: ancestry and merit in ancient Judaism'' Page 5 2006 "On the other hand, P and H, the priestly sources, grant the priesthood only to descendants of Aaron, Levi's great-grandson." The high priest in particular played a crucial role in this regard on the Day of Atonement, a day when multiple offerings were offered. Alfred Edersheim ''The Temple -- Its Ministry and Services'' "The Duties of the High-priest - Seven days before the Day of Atonement the high-priest left his own house in Jerusalem, and took up his abode in his chambers in the Temple." During the early 20th century, Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan known as the ''Chofetz Chaim'' and himself a ''kohen'', advised some followers to set up special yeshivas for married students known as ''Kodshim Kollels'' that would specialize in the study of the ''korbanot'' and study with greater intensity the ''kodshim'' sections of the Talmud in order to prepare for the arrival of the Jewish Messiah who would oversee the rebuilding of the original Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem that would be known as the Third Temple. His advice was taken seriously and today there are a number of well-established ''Haredi (Haredi Judaism)'' institutions in Israel that focus solely on the subject of the ''korbanot'', ''kodshim'', and the needs of the future Jewish Temple, such as the Brisk yeshivas. Israel In Israel, shawarma ( Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem
references for names, such as Herods Gate, Lake Salome, Solomons Jewels, Damascus Gate, the Pool of Bathesda. thumb Dome of the Rock (Image:Jerusalem Dome of the rock BW 3.JPG), constructed by Abd al-Malik.
, chief clerks, and imams. One mufti, Sayed Ibraheem Efendi al-Atassi, also served as Mufti of Tripoli in the late 18th century. Taher al-Atassi served as the supreme judge of Basra in Iraq, and Nablus and Jerusalem in Palestine in the late Ottoman period. Performing Goldstein has traveled extensively, performing in such places as Jerusalem, Anchorage, Oahu, Copenhagen, London, and throughout Canada and the continental United States
'''Jerusalem''' ( located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is considered holy (Holy city) to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Israelis (Israeli people) and Palestinians (Palestinian people) both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.
During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times. In 1538, walls were built (Walls of Jerusalem) around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City (Old City (Jerusalem)), which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian (Armenian Quarter), Christian (Christian Quarter), Jewish (Jewish Quarter (Jerusalem)), and Muslim (Muslim Quarter) Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries.
According to the Biblical tradition (Tanakh), King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel (Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)), and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple (Temple in Jerusalem); there is no archaeological evidence that Solomon's Temple existed or any record of it, other than the Bible. BBC Science and Nature These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. Since the 10th century BCE: * "Israel was first forged into a unified nation from Jerusalem some 3,000 years ago, when King David (David) seized the crown and united the twelve tribes (Israelites) from this city... For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration." Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht. ''To Rule Jerusalem'', University of California Press, 2000, p. 8. ISBN 0-520-22092-7 * "The centrality of Jerusalem to Judaism is so strong that even secular Jews express their devotion and attachment to the city, and cannot conceive of a modern State of Israel without it.... For Jews Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists... Though Jerusalem's sacred character goes back three millennia...". Leslie J. Hoppe. ''The Holy City: Jerusalem in the theology of the Old Testament'', Liturgical Press, 2000, p. 6. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3 * "Ever since King David made Jerusalem the capital of Israel 3,000 years ago, the city has played a central role in Jewish existence." Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, ''The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict'', Alpha Books, 2002, p. 330. ISBN 0-02-864410-7 * "Jerusalem became the center of the Jewish people some 3,000 years ago" Moshe Maoz, Sari Nusseibeh, ''Jerusalem: Points of Friction – And Beyond'', Brill Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 1. ISBN 90-411-8843-6 * "The Jewish people are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000 BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people's identity as a nation." Basic Facts you should know: Jerusalem, Anti-Defamation League, 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007. The sobriquet of holy city (''עיר הקודש'', transliterated ''‘ir haqodesh'') was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic (Babylonian captivity) times. Reinoud Oosting, The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint Isaiah 52:1 πόλις ἡ ἁγία. which Christians adopted as their own authority, Joseph T. Lienhard,''The Bible, the Church, and Authority: The Canon of the Christian Bible in History and Theology,'' Liturgical Press, 1995 pp.65–66:'The Septuagint is a Jewish translation and was also used in the synagogue. But at the end of the first century C.E. many Jews ceased to use the Septuagint because the early Chritians had adopted it as their own translation, and it began to be considered a Christian translation.' was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion (Crucifixion of Jesus) there. In Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina. Third-holiest city in Islam: * * * ''Middle East peace plans'' by Willard A. Beling: "The Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam after Mecca and Medina". In Islamic tradition (Islam) in 610 CE it became the first Qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (salat), and Muhammad made his Night Journey (Isra and Mi'raj) there ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran. As a result, despite having an area of only the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount and its Western Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Dome of the Rock, the Garden Tomb and al-Aqsa Mosque.
Today, the status of Jerusalem (Positions on Jerusalem) remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it. Israel's 1980 Basic Law (Basic Laws of Israel) the Jerusalem Law refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. The international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory (Palestinian territories) occupied (military occupation) by Israel. Resolution 298 September 25, 1971: "Recalling its resolutions... concerning measures and actions by Israel designed to change the status of the Israeli-occupied section of Jerusalem,..." The international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies.
In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000 (62%), Muslims 281,000 (35%), Christians 14,000 (around 2%) and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.
All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel's parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Israel) and President (President of Israel), and the Supreme Court (Supreme Court of Israel). Jerusalem is home to the Hebrew University (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) and to the Israel Museum with its Shrine of the Book.