of a conversation. Count Ossie was the first to record niyabinghi, and he helped to establish and maintain Rastafari culture. Relay For Life International The following countries hold Relay For Life events http: www.relayforlife.org relay international : Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Denmark, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras, Ireland, Jamaica, Japan, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand
;'''Royal anthem:''' ''God Save the Queen'' official_languages demonym Jamaican (Jamaican people) capital Kingston (Kingston, Jamaica) latd 17 latm 59 latNS N longd 76 longm 48 longEW W largest_city capital government_type
the Woodstock Festival. In Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica Shankar, Guha (2003) Imagining India(ns): Cultural Performances and Diaspora Politics in Jamaica. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin http
Press, Philadelphia year 2003 isbn 0-8122-3683-1 and Jamaica Shankar, Guha (2003) Imagining India(ns): Cultural Performances and Diaspora Politics in Jamaica. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin pdf (where is it spelled ''Hussay''). The name Hosay comes from "Husayn (Husayn ibn Ali)" (also spelled "Hussein", the grandson of Muhammad) who was assassinated
coined for Mauritius, Sierra Leone, and the British West Indies. The first move to introduce British sterling (Pound sterling) silver coinage to the colonies came with an imperial order-in-council dated 1825. This move move was inspired by a number of factors. The United Kingdom was now operating a very successful gold standard in relation to the gold sovereign that was introduced in 1816, and there was a desire to extend this system to the colonies. In addition to this, there was the fact that the supply of Spanish dollars (pieces of eight) had been cut off as a result of the revolutions in Latin America where most of the Spanish dollars were minted. The last Spanish Dollar was in fact minted at Potosi (Potosí) in 1825. There was now a growing desire to have a stable and steady supply of British shillings everywhere the British drum was beating. The 1825 order-in-council was largely a failure because it made sterling silver coinage legal tender at the unrealistic rating in relation to the Spanish dollar of $1 4 shillings and 4 pence. Interestingly it did succeed in Jamaica, Bermuda, and British Honduras because the authorities in those territories set aside the official ratings and used the more realistic rating of $1 4 shillings. The reality of the rating between the dollar and the pound was based on the silver content of the Spanish pieces of eight as compared to the gold content of the British gold sovereign. During this period, and into the nineteenth century, accounts could be kept in either dollars or sterling. Jamaica, Bermuda, and the Bahamas preferred to use sterling accounts whereas British Guiana used dollar accounts. British Guiana used dollar accounts for the purpose of assisting in the transition from the Dutch guilder system of currency to the British pound sterling system. In the Eastern Caribbean territories the private sector preferred to use dollar accounts whereas the government preferred to use sterling accounts. In some of the Eastern Caribbean territories, notes were issued by various private banks, denominated in dollars equivalent to 4 shillings 2 pence (penny). See Antigua dollar, Barbadian dollar, Dominican dollar, Grenadan dollar, Guyanese dollar, Saint Kitts dollar, Saint Lucia dollar, Saint Vincent dollar and Trinidad and Tobago dollar. In 1958, the West Indies Federation was established and the BWI$ was its currency. However, although Jamaica (including the Cayman Islands and the Turks and Caicos Islands) was part of the West Indies Federation, it did not adopt the BWI$. Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, and the Turks and Caicos Islands were already long established users of the sterling accounts system of pounds, shillings, and pence. In 1958, the West Indies Federation was established and the BWI$ was its currency. However, although Jamaica (including the Cayman Islands and the Turks and Caicos Islands) was part of the West Indies Federation, it did not adopt the BWI$. Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, and the Turks and Caicos Islands were already long established users of the sterling accounts system of pounds, shillings, and pence. Projects Enron International constructed power plants and pipelines across the globe. Some today are still up and running, including the massive Teeside plant in England. Others, like a barge mounted plant off Puerto Plata in the Dominican Republic, cost Enron money through law suits and investment losses. commons:Jamaica
have emigrated, mostly to the United States. Over 80% of Jamaicans with higher education live abroad. http
. Over 80% of Jamaicans with higher education live abroad.
Davis , Jelly Roll Morton, Bo Carter and Arthur Blake (Blind Blake). In addition to these shows, Jack & Jorma would play as a duo with Jorma on acoustic guitar. In September, 1969, the week of concerts performed at New Orleans House in Berkeley was recorded and released as a live album in 1970, ''Hot Tuna (Hot Tuna (album))''. This album is affectionately known by Tunaphiles as the "breaking glass album", because of the sound of breaking beer glasses during the recording of "Uncle Sam Blues". commons:Jamaica
and lovingly". He resented the suggestion (from a man in North Carolina) that "the Light and Spirit of God ... was not in the Indians", a proposition which Fox refuted. Fox in Jones, chapter 18; Nickalls, p.642, has more complicated wording but the same meaning. Fox left no record of encountering slaves on the mainland. International influence in the 20th century In the late nineteenth century United States-based infrastructure and fruit growing companies were granted substantial land and exemptions to develop the northern regions. As a result, thousands of workers came to the north coast to work in the banana plantations (Banana production in Honduras) and the other industries that grew up around the export industry. The banana exporting companies, dominated by Cuyamel Fruit Company (until 1930), United Fruit Company, and Standard Fruit Company, built an enclave economy in northern Honduras, controlling infrastructure and creating self-sufficient, tax exempt sectors that contributed relatively little to economic growth. In addition to drawing many Central American workers to the north, the fruit companies also encouraged immigration of workers from the English-speaking Caribbean, notably Jamaica and Belize, who introduced an African descended, English speaking and largely Protestant population into the country, though many left after changes in the immigration law in 1939. Glen Chambers, ''Race Nation and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890–1940'' (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010) A census of 1899 revealed that northern Honduras had been exporting bananas for several years and that over 1,000 people in the region between Puerto Cortes and La Ceiba (and inland as far as San Pedro Sula) were tending bananas, most of them small holders. Soluri, ''Banana Culture: Agriculture, Consumption, and Environmental Change in Honduras and the United States'' (Austin: University of Texas Press: 2005) The fruit companies received very large concessions of land on which to grow bananas, often forcing small holders who had been growing and exporting bananas off their land or out of business. In addition, the brought in many workers from the British West Indies, especially Jamaica and Belize, both to work on the plantations, but also as lower managers and skilled workers. The companies often favored the West Indian workers because they spoke English and were sometimes better educated than their Honduran counterparts. This perception of foreign occupation, coupled with a growing race-prejudice against the African-descended West Indians led to considerable tension, as the arrival of the West Indians drove demographic change in the region. Glen Chambers, Race Nation and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010). The black population is mostly of West Indian (Antillean) origin, the descendants of indentured laborers brought mostly from Jamaica and Belize. The Garifuna (Garifuna people) (people of mixed Amerindian and African ancestry) live along the north coast and islands, where there are also many Afro-Hondurans. This ethnic group, estimated at 150,000 people, has it origin in the expulsion of this mixed race group from St Vincent for pro-French sympathies in 1797. Garífunas are part of Honduran identity through theatrical presentations such as Louvavagu. thumb A natural harbor in Vizhinjam (Image:930218630 a6a5d892d0 o.jpg), India A natural harbor is a landform where a part of a body of water is protected and deep enough to furnish anchorage. Many such harbors are rias. Natural harbors have long been of great strategic naval (military strategy) and economic importance, and many great cities of the world are located on them. Having a protected harbor reduces or eliminates the need for breakwaters as it will result in calmer waves inside the harbor. Some examples are Kingston Harbour in Jamaica, Subic, Zambales in the Philippines; Sydney Harbour in Australia; Pearl Harbor in Hawaii; San Francisco Bay in California; Visakhapatnam Harbour in Andhra Pradesh, India; and Halifax Harbour in Nova Scotia, Canada. The island of Cuba lies commons:Jamaica
by local music mixers who deconstructed and rebuilt track (Track (music))s to suit the tastes of their audience. Producers and engineers like Ruddy Redwood, King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry popularized stripped-down instrumental mixes (which they called "versions") of reggae tunes. At first they simply dropped the vocal track (Track (music))s, but soon more sophisticated effects were created, dropping separate instrumental track (Track (music))s in and out
; if Jamaican reggae artist Sean Paul contributed a vocal track. Knowles contacted Paul about a possible collaboration for "Baby Boy".
: History of the Hass Avocado last Stradley first Linda work What'sCookingAmerica.net publisher self-published location Newberg, OR year 2004 accessdate 2008-05-13 While this is a self-published work, it cites its sources, and Stradley is a well-known culinary author. The first written record in English (English language) of the use of the word 'avocado' was by Hans Sloane in a 1696 index of Jamaican plants. The plant was introduced to Indonesia in 1750, Brazil in 1809, the Levant in 1908, and South Africa and Australia in the late 19th century. * 112 (112 (emergency telephone number)) - emergency number across the European Union and on GSM mobile networks across the world * 119 (119 (emergency telephone number)) - emergency number in Jamaica and parts of Asia * 911 (9-1-1) - emergency number in the United States and Canada History The increasing influence of the Rastafari movement after the visit of Haile Selassie to Jamaica in 1966 played a major part in the development of roots reggae, with spiritual themes becoming more common in reggae lyrics in the late 1960s. Important early roots reggae releases included Winston Holness's "Blood & Fire" (1970) and Yabby You's "Conquering Lion" (1972). Political unrest also played its part, with the 1972 election campaign of Michael Manley targeting the support of Jamaica's ghetto communities. Increasing violence associated with the opposing political parties was also a common lyrical theme, with tracks such as Junior Murvin's "Police & Thieves" and Culture (Culture (band))'s "Two Sevens Clash". United Fruit (1899 - 1970) In 1899, Keith lost $1.5 million when the New York City broker In and Out went bankrupt. He then traveled to Boston, Massachusetts, to participate in the merger of his banana trading company, Tropical Trading and Transport Company, with the rival Boston Fruit Company. Boston Fruit had been established by Lorenzo Dow Baker, a sailor who, in 1870, had bought his first bananas in Jamaica, and by Andrew W. Preston. Preston's lawyer, Bradley Palmer, had devised a scheme for the solution of the participants' cash flow problems and was in the process of implementing it. The merger formed the United Fruit Company, based in Boston, with Preston as president and Keith as vice-president. Palmer became a permanent member of the executive committee and for long periods of time the director. From a business point of view, Bradley Palmer was United Fruit. Preston brought to the partnership his plantations in the West Indies, a fleet of steamships, and his market in the U.S. Northeast. Keith brought his plantations and railroads in Central America and his market in the U.S. South and Southeast. At its founding, United Fruit was capitalized at $11,230,000. The company at Palmer's direction proceeded to buy or buy a share in 14 competitors, assuring them of 80% of the banana import business in the United States, then their main source of income. The company catapulted into financial success. Bradley Palmer overnight became a much-sought-after expert in business law, as well as a wealthy man. He later became a consultant to presidents and an adviser to congress. * ''Quiriqua'' (1932) 6982-ton turbo-electric cruise liner became commons:Jamaica
in the care of his son, William, in 1761. When HMS ''Deptford'' (HMS Deptford (1732)) reached Jamaica, the watch was 5 seconds slow, corresponding to an error in longitude of 1.25 minutes, or approximately one nautical mile. When the ship returned
Once a Spanish (Habsburg Spain) possession known as ''
Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth II) as its monarch (Monarchy of Jamaica) and head of state. Her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, currently Patrick Allen (Patrick Allen (Governor-General)). The head of government and Prime Minister of Jamaica is Portia Simpson-Miller. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.