Hawking, American Heritage's Invention & Technology, Spring 2009, Vol. 24, No. 1, p. 36 Through the centuries, Italy has given birth to some of the most notable scientific minds, particularly in modern and the contemporary era. Prominent Italian Polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Leon Battista Alberti made important contributions to a variety of fields, including biology, architecture, engineering. Galileo Galilei, a physicist
of the town of Cincinnatus, New York and the Society of the Cincinnati which, in turn, lent its name to the city of Cincinnati, Ohio. Final years After completing what amounted to guest roles in two 1968 films, ''The Power (The Power (film))'' and ''The Devil's Brigade (The Devil's Brigade (film))'', as well as top guest-starring roles in two episodes of the ABC (American Broadcasting Company) Quinn Martin Productions series '' The F.B.I. (TV series) The F.B.I
, ''God's Playground'', vol. II, p. 26). During his several years' studies in Italy, Copernicus presumably would also have learned some Italian. Professor Stefan Melkowski of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń likewise asserts that Copernicus spoke both Polish and German. (''"O historii i o współczesności"'' ("About History and Contemporaneity"), May 2003.) The vast majority of Copernicus’ surviving works
prize for researchers who have shown peculiar creativity, critical sense and mathematical rigour in theoretical physics — in its broadest sense. The recipients of the 2006 Majorana Prize were Erasmo Recami (University of Bergamo and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)) and George Sudarshan (University of Texas); of the 2007 Majorana Prize: Lee Smolin (Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Canada), Eliano Pessa (Centro Interdipartimentale di
) with her counterpart from Venice. The Venetian lady's high chopines make her taller Ten 16th century portraits of German (Germany) or Italian (Italy) gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, and at this period national differences were at their most pronounced, as Albrecht Dürer recorded in his actual or composite contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian (Venice) fashions at the close of the 15th century
an account of Hölderlin's life then, ''Hölderlins Leben, Dichtung und Wahnsinn'' ("Hölderlin's life, poetry and madness"). In the late 1820s, Waiblinger left Tübingen for Italy, dying in Rome at the age of 25. Faith No More started the tour to promote ''Angel Dust'' shortly after the album's completion on the European leg of the Use Your Illusion Tour (Use Your Illusion Tour#European leg) with Guns N' Roses and Soundgarden,
, France, America (United States), Italy and Japan. He lets readers see these places through the eyes of the fashion. Biography Born '''Giovanni Serrapica''' in Brooklyn, New York to Italian-American parents Pasquale Serrapica and Anna Balestrieri of Castellammare di Stabia, Italy, Serry pursued an artistic career which spanned seven decades. As an exponent of Latin American music and the free-bass accordion (free-bass system), he attained recognition through
and Berlin's AVUS, yet with a different character. The layout of the circuit in the mountains was similar to the Targa Florio, one of the most important motor races at that time. The original Nürburgring was to be a showcase for German automotive engineering and racing talent. Construction of the track, designed by the ''Eichler Architekturbüro'' from Ravensburg (led by Architect Gustav Eichler), began in September 1925. '''Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia''' (1499 1500, Brescia – 13 December 1557, Venice) was a mathematician, an engineer (designing fortifications), a surveyor (of topography, seeking the best means of defense or offense) and a bookkeeper from the then-Republic of Venice (now part of Italy). He published many books, including the first Italian translations of Archimedes and Euclid, and an acclaimed compilation of mathematics. Tartaglia was the first to apply mathematics to the investigation of the paths of cannonballs; his work was later validated by Galileo (Galileo Galilei)'s studies on falling bodies. He also published a treatise on retrieving sunken ships.
Italian , "Cappella dei Brancacci") is a chapel in the Church of Santa Maria del Carmine (Santa Maria del Carmine di Firenze) in Florence, central Italy. It is sometimes called the "Sistine Chapel of the early Renaissance"
Colonial era (also see Age of Discovery).
'''Italy''' ( and has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and the eighth (List of countries by GDP (nominal))-largest in the world. International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Economic Outlook (WEO) Database- GDP Nominal 2010 to 2019, imf.org, October 2014 Edition
Since ancient times (classical antiquity), Etruscan (Etruscan civilization), Magna Graecia and other cultures (Prehistoric Italy) have flourished in the territory of present-day Italy, being eventually absorbed by Rome (Ancient Rome), that has for centuries remained the leading political and religious centre of Western civilisation (Western world), capital of the Roman Empire and Christianity. During the Dark Ages (Dark Ages (historiography)), the Italian Peninsula faced calamitous invasions by barbarian tribes (Migration Period), but beginning around the 11th century, numerous Italian city-states rose to great prosperity through shipping, commerce and banking (indeed, modern capitalism has its roots in Medieval Italy). Especially during The Renaissance, Italian culture thrived, producing scholars, artists, and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. Italian explorers such as Polo (Marco Polo), Columbus (Christopher Columbus), Vespucci (Amerigo Vespucci), and Verrazzano (Giovanni da Verrazzano) discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy would remain fragmented into many warring states for the rest of the Middle Ages, subsequently falling prey to larger European powers (Power (international relations)#Modern Age European powers) such as France (French First Empire), Spain (Spanish Empire), and later Austria (Austrian Empire). Italy would thus enter a long period of decline that lasted until the mid 19th century.
After various unsuccessful attempts, the second (Second War of Italian Independence) and the third (Third War of Italian Independence) wars of Italian Independence resulted in the unification (Italian unification) of most of present-day Italy between 1859-66.
Italy plays a prominent role in global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs "Italy plays a prominent role in European and global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs. The country's European political, social and economic influence make it a major regional power." See ''Italy: Justice System and National Police Handbook'', Vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: International Business Publications, 2009), p. 9. and thus is considered a major regional power. "Operation Alba may be considered one of the most important instances in which Italy has acted as a regional power, taking the lead in executing a technically and politically coherent and determined strategy." See Federiga Bindi, ''Italy and the European Union'' (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2011), p. 171. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union. Italy is a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the DAC (Development Assistance Committee), the WTO, the G4 (G4 (EU)), G6 (G6 (EU)), G7, G8, G10 (Group of Ten (economic)), G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Latin Union, the Council of Europe, the Central European Initiative, the ASEM and the Uniting for Consensus.