on campaign in Italy with his cousin Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor. There he married Margaret of Lorraine, daughter of Theobald II, Duke of Lorraine. He died soon thereafter, without issue. The '''Direct Service''' is a program service of the Boy Scouts of America's International Division, created in 1955 to make the Scouting program available to citizens of the United States and their dependents living in countries (Expatriate) outside the jurisdiction of the Transatlantic Council (#Transatlantic Council) (headquartered in Italy and serving American Scouts in much of Europe), the Aloha Council (serving youth residing in much of the eastern and Central Pacific as well as Guam, American Samoa, and several Hawaiian islands) and the Far East Council (#Far East Council) (headquartered in Japan (Scout Association of Japan), serving several nations in the western Pacific.)
in the victory Battle of Lepanto with a large number of citizens including Gianlorenzo Lioy. Between five hundred and seven hundred is home to a study of Theology. In April 1861, sided with the robbers led by Carmine Crocco, on this occasion there was the first victim: the National Guard captain Michael Anastasia. He also had fierce brigands Turtoro, Di Biase, Larotonda. At the end of '19th century begins the phenomenon of migration: it leaves the earth in search of a decent future. In the U.S
Gypsies (Romani people) who seized territory from Russia, Bulgaria and Hungary. With public interest growing, Penguin (Penguin Books), the largest publishing company in Britain, bought the rights to collect the strips as a book, and before long, ''Tank Girl'' had been published in Spain, Italy, Germany, Scandinavia, Argentina, Brazil and Japan, with several United States publishers fighting over the license. Finally
composers of note, such as Mozart (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart), wrote music specifically for him. network_type Radio network available Austria, Italy (South Tyrol) owner ORF (Österreichischer Rundfunk)
1903. On the 5th, the ship set a course for Boston. Worldwide success (1984–1986) Talk Talk achieved considerable international success in 1984 85, particularly in continental Europe, with the album ''It's My Life (It's My Life (album))''. The accompanying single "Such a Shame" (a song inspired by the book ''The Dice Man'') became a Top 5 hit in Austria,
confidently predicted. The ''Rhythm Of Life'' album appeared in October 1983 and was accompanied by a short seven date UK tour. Haig's touring group included Malcolm Ross on guitar, together with bassist David McClymont (also fresh from Orange Juice), drummer James Locke and former Associate Alan Rankine. Yet although the album sold respectably, Haig found himself caught between two commercial stools. Plainly some way ahead of his time, Haig had perhaps moved too far too fast, his polished dance pop alienating many Josef K fans not yet ready to trade their raincoats for a sharp Italian (Italy) two-piece and a place in line outside Studio 54. Reviewing the album in the ''NME'', Chris Bohn lamented the fate of an artist: '''Sofia Milos''' (born 27 September 1969) is an Italian (Italy) Greek (Greeks) actress. She is best known for her role as Yelina Salas on ''CSI: Miami''. Milos was born in Zurich, Switzerland, to an Italian (Italy) father and a Greek (Greeks) mother. In her teens she entered a local beauty pageant, and after winning first prize went on to win the provincial, regional and national contests as well. Milos studied acting at the Beverly Hills Playhouse in the United States under acting coach Milton Katselas. Milos is a member of the Church of Scientology.
the Italians Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla, Antonio Sant'Elia, Tullio Crali and Luigi Russolo, and the Russians Natalia Goncharova, Velimir Khlebnikov, and Vladimir Mayakovsky. Important works include its seminal piece of the literature, Marinetti's ''Manifesto of Futurism'', as well as Boccioni's sculpture, ''Unique Forms of Continuity in Space'', and Balla's painting, ''Abstract Speed + Sound
, and the 50 km freestyle mass start, but finished 17th and 28th respectively. Estil's results mirrored those of the Norwegian cross-country team who failed to win a single Gold medal in Turin, owing to stomach illness and waxing mistakes made by Norway's eight man strong service team. image 300px Police Rescue (File:Titles.Pr.jpg) show_name_2 ''Police Rescue – Gefährlicher Einsatz'' (Germany) ''Polizia Squadra Soccorso'' (Italy)<
and dramatisations. His adaptation of Conrad's 'Secret Agent' starred Sir Alan Bates, and that of O'Neill's 'Strange Interlude' starred Diane Cilento. With Constance Cox he initiated the first BBC TV classical series with 'Jane Eyre' and 'Vanity Fair (Vanity Fair (novel))'. His original plays on TV included 'Statue of David' with Jill Bennet and 'Light from a Star' with Isa Miranda. After this he travelled extensively in Greece, France and Italy. ref name "CWID"
at the speed limit or even a bit below, this is a good hint that some kind of enforcement system is in operation on that road. As a foreigner, it will be better to stay on the safe side and respect limits and rules at all times, even when locals driving like crazy might lead you to think a certain speed limit or "no passing" sign was a mere suggestion: every now and then, those locals do encounter the police on their way. Flashing your headlights may be interpreted differently to the way you intend. Flashing your lights may be understood either as a request to give way or as an invitation to go first, depending on the situation. A vehicle coming in the opposite direction flashing repeatedly might warn you about a danger or a police car checkpoint further on the road (although this practice is forbidden). Unless different limits are posted, general speed limits are: *130 km h on motorways (''autostrade'') (110 km h in case of rain); *110 km h on divided, grade-separated highways marked with blue motorway signs at the entrances, called ''superstrade''; *90 km h general speed limit on highways and roads outside urban areas; *50 km h in urban areas - an urban area beginning with a white sign with the town city name written in black, and ending with a similar sign barred in red. Italian laws allow a 5% (minimum 5 km h) tolerance on speed limits. Fines are generally very expensive. If you are caught doing more than 40 km h over the speed limit, you will be fined in excess of €500 and will receive an immediate driving ban from 1 to 3 months, leaving you on foot that very moment (you may reach the destination of your current journey). Non-resident drivers of vehicles with foreign registration are required either to pay their fines on the spot if they accept it, or to pay a deposit on the spot if they intend to appeal afterwards; either way, you must pay something immediately and the police won't hesitate to escort you to the nearest ATM to withdraw the cash you need. While chances of getting caught are admittedly not terribly high, you really don't want all of this to happen to you. As of 2003, all vehicles must use headlights at all times outside urban areas, including motorways. Motorbikes must drive with headlights on at all times everywhere. The issue of drunk driving has received a great deal of attention in the last years after a series of lethal accidents. The tolerated limit is '''0.50g L''' in blood; being above this limit is a crime punishable by heavy fines, license revocation, jail time and even immediate confiscation of one's own vehicle in the most serious cases. The limit for drivers under 21 years of age or less than 3 years of driving experience or professional drivers is '''zero'''. Unfortunately, enforcement, although stronger than before, is still insufficient and drunk driving is still somewhat an issue. All passengers are required to wear their seat belts and children under 10 must use the back seats. Children under 12 years of age must use either an approved car seat or a seat booster, depending on the age. At unmarked intersections, you are supposed to yield to any vehicle coming from your right. Be on the look-out because many Italians seem to ignore this rule and will insist on an non-existent right of way just because they are going straight on or they are travelling on what they think is the main road, even if the intersection is actually completely unmarked. This especially occurs in large cities at night time, when traffic lights at some intersections are switched off. Most times, the minor roads at those intersections will have a "give way" sign, but sometimes they don't, which is both confusing, because you never know if the crossing road has a sign or is unmarked, and dangerous because you might expect the vehicle coming from your left to let you pass while it will assume you have a "give way" sign and will carry on travelling like a bullet. Be advised that many Italians don't take road markings too seriously (a few of them don't even seem to notice there are any road markings...), which can be odd if you come from north of the Alps. On multi-lane roads, you should always be wary of vehicles on other lanes invading your lane in curves. Lane markings in multi-lane roundabouts are systematically ignored and virtually all motorists will "cut off" while negotiating the roundabout and again when exiting, of course without signalling. There is a fair amount of confusion in Italy about the correct behaviour in large roundabouts; you should exercise caution there, expect vehicles entering, turning and exiting at any time without signalling and never travel side by side with other vehicles in a roundabout assuming the other will respect the lane markings. Signposts used in Italy are patterned according to EU recommendations and use mostly pictographs (not text). Motorway (''autostrade'') directions are written on a green background while general highway signs (including those on the divided-carriageway, grade-separated ''superstrade'') are on a blue background, and urban or local road signs are on a white one. When on a timetable, use the ''autostrade'' - marked in green - where available and avoid using the general highways - marked in blue - for long distances (unless they are the divided-carriageway, grade-separated ''superstrade''). While the toll on the ''autostrade'' can be rather expensive, they significantly decrease your travel time, whereas general roads can be annoyingly slow since they are heavily used by local traffic, can be clogged with trucks, can feature lots of roundabouts or traffic lights and will often run through towns and villages without bypasses. On the other side, general roads often offer breath-taking scenery and should be your first choice if you are not in a rush and want to explore the real nature of the country. Fuel prices are in line with those in western Europe and considerably more expensive than in North America and Japan. As of 2012, prices wander about €1.80 L for gasoline and €1.70 L for diesel. At most stations, only one sort of 95-octane gasoline and one sort of diesel is available; some others additionally have premium gasoline and or premium diesel sorts. At many service stations, there is a considerable price difference between self-service filling (''self-service'') and having an attendant do it (''servito''). The respective pumps are marked accordingly when you enter the gas station, and you are supposed to pull up to the pump(s) according to the type of service you'd like. If you stop at an attendant-served pump, just wait and an attendant will pop out within seconds. Traffic in large Italian cities is really heavy and finding a parking spot can vary from a challenging to an impossible enterprise at times, so driving in Italian large cities is not advisable unless you really need to. Basically in any large city, you'll be better off parking your vehicle at a park-and-ride facility or somewhere in the outskirts and using public transport, which is reasonably reliable and quite cheap. Be very careful with ''Zone a Traffico Limitato'' or '''ZTL'''s (Limited Traffic Zones) They are restricted areas in many medium-sized and large Italian cities, mostly but not only in the historical centres, where only authorized vehicles are permitted. The entrance to a ZTL is marked by signs and cameras, which go easily unnoticed by tourists driving a car. Many tourists every year report being fined (about €100) for entering a ZTL unknowingly. Tourists renting a car '''will''' end up receiving one or more tickets months later at their homes, including additional fees for the paperwork needed to send the papers abroad. Also, the renting companies may charge from 15 to 50 euros to give the driver details to the police. So entering those zones without authorization might easily add up to a fine over €200. If you booked an accommodation in a city centre and plan to reach it by car, you should check in advance if it lies within such a limited zone and if you are entitled to an authorization. EU licences are automatically recognized. If you don't have an EU driving licence, you need an International Driving Permit in addition to your home driver's license in order to drive. To obtain a formal recognition of your driving licence (''adeguamento'' or ''tagliando di riconoscimento'') you will need to pass a medical examination. You can ask Italian authorities for a duplicate if it gets lost or stolen. All motor vehicles in Italy must have insurance (''assicurazione'') for at least third party liability. By bus Buy town bus tickets from corner shops, bus company offices or automated machines before boarding (on ''some'' systems, tickets ''might'' be bought on-board from an automated machine). Buying tickets from the bus driver is generally not possible. The payment system for most mass transit in Italy (urban trains, city buses, subway) is based on voluntary payment combined with variable enforcement. Tickets are bought before boarding and validated on an on-board machine; inspectors may board the vehicle to check the passengers' tickets and issue fines to those who do not have a validated ticket. Bus company inspectors are generally recognizable by some item displaying the company's logo. When issuing a fine inspectors are allowed to ask to see your documents, and they have to give some sort of receipt with date, time and location. They are never allowed to directly collect the fine (which generally can be paid at a post office). Assaulting an inspector during his work is a serious offense. Daily, weekly, monthly and year-round tickets are generally available, in addition to multi-use tickets. These may or may not need to be validated. In almost every city there's a different pricing scheme, so check in advance ticket formulas and availability. For tourists it may be very convenient to buy daily (or multi-day) tickets that allow you to travel as much as you want in a single (or more) day. Every major city also has some type of '''City Card''', a fixed-fee card allowing you to travel on local public transportation and visit a number of museums and giving you discounts in shops, hotels and restaurants. Check for both these possibilities at local Tourist Offices or on the city's website (which is often of the form www.comune.''cityname''.it as for example www.comune.roma.it). By thumb Hitchhiking in Italy is associated with the 1960s hippies and "on the road" kind of culture. Therefore, it is considered out-dated and useless. You will almost never find Italians hitchhiking unless there's a serious problem with the bus or other means of transportation. Also, it is nowadays common to spot prostitutes by the side of the road pretending to hitchkike to attact clientele so it's advisable to avoid being mistaken for one. Hitchhiking in the summer in touristy areas works okay because you'll get rides from Northern European tourists, and it works okay in very rural areas as long as there is consistent traffic (because you're still playing the odds), but hitchhiking near large cities or along busy routes is '''extremely frustrating'''. Hitchhiking along expressways and highways is forbidden by law. Off the Autostrada things are also a bit difficult: Italians are generally friendly people, but they're '''extremely unlikely to pick up hitchhikers'''. By boat Approaching Italy by sea can be a great experience and is a good alternative to traditional onshore “tours”. A yacht charter to Italy is a fulfilling way to experience the country. Although the yacht charter industry is smaller than one would expect for this incredibly popular tourist destination, there are many reasons to choose a yacht over a more conventional onshore approach. The Italian coast, like the French coast, attracts luxury yacht charters of the highest standards. “Touring” Italy from a private yacht is surprisingly convenient and comfortable. Italy’s dramatic coastline is best appreciated from the sea and the Italians know it! You may take a swim whenever you like, and many of the most famous sights are within easy reach of the seashore. Cruising on a private yacht also offers you a certain relief from the crowds and traffic that are traditionally unavoidable in Italy’s most popular destinations. There are major distinct nautical regions in Italy: Tuscany, Amalfi Coast, Sardinia and Sicily. Each has its own flavor and focus. Be sure to plan your itinerary carefully as each region is rewarding in its own particular way. Talk
and orator, Lycurgus (Lycurgus of Athens), is given control of the state's finances and goes about doubling the annual public revenues. * King Archidamus III of Sparta, after five years of campaigning in southern Italy, fails to achieve any decisive results and while leading a mercenary army to help Tarentum (Taranto) against the Lucanians, he is killed with most of his troops at Manduria in Calabria. * King Archidamus III is succeeded as the Eurypontid King of Sparta
'''Italy''' ( and has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and the eighth (List of countries by GDP (nominal))-largest in the world. International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Economic Outlook (WEO) Database- GDP Nominal 2010 to 2019, imf.org, October 2014 Edition
Since ancient times (classical antiquity), Etruscan (Etruscan civilization), Magna Graecia and other cultures (Prehistoric Italy) have flourished in the territory of present-day Italy, being eventually absorbed by Rome (Ancient Rome), that has for centuries remained the leading political and religious centre of Western civilisation (Western world), capital of the Roman Empire and Christianity. During the Dark Ages (Dark Ages (historiography)), the Italian Peninsula faced calamitous invasions by barbarian tribes (Migration Period), but beginning around the 11th century, numerous Italian city-states rose to great prosperity through shipping, commerce and banking (indeed, modern capitalism has its roots in Medieval Italy). Especially during The Renaissance, Italian culture thrived, producing scholars, artists, and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. Italian explorers such as Polo (Marco Polo), Columbus (Christopher Columbus), Vespucci (Amerigo Vespucci), and Verrazzano (Giovanni da Verrazzano) discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy would remain fragmented into many warring states for the rest of the Middle Ages, subsequently falling prey to larger European powers (Power (international relations)#Modern Age European powers) such as France (French First Empire), Spain (Spanish Empire), and later Austria (Austrian Empire). Italy would thus enter a long period of decline that lasted until the mid 19th century.
After various unsuccessful attempts, the second (Second War of Italian Independence) and the third (Third War of Italian Independence) wars of Italian Independence resulted in the unification (Italian unification) of most of present-day Italy between 1859-66.
Italy plays a prominent role in global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs "Italy plays a prominent role in European and global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs. The country's European political, social and economic influence make it a major regional power." See ''Italy: Justice System and National Police Handbook'', Vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: International Business Publications, 2009), p. 9. and thus is considered a major regional power. "Operation Alba may be considered one of the most important instances in which Italy has acted as a regional power, taking the lead in executing a technically and politically coherent and determined strategy." See Federiga Bindi, ''Italy and the European Union'' (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2011), p. 171. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union. Italy is a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the DAC (Development Assistance Committee), the WTO, the G4 (G4 (EU)), G6 (G6 (EU)), G7, G8, G10 (Group of Ten (economic)), G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Latin Union, the Council of Europe, the Central European Initiative, the ASEM and the Uniting for Consensus.