http: www.lrb.co.uk v36 n21 patrick-cockburn whose-side-is-turkey-on David L. Phillips of Columbia University's Institute for the Study of Human Rights, who compiled a list of allegations and claims accusing Turkey of assisting ISIL, writes that these allegations "range from military cooperation and weapons transfers to logistical support, financial assistance, and the provision of medical services".
; in building an Islamic state, "carrying out sectarian attacks and imposing sharia law immediately". While al-Nusra has a "large contingent of foreign fighters", it is seen as a home-grown group by many Syrians; by contrast, ISIL fighters have been described as "foreign 'occupiers by many Syrian refugees.
-bandar 373181 accessdate 9 October 2014 work The Atlantic date 23 June 2014 Unregistered charity organizations are used as fronts to pass funds to ISIL. As they use aliases on Facebook's WhatsApp and Kik (Kik Messenger), the individuals and organizations are untraceable. Donations transferred to fund ISIL's operations are disguised as "humanitarian charity". Saudi Arabia has imposed a blanket ban on unauthorized donations destined for Syria as the only means
in July 2014, but is unlikely to be able to turn them into weapons.
accessdate 21 November 2014 date 14 November 2014 See also Modern gold dinar. Category:Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Category:2014 Iraq conflict Category:2015 Iraq conflict Category:Anti-government factions of the Syrian Civil War Category:Anti-Shi'ism Category:Designated terrorist organizations associated with Islam Category:Government of Canada designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of Egypt designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of India designated terrorist organisations Category:Iraqi insurgency Category:Islamic extremist groups restricting education Category:Islamism in Iraq Category:Islamism in Syria Category:Jihadist groups Category:Organisations based in Iraq Category:Organisations designated as terrorist by Australia Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the Turkish Directorate General for Security Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the United States government Category:Rebel groups in Egypt Category:Rebel groups in Iraq Category:Rebel groups in Libya Category:Rebel groups in Syria Category:Russian Federal Security Service designated terrorist organizations Category:Salafi groups Category:Sunni Islamist groups Category:Terrorism in Iraq Category:Terrorism in Lebanon Category:Terrorism in Syria Category:Terrorism in Turkey Category:United Kingdom Home Office designated terrorist groups Category:Wahhabism
continued to operate in Syria. In February 2014, after an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda disavowed any relations with ISIL. According to journalist Sarah Birke, there are "significant differences" between the al-Nusra Front and ISIL. While al-Nusra actively calls for the overthrow of the Assad government, ISIL "tends to be more focused on establishing its own rule on conquered territory". ISIL is "far more ruthless"
-flag-iraq-syria What the ISIS Flag Says About the Militant Group , Time.com article by Ilene Prusher, 9 Sept 2014 Such symbolism has been said to point to ISIL's belief that it represents the restoration of the caliphate of early Islam, with all of the political, religious and eschatological ramifications that this would imply. Endtimes Brewing
-20147744058773906.html accessdate 12 July 2014 publisher Al Jazeera date 7 July 2014 ref name
against ISIL in Iraq. Hollande also called for three days of national mourning, with flags flown at half-mast throughout the country and said that security would be increased throughout Paris. International criticism The group has attracted widespread criticism internationally for its extremism, from governments and international bodies such as the United Nations and Amnesty International. On 24 September 2014, Secretary-General of the United Nations
list-- class "wikitable" - !Military operations in or over Iraq and or Syria airstrikes, air support, and ground forces performing training !!Supplying military equipment to opposition forces within Iraq and or Syria in cooperation with EU NATO partners !!Humanitarian and other contributions to identified coalition objectives - colspan "3" style "background: silver; font-weight:bold; text-align:center;" -
membership_type Military strength & operation areas membership '''Inside Iraq and Syria''' 200,000 (Kurdish claim) 20,000–31,000 (CIA estimate)
'''Outside Iraq and Syria''' 19,500–31,300 (See Military of ISIL for more-detailed estimates.) admin_center_type Administrative center admin_center Ar-Raqqah, Syria (''de facto'') largest_city Mosul, Iraq latd 35 latm 57 lats latNS N longd 39 longm 1 longs longEW E languages_type Ideologies languages Extremist Islamism Wahhabism Salafist Jihadism leader_title1 '''Leader''' leader_name1 '''Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi''' leader_title2 '''Deputy leader in Iraq''' leader_name2 '''Abu Muslim al-Turkmani''' leader_title3 '''Deputy leader in Syria''' leader_name3 '''Abu Ali al-Anbari''' leader_title4 '''Head of Military Shura''' leader_name4 '''Abu Ayman al-Iraqi''' leader_title5 '''Spokesman''' leader_name5 '''Abu Muhammad al-Adnani''' leader_title6 '''Field commander''' leader_name6 '''Abu Omar al-Shishani''' sovereignty_type '''Establishment''' established_event1 Formation (as Jamāʻat al-Tawḥīd wa-al-Jihād (#JTJ)) established_date1 1999 established_event2 Joined al-Qaeda established_date2 October 2004 established_event3 Declaration of an Islamic state in Iraq established_date3 13 October 2006 established_event4 Claim of territory in the Levant established_date4 8 April 2013 established_event6 Separated from al-Qaeda established_date6 3 February 2014 established_event7 Declaration of "Caliphate" established_date7 29 June 2014 established_event8 Claim of territory in Libya, Egypt, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen established_date8 13 November 2014 established_event9 established_date9 established_event10 established_date10 official_website area_magnitude area_km2 32133 area_sq_mi area_footnote percent_water area_label Estimate only of controlled areas area_label2 area_dabodyalign population_estimate 8,000,000 in controlled areas population_estimate_year 12 June 2014 ''The New York Times'' population_density_km2 population_density_sq_mi GDP_PPP GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year GDP_PPP_per_capita GDP_nominal GDP_nominal_year GDP_nominal_per_capita Gini Gini_ref Gini_year HDI HDI_ref HDI_year currency currency_code time_zone Eastern European Time and Arabia Standard Time utc_offset +2 and +3 footnote1 footnote2 footnote7 footnotes The '''Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant''' ('''ISIL'''
The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated (List of designated terrorist organizations) as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, India, and Russia. Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant#Countries and groups at war with ISIL).
The group originated as ''Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad'' in 1999, which was renamed ''Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn''—commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)—when the group pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq (Iraq War), AQI took part in the Iraqi insurgency (Iraqi insurgency (2003–11)). In 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council (Mujahideen Shura Council (Iraq)), which shortly afterwards proclaimed the formation of an Islamic state, naming it the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). The ISI gained a significant presence in Al Anbar (Al Anbar Governorate), Nineveh (Nineveh Province), Kirkuk (At-Ta'mim Governorate) and other areas, but around 2008, its violent methods, including suicide attacks on civilian targets and the widespread killing of prisoners, led to a backlash from Sunni Iraqis and other insurgent groups.
The group grew significantly under the leadership of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, and after entering the Syrian Civil War, it established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah (Ar-Raqqah Governorate), Idlib (Idlib Governorate), Deir ez-Zor (Deir ez-Zor Governorate) and Aleppo (Aleppo Governorate).
On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be a worldwide caliphate under the name "Islamic State",
ISIL is known for its well-funded web and social media propaganda, which includes Internet videos of the beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists, and aid workers. (See ISIL beheading incidents.)
The group became notorious after it drove the Iraqi government forces out of key western cities in Iraq while in Syria it conquered and held ground against both the government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. It gained those territories after an offensive initiated in early 2014, which the senior U.S. military commanders and members of the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs saw as a reemergence of Sunni insurgents and Al Qaeda militants. This territorial loss implied a failure of U.S. foreign policy and almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi Government that required renewal of U.S. action in Iraq.