Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

What is Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant known for?


historic scale

"ReferenceB" The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated (List of designated terrorist organizations) as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, India, and Russia. Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant#Countries and groups at war with ISIL). The group originated as ''Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad'' in 1999, which was renamed ''Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn''—commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)—when the group pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq (Iraq War), AQI took part in the Iraqi insurgency (Iraqi insurgency (2003–11)). In 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council (Mujahideen Shura Council (Iraq)), which shortly afterwards proclaimed the formation of an Islamic state, naming it the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). The ISI gained a significant presence in Al Anbar (Al Anbar Governorate), Nineveh (Nineveh Province), Kirkuk (At-Ta'mim Governorate) and other areas, but around 2008, its violent methods, including suicide attacks on civilian targets and the widespread killing of prisoners, led to a backlash from Sunni Iraqis and other insurgent groups. Category:Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Category:2014 Iraq conflict Category:2015 Iraq conflict Category:Anti-government factions of the Syrian Civil War Category:Anti-Shi'ism Category:Designated terrorist organizations associated with Islam Category:Government of Canada designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of Egypt designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of India designated terrorist organisations Category:Iraqi insurgency Category:Islamic extremist groups restricting education Category:Islamism in Iraq Category:Islamism in Syria Category:Jihadist groups Category:Organisations based in Iraq Category:Organisations designated as terrorist by Australia Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the Turkish Directorate General for Security Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the United States government Category:Rebel groups in Egypt Category:Rebel groups in Iraq Category:Rebel groups in Libya Category:Rebel groups in Syria Category:Russian Federal Security Service designated terrorist organizations Category:Salafi groups Category:Sunni Islamist groups Category:Terrorism in Iraq Category:Terrorism in Lebanon Category:Terrorism in Syria Category:Terrorism in Turkey Category:United Kingdom Home Office designated terrorist groups Category:Wahhabism


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Huffington Post (UK) article by Anne Speckhard, 29 Aug. 2014 Saudi Arabia was criticised by Noam Chomsky in October 2014 of having “long been the major source of funding for ISIS as well as providing its ideological roots” (i.e. Wahhabism).


title

match article title-do not change-- ---- Participant in the Iraq War (2003–2011) (Iraq War) and Insurgency (2011–present) (Iraqi insurgency (2011–present)), the Syrian Civil War and its spillover (Spillover of the Syrian Civil War), the 2014 Libyan Civil War (Libyan Civil War (2014–present)), the Sinai insurgency, the War in Afghanistan (2015–present), the War in North-West Pakistan, and the al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen. Primary target

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أمتي قد لاح فجر ''


work international

last Moore first Jack date 2 July 2014 title Iraq Crisis: Senior Jordan Jihadist Slams Isis Caliphate url http: www.ibtimes.co.uk iraq-crisis-senior-jordan-jihadist-slams-isis-caliphate-1455041 work International Business Times UK accessdate 2 July 2014

as a reemergence of Sunni insurgents and Al Qaeda militants. This territorial loss implied a failure of U.S. foreign policy and almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi Government that required renewal of U.S. action in Iraq.

-criminal-operation title Islamic State Is a Diversified Criminal Operation work International Herald Tribune ISIL's philosophy is well represented by the symbolism in the Black Standard variant of the legendary battle flag of Muhammad that it has adopted. The flag shows the seal of the Muhammad within a white circle, with the phrase above it, "There is no God but Allah (Shahada)".


religious views

with the religious views of ISIL. Children are used as human shields on front lines and to provide blood transfusions for Islamic State soldiers, according to Shelly Whitman of the Roméo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative. The second instalment of a Vice News documentary about ISIL focused on how the group is specifically grooming children for the future. A spokesman told VICE News that those under the age of 15 go to sharia camp to learn about religion, while those older than 16


international criticism

against ISIL in Iraq. Hollande also called for three days of national mourning, with flags flown at half-mast throughout the country and said that security would be increased throughout Paris. International criticism The group has attracted widespread criticism internationally for its extremism, from governments and international bodies such as the United Nations and Amnesty International. On 24 September 2014, Secretary-General of the United Nations


world opposition

as a terrorist entity and rejection of its claim to even exist have placed it in conflict with countries around the world. Opposition within Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Afghanistan, and Yemen class "wikitable" - ! Iraqi Insurgency !! Syrian Civil War !! Other conflicts - colspan "3" style "background: silver; font-weight:bold; text-align:center;" - Iraqi Armed Forces *


news black

Reporters Without Borders calls "news blackholes" in areas controlled by ISIL. ISIL fighters have reportedly been given written directions to kill or capture journalists. In December 2013, two suicide bombers stormed the headaquarters of TV station


religious political

changes name and declares its territories a new Islamic state with 'restoration of caliphate' in Middle East date 29 June 2014 accessdate 29 June 2014 work The Independent As caliphate it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide and that "the legality of all emirates, groups, states, and organizations, becomes null by the expansion of the khilāfah's (caliph's) authority and arrival of its troops to their areas".

On 29 June 2014, the organization proclaimed a Worldwide Caliphate. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi—known by his supporters as Amir al-Mu'minin, Caliph Ibrahim—was named its caliph, and the group renamed itself the "''Islamic State''". As a "Caliphate," it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide. ref name "


collaboration quot

; According to journalist Patrick Cockburn, there is "strong evidence for a degree of collaboration" between the Turkish intelligence services (National Intelligence Organization (Turkey)) and ISIL, although the "exact nature of the relationship ... remains cloudy". Category:Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Category:2014 Iraq conflict Category:2015 Iraq conflict Category:Anti-government factions of the Syrian Civil War Category:Anti-Shi'ism Category:Designated terrorist organizations associated with Islam Category:Government of Canada designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of Egypt designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of India designated terrorist organisations Category:Iraqi insurgency Category:Islamic extremist groups restricting education Category:Islamism in Iraq Category:Islamism in Syria Category:Jihadist groups Category:Organisations based in Iraq Category:Organisations designated as terrorist by Australia Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the Turkish Directorate General for Security Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the United States government Category:Rebel groups in Egypt Category:Rebel groups in Iraq Category:Rebel groups in Libya Category:Rebel groups in Syria Category:Russian Federal Security Service designated terrorist organizations Category:Salafi groups Category:Sunni Islamist groups Category:Terrorism in Iraq Category:Terrorism in Lebanon Category:Terrorism in Syria Category:Terrorism in Turkey Category:United Kingdom Home Office designated terrorist groups Category:Wahhabism

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

membership_type Military strength & operation areas membership '''Inside Iraq and Syria''' 200,000 (Kurdish claim) 20,000–31,000 (CIA estimate)

'''Outside Iraq and Syria''' 19,500–31,300 (See Military of ISIL for more-detailed estimates.) admin_center_type Administrative center admin_center Ar-Raqqah, Syria (''de facto'') largest_city Mosul, Iraq latd 35 latm 57 lats latNS N longd 39 longm 1 longs longEW E languages_type Ideologies languages Extremist Islamism Wahhabism Salafist Jihadism leader_title1 '''Leader''' leader_name1 '''Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi''' leader_title2 '''Deputy leader in Iraq''' leader_name2 '''Abu Muslim al-Turkmani''' leader_title3 '''Deputy leader in Syria''' leader_name3 '''Abu Ali al-Anbari''' leader_title4 '''Head of Military Shura''' leader_name4 '''Abu Ayman al-Iraqi''' leader_title5 '''Spokesman''' leader_name5 '''Abu Muhammad al-Adnani''' leader_title6 '''Field commander''' leader_name6 '''Abu Omar al-Shishani''' sovereignty_type '''Establishment''' established_event1 Formation (as Jamāʻat al-Tawḥīd wa-al-Jihād (#JTJ)) established_date1 1999 established_event2 Joined al-Qaeda established_date2 October 2004 established_event3 Declaration of an Islamic state in Iraq established_date3 13 October 2006 established_event4 Claim of territory in the Levant established_date4 8 April 2013 established_event6 Separated from al-Qaeda established_date6 3 February 2014 established_event7 Declaration of "Caliphate" established_date7 29 June 2014 established_event8 Claim of territory in Libya, Egypt, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen established_date8 13 November 2014 established_event9 established_date9 established_event10 established_date10 official_website area_magnitude area_km2 32133 area_sq_mi area_footnote percent_water area_label Estimate only of controlled areas area_label2 area_dabodyalign population_estimate 8,000,000 in controlled areas population_estimate_year 12 June 2014 ''The New York Times'' population_density_km2 population_density_sq_mi GDP_PPP GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year GDP_PPP_per_capita GDP_nominal GDP_nominal_year GDP_nominal_per_capita Gini Gini_ref Gini_year HDI HDI_ref HDI_year currency currency_code time_zone Eastern European Time and Arabia Standard Time utc_offset +2 and +3 footnote1 footnote2 footnote7 footnotes The '''Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant''' ('''ISIL'''

The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated (List of designated terrorist organizations) as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, India, and Russia. Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant#Countries and groups at war with ISIL).

The group originated as ''Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad'' in 1999, which was renamed ''Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn''—commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)—when the group pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq (Iraq War), AQI took part in the Iraqi insurgency (Iraqi insurgency (2003–11)). In 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council (Mujahideen Shura Council (Iraq)), which shortly afterwards proclaimed the formation of an Islamic state, naming it the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). The ISI gained a significant presence in Al Anbar (Al Anbar Governorate), Nineveh (Nineveh Province), Kirkuk (At-Ta'mim Governorate) and other areas, but around 2008, its violent methods, including suicide attacks on civilian targets and the widespread killing of prisoners, led to a backlash from Sunni Iraqis and other insurgent groups.

The group grew significantly under the leadership of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, and after entering the Syrian Civil War, it established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah (Ar-Raqqah Governorate), Idlib (Idlib Governorate), Deir ez-Zor (Deir ez-Zor Governorate) and Aleppo (Aleppo Governorate).

On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be a worldwide caliphate under the name "Islamic State",

ISIL is known for its well-funded web and social media propaganda, which includes Internet videos of the beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists, and aid workers. (See ISIL beheading incidents.)

The group became notorious after it drove the Iraqi government forces out of key western cities in Iraq while in Syria it conquered and held ground against both the government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. It gained those territories after an offensive initiated in early 2014, which the senior U.S. military commanders and members of the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs saw as a reemergence of Sunni insurgents and Al Qaeda militants. This territorial loss implied a failure of U.S. foreign policy and almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi Government that required renewal of U.S. action in Iraq.

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