Islamic Courts Union

What is Islamic Courts Union known for?


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, the late leader of the ICU, Sheik Hassan Dahir Aweys, said that the ICU would do its best to incorporate said territories into a Greater Somalia: "We will leave no stone unturned to integrate our Somali brothers in Kenya and Ethiopia." WORLD&ID 564842767252324414 ICU plans to take over Ethiopian and Kenyan territories Ethiopia and Kenya have historically resisted such Somali


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conflict situations around the world, helping policymakers in the UN Security Council, regional organisations, donor countries and others with major influence, and in the countries at risk themselves, do better in preventing, managing and resolving conflict, and in rebuilding after it; * Providing detailed information unobtainable elsewhere on developments regarding conflict, mass violence and terrorism of particular utility to policymakers, e.g., on the Jemaah Islamiyah in Indonesia and Islamic Courts Union in Somalia; * Offering new strategic thinking on some of the world’s most intractable conflicts and crises, e.g., on the Iran nuclear issue (Iranian nuclear program), the role of Islamism worldwide, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and the way forward in Kosovo, Iraq and the Western Sahara; and In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), an Islamist (Islamism) organization, assumed control of much of Jubaland and other parts of southern Somalia and promptly imposed Shari'a law (Shari'a). The Transitional Federal Government sought to re-establish its authority, and, with the assistance of Ethiopian troops (Ethiopian National Defense Force), African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, managed to drive out the rival ICU and solidify its rule. Somalia In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union took over Mogadishu from CIA-backed ARPCT. Iran has been one of several nations backing the public uprising. According to Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Somalia) Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Iran, Egypt, and Libya are helping the militia. The Prime Minister accuses these countries of wanting more conflict in Somalia, which seems contradictory because of the Transitional Government's inability to extend authority beyond Baidoa, which is something the Islamic Republic sees. Somalia: Iran, Libya and Egypt helping militia : Mail & Guardian Online Abdirashid Hussein Shire was arrested by police at a hotel in the Kenyan capital Nairobi (w:Nairobi) and escorted to a flight out of the country, reportedly heading for Dubai (w:Dubai). Shire is alleged to be a supporter of the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (w:Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism), an alliance of Somali warlords who are currently engaged in a conflict with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union) for control over Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu), the capital of Somalia. A Somali Defence Ministry official has additionally reported that American helicopters launched an attack against ICU fighters (w:Islamic Courts Union) in Afmadow, a city near the Kenyan border, 350 kilometres southwest of Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu). The AC-130 gunship (w:Lockheed AC-130) attack killed an unknown number of civilians, alternatingly reported as 4, 19 or 31. A feud between Ghedi and the President has long been blamed for the lack of progress and inability of the government to deal effectively with the armed conflict (w:War in Somalia (2006–present)) with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union). The rift often has been cited as frustrating for Western (w:Western world#Politcal) diplomats who support the government. Although moderate Islamists from the ARS have agreed to enter into reconciliation talks, hardliner insurgents have rejected the attempts at peace and continue to take over towns in the central and northern regions of Somalia. Since the fall of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), organizations like Al-Shabaab (w:Al-Shabaab) have become leading insurgent groups. A spokesman for Al-Shabaab told reporters on Sunday that they intend to impose Sharia (w:Sharia) law on all of Somalia, and that a peace deal would never be accepted. Although no one has claimed responsibility for the attack, Al-Shabab (w:Al-Shabaab (Somalia)), the militant youth group that has now taken the reigns of the insurgency in Somalia after the dissolution of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), is widely suspected. Al-Shabab seeks to institute the strictest sense of Shar'ia (w:Sharia) Law in Somalia and is a seam of contention for their participation in the government. Earlier this year, the newly elected Somali President agreed to implement tenets of Shar'ia into the nation's statutory codes, however negotiations quickly broke down over the details.


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of Baidoa (Battle of Baidoa), Bay region, Bandiradley (Battle of Bandiradley), in Mudug, and Battle of Beledweyne, Hiran region, retreating to the capital, Mogadishu. Resignation of leadership Somalia In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union took over Mogadishu from CIA-backed ARPCT. Iran has been one of several nations backing the public uprising. According to Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Somalia) Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Iran, Egypt, and Libya are helping the militia. The Prime Minister accuses these countries of wanting more conflict in Somalia, which seems contradictory because of the Transitional Government's inability to extend authority beyond Baidoa, which is something the Islamic Republic sees. Somalia: Iran, Libya and Egypt helping militia : Mail & Guardian Online Abdirashid Hussein Shire was arrested by police at a hotel in the Kenyan capital Nairobi (w:Nairobi) and escorted to a flight out of the country, reportedly heading for Dubai (w:Dubai). Shire is alleged to be a supporter of the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (w:Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism), an alliance of Somali warlords who are currently engaged in a conflict with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union) for control over Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu), the capital of Somalia. A Somali Defence Ministry official has additionally reported that American helicopters launched an attack against ICU fighters (w:Islamic Courts Union) in Afmadow, a city near the Kenyan border, 350 kilometres southwest of Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu). The AC-130 gunship (w:Lockheed AC-130) attack killed an unknown number of civilians, alternatingly reported as 4, 19 or 31. A feud between Ghedi and the President has long been blamed for the lack of progress and inability of the government to deal effectively with the armed conflict (w:War in Somalia (2006–present)) with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union). The rift often has been cited as frustrating for Western (w:Western world#Politcal) diplomats who support the government. Although moderate Islamists from the ARS have agreed to enter into reconciliation talks, hardliner insurgents have rejected the attempts at peace and continue to take over towns in the central and northern regions of Somalia. Since the fall of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), organizations like Al-Shabaab (w:Al-Shabaab) have become leading insurgent groups. A spokesman for Al-Shabaab told reporters on Sunday that they intend to impose Sharia (w:Sharia) law on all of Somalia, and that a peace deal would never be accepted. Although no one has claimed responsibility for the attack, Al-Shabab (w:Al-Shabaab (Somalia)), the militant youth group that has now taken the reigns of the insurgency in Somalia after the dissolution of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), is widely suspected. Al-Shabab seeks to institute the strictest sense of Shar'ia (w:Sharia) Law in Somalia and is a seam of contention for their participation in the government. Earlier this year, the newly elected Somali President agreed to implement tenets of Shar'ia into the nation's statutory codes, however negotiations quickly broke down over the details.


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on the ship. Speculations of chemical or even radioactive contents have been made. Mysterious Cargo Aboard Iranian Ship Seized by Pirates Raises WMD Concerns Joseph Abrams, September 30, 2008. Quotation by "Jonathan Tucker, a senior fellow at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies": "It's baffling. I'm not aware of any chemical agent that produces loss of hair within a few days. That's more suggestive of high


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; On August 24, 2006, the ICU captured Harardhere, some 500 km northeast of Mogadishu, which had become a safe haven for pirates (Piracy), who had forced shipping firms and international organizations to pay large ransoms for the release of vessels and crews. Somalia: Transitional govt, Islamic courts agree to talks, ''IRIN'', August 15

2012 Anti-piracy operations were undertaken by the coalition throughout 2006 with a battle fought in March (Action of 18 March 2006) when U.S. vessels were attacked by pirates. In January 2007, during the war in Somalia (War in Somalia (2006–present)), an AC-130 airstrike was conducted against al-Qaeda members embedded with forces of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) operating in southern Somalia near Ras Kamboni (Battle of Ras Kamboni). U.S. naval forces, including the aircraft

carrier USS ''Dwight D. Eisenhower'' (USS Dwight D. Eisenhower), were positioned off the coast of Somalia to provide support and to prevent any al-Qaeda forces escaping by sea. Actions against pirates also occurred in June and October 2007 with varying amounts of success. The Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP) is the parliament of Somalia. Formed in 2004, it constitutes the legislative (Legislature) branch of government. The TFP elects the President and Prime Minister, and has


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accessdate September 9, 2007 publisher newsVOA.com year 2007 author Alisha Ryu Somalia In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union took over Mogadishu from CIA-backed ARPCT. Iran has been one of several nations backing the public uprising. According to Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Somalia) Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Iran, Egypt, and Libya are helping the militia. The Prime Minister accuses these countries of wanting more conflict in Somalia, which seems contradictory because of the Transitional Government's inability to extend authority beyond Baidoa, which is something the Islamic Republic sees. Somalia: Iran, Libya and Egypt helping militia : Mail & Guardian Online Abdirashid Hussein Shire was arrested by police at a hotel in the Kenyan capital Nairobi (w:Nairobi) and escorted to a flight out of the country, reportedly heading for Dubai (w:Dubai). Shire is alleged to be a supporter of the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (w:Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism), an alliance of Somali warlords who are currently engaged in a conflict with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union) for control over Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu), the capital of Somalia. A Somali Defence Ministry official has additionally reported that American helicopters launched an attack against ICU fighters (w:Islamic Courts Union) in Afmadow, a city near the Kenyan border, 350 kilometres southwest of Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu). The AC-130 gunship (w:Lockheed AC-130) attack killed an unknown number of civilians, alternatingly reported as 4, 19 or 31. A feud between Ghedi and the President has long been blamed for the lack of progress and inability of the government to deal effectively with the armed conflict (w:War in Somalia (2006–present)) with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union). The rift often has been cited as frustrating for Western (w:Western world#Politcal) diplomats who support the government. Although moderate Islamists from the ARS have agreed to enter into reconciliation talks, hardliner insurgents have rejected the attempts at peace and continue to take over towns in the central and northern regions of Somalia. Since the fall of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), organizations like Al-Shabaab (w:Al-Shabaab) have become leading insurgent groups. A spokesman for Al-Shabaab told reporters on Sunday that they intend to impose Sharia (w:Sharia) law on all of Somalia, and that a peace deal would never be accepted. Although no one has claimed responsibility for the attack, Al-Shabab (w:Al-Shabaab (Somalia)), the militant youth group that has now taken the reigns of the insurgency in Somalia after the dissolution of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), is widely suspected. Al-Shabab seeks to institute the strictest sense of Shar'ia (w:Sharia) Law in Somalia and is a seam of contention for their participation in the government. Earlier this year, the newly elected Somali President agreed to implement tenets of Shar'ia into the nation's statutory codes, however negotiations quickly broke down over the details.


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initially in two areas - the military base of Daynuunay and the military base of Iidale. The ICU made calls for jihad against Ethiopia,world story 0,,1978424,00.html Somali hardliner calls for foreign jihadists which were met by international Mujahideen volunteers arriving in Somalia. The ICU lost a considerable amount of territory after defeats at the December 20–26 battles


Marka

- Shiirkoole (Circolo) Mogadishu, Banadir Hawiye Abdilkadir Ali Omar Salafi - ? Marka, Lower Shabelle Hawiye Yusuf Mohamed Siyaad 'Indha Adde' ? - Al-Cadaala Laascanood, Sool Darod Shiikh Axmed Cabdulaahi Shanle ? - ? Balad, Upper Shabelle Hawiye Sheikh Yusuf Turhume ? - ? Wanlaweyn, Lower Shabelle Digil-Mirifle Mahad Mohammed Liberal (Liberal movements in Islam) - ? Beletweyne, Hiraan Hawiye Farah Moallim Mohamud


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are believed to have found refuge in Eritrea. Jihadists and suicide bombers, StarTribune -->

conflict situations around the world, helping policymakers in the UN Security Council, regional organisations, donor countries and others with major influence, and in the countries at risk themselves, do better in preventing, managing and resolving conflict, and in rebuilding after it; * Providing detailed information unobtainable elsewhere on developments regarding conflict, mass violence and terrorism of particular utility to policymakers, e.g., on the Jemaah Islamiyah in Indonesia

Somalia In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union took over Mogadishu from CIA-backed ARPCT. Iran has been one of several nations backing the public uprising. According to Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Somalia) Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Iran, Egypt, and Libya are helping the militia. The Prime Minister accuses these countries of wanting more conflict in Somalia, which seems contradictory because of the Transitional Government's inability


growing power

Somalia In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union took over Mogadishu from CIA-backed ARPCT. Iran has been one of several nations backing the public uprising. According to Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Somalia) Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Iran, Egypt, and Libya are helping the militia. The Prime Minister accuses these countries of wanting more conflict in Somalia, which seems contradictory because of the Transitional Government's inability to extend authority beyond Baidoa, which is something the Islamic Republic sees. Somalia: Iran, Libya and Egypt helping militia : Mail & Guardian Online Abdirashid Hussein Shire was arrested by police at a hotel in the Kenyan capital Nairobi (w:Nairobi) and escorted to a flight out of the country, reportedly heading for Dubai (w:Dubai). Shire is alleged to be a supporter of the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (w:Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism), an alliance of Somali warlords who are currently engaged in a conflict with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union) for control over Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu), the capital of Somalia. A Somali Defence Ministry official has additionally reported that American helicopters launched an attack against ICU fighters (w:Islamic Courts Union) in Afmadow, a city near the Kenyan border, 350 kilometres southwest of Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu). The AC-130 gunship (w:Lockheed AC-130) attack killed an unknown number of civilians, alternatingly reported as 4, 19 or 31. A feud between Ghedi and the President has long been blamed for the lack of progress and inability of the government to deal effectively with the armed conflict (w:War in Somalia (2006–present)) with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union). The rift often has been cited as frustrating for Western (w:Western world#Politcal) diplomats who support the government. Although moderate Islamists from the ARS have agreed to enter into reconciliation talks, hardliner insurgents have rejected the attempts at peace and continue to take over towns in the central and northern regions of Somalia. Since the fall of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), organizations like Al-Shabaab (w:Al-Shabaab) have become leading insurgent groups. A spokesman for Al-Shabaab told reporters on Sunday that they intend to impose Sharia (w:Sharia) law on all of Somalia, and that a peace deal would never be accepted. Although no one has claimed responsibility for the attack, Al-Shabab (w:Al-Shabaab (Somalia)), the militant youth group that has now taken the reigns of the insurgency in Somalia after the dissolution of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), is widely suspected. Al-Shabab seeks to institute the strictest sense of Shar'ia (w:Sharia) Law in Somalia and is a seam of contention for their participation in the government. Earlier this year, the newly elected Somali President agreed to implement tenets of Shar'ia into the nation's statutory codes, however negotiations quickly broke down over the details.

Islamic Courts Union

The '''Islamic Courts Union''' ('''ICU'''; Western media often refer to the group as '''Somali (Somali people) Islamists (Islamism)'''.

Until the end of 2006, they controlled most of southern Somalia and the vast majority of its population, including most major cities such as Jowhar, Kismayo, Beledweyne, and the capital Mogadishu. The ICU was supported by warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad who ruled Lower Shabelle but later became defense chief of the ICU, who aided in the defeat of the Mogadishu warlords. Warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad, defense chief of the ICU Only the Northern regions (Puntland, Somaliland), and the furthest interior regions of the south were outside their control. In December 2006, the ICU lost much territory after defeats at the battles of Baidoa (Battle of Baidoa), Bandiradley (Battle of Bandiradley), and Beledweyne (Battle of Beledweyne (2006)), retreating to the capital, Mogadishu. On December 28 they abandoned Mogadishu, leaving the city in chaos while they moved south towards Kismayo, which allowed the TFG and Ethiopian troops to take over the city. Mogadishu falls to Ethiopian-backed government troops CNN -- After a stand at the Battle of Jilib, the ICU abandoned the city of Kismayo on January 1, 2007. Stripped of almost all their territory, it was speculated the ICU would pursue guerrilla-style warfare against the government.

Instead, hardline Islamists broke ranks from the ICU and formed other militant groups, such as Al-Shabaab (Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations) and Hizbul Islam, to continue the war against the government.

The less-militant members of the ICU went into exile in Eritrea and Djibouti, where they formed the Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia) in September 2007. In the two years following the ICU's ouster from Mogadishu, the hardline Islamist groups concentrated their power in the south and west of Somalia, taking ground from both the TFG and ICU.

By January 2009, a reconciliation and powersharing deal was brokered between the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and the Djibouti contingent from the former Islamic Courts Union which resulted in the expansion of the Parliament and the election of Sheik Sharif Ahmed, former leader of the ICU, as President of the Transitional Federal Government.

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