for modest workers who helped the city to recover from war wounds, charging far less than local construction workers. Many of these refugees are being repatriated with the assistance of UNHCR but there are still sizable groups of Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Tehran who are reluctant to leave, being pessimistic about the situation in their respective country of origin. Afghan refugees are mostly Persian-speaking Hazara (Hazara people) or Tajiks (Tājik people), speaking a dialect of Persian
brutal suppression of the Shiite Muslim uprising of 1991. He was featured in Iraqi news film kicking and beating captured Shiite rebels. '''Sabawi Ibrahim al-Tikriti''' ( Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq
ADGEESj0AdifFI5Ia36088fm5ekiTofIY51enAcnmVdW6dhIx8cruMbJ98S3HVtM2ZRDx_lf1mF9uSsLY3VMpmId2Mmot2lQVBlHuaoqoQFnOX1ilD7K4Y-jxdrcnEZt7njCIybFzYFS&sig AHIEtbQmYNfIiuCHgwsbZ1waG-khJ62W4A# Decree of Udayamperoor Page:30 Portuguese soldiers who married Indian ladies and their offsprings were held at high esteem. The Untouchables were considered polluted beings. They had the lowliest jobs and lived in subhuman conditions. In India, the caste system was considered a way to organize society. Arundhati Roy's book shows how terribly cruel such a system can be as the oppressors were
in modern times (although currently only serving aesthetical purposes). It has 120 water collection compartments and could raise more than 95 litres of water per minute. Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq
a native Persian perspective, both Iran and Persia are interchangeable but until then the official name of Iran was Persia, but now both terms are interchangeably used even though Iran is the official political title. thumb right 300px The Taq-i Kisra Tāq-e Kisrā (File:Ctesiphon, Iraq (2117465493).jpg) in Baghdad Province, Iraq, constructed between the 3rd and 6th centuries. It is the largest vault (Vault (architecture)) ever constructed in Persia
occupied Homs under Aq Sunqur al-Hajib in 1090. Following the artistic performances, a parade of nations entered the stadium with over 10,500 athletes walking under the banners of 201 nations. The nations were arranged according to Greek alphabet making Finland, Fiji, Chile, and Hong Kong the last four to enter the stadium before the Greek delegation. On this occasion, in observance of the tradition that the delegation of Greece opens the parade
was developed in the Italian Renaissance in maiolica. Tin-glazed pottery was taken up in the Netherlands from the 16th to the 18th centuries, the potters making household, decorative pieces and tiles in vast numbers, Caiger-Smith, Alan, ''Tin Glazed Pottery'', Faber and Faber, 1973 usually with blue painting on a white ground (Blue and white porcelain). Dutch potters took tin-glazed pottery to the British Isles, where it was made between about 1550 and 1800. In France, tin-glaze was begun in 1690 at Quimper (Quimper, Finistère) in Brittany, Faience-de-quimper.com followed in Rouen, Strasbourg and Lunéville. The development of white, or near white, firing bodies in Europe from the late 18th century, such as Creamware by Josiah Wedgwood and porcelain (Porcelain#European_porcelain), reduced the demand for Delftware, faience and majolica. Today, tin oxide usage in glazes finds limited use in conjunction with other, lower cost opacifying agents, although it is generally restricted to specialist low temperature applications and use by studio potters. ‘Ceramic Glazes.’ F.Singer & W.L.German. ''Borax Consolidated Limited''. London. 1960. ‘Ceramics Glaze Technology.’ J.R.Taylor & A.C.Bull. The Institute Of Ceramics & Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1986. , including Picasso who produced pottery using tin glazes. Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq
political efforts have largely been focused on protecting this community's interests as opposed to Iraq's non-Sunni population. In the 2005 election, its platform called for ending the US occupation of Iraq, revision of the new Iraqi constitution, repeal of the de-Baathification laws that had cost many Sunnis their government jobs and the restoration of the Iraqi Army, which was dissolved after the US overthrow of Saddam Hussein and which had a Sunni dominated officer corps. Despite
was characterised by extreme poverty and hardship. A USAID report noted that while some Maʻdān had chosen to return to their traditional activities in the marshes, especially the Hammar Marshes, within a short time of reflooding, they were without clean drinking water, sanitation, health care or education facilities. USAID Iraq Marshlands Restoration Program Final Report, Chapter 1 In addition, it is still uncertain if the marshes will completely recover, given increased levels of water extraction from the Tigris and Euphrates. According to its website, Refugees International was started in 1979 as a citizens’ movement to protect Indochinese refugees. Each year, Refugees International conducts 20 to 25 field missions to identify displaced people’s needs for basic services such as food, water, health care, housing, access to education and protection from harm. Based on their field-based knowledge of humanitarian emergencies, they successfully challenge policy makers and aid agencies to improve the lives of displaced people around the world and frequently defend the strategic benefits of a continuation of US funding for foreign aid most recently in the 2011 budget debates. Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq
in Mexico around the year 2000. *Three Americans (the director, a doctor, and the administrator) at the Baptist hospital in Jibla, Yemen, were killed and one pharmacist was injured by Abed Abdul-Razzak Kamal. Kamal was captured and claims he was linked to the extremist Islamic Reform
'''Iraq''' ( ''), is a country with an autonomous region, called Iraqi Kurdistan, in Western Asia. The country borders Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest, and Syria to the west. The capital, Baghdad, is in the center of the country and its largest city. The largest ethnic groups in Iraq are Arabs and Kurds. Other ethnic groups include Assyrians (Assyrian people), Turcoman (Iraqi Turkmens), Shabaki (Shabak people), Armenians (Armenians in Iraq), Mandeans, Circassians (Circassians in Iraq) and Kawliya form the minorities. Around 95% of the country's 36 million citizens are Shia or Sunni Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also extant.
Iraq has a narrow section of coastline measuring Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through the center of Iraq and flow into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land.
The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is often referred to as Mesopotamia and thought to be the birthplace of writing and the world's oldest civilizations (cradle of civilization). The area has been home to continuous successive civilizations since the 6th millennium BC. At different periods in its history, Iraq was the center of the indigenous Akkadian (Akkadian Empire), Sumerian (Neo-Sumerian Empire), Assyrian (Neo-Assyrian Empire), and Babylonian (Neo-Babylonian Empire) empires. It was also part of the Median (Median Empire), Achaemenid (Achaemenid Assyria), Hellenistic (Seleucid Empire), Parthian (Arsacid Empire), Sassanid (Sassanid Empire), Roman (Roman Empire), Rashidun (Rashidun Caliphate), Umayyad (Umayyad Caliphate), Abbasid (Abbasid Caliphate), Mongol (Ilkhanate), Safavid (Safavid Empire), Afsharid (Afsharid dynasty), and Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) empires, and under British (United Kingdom) control as a League of Nations mandate.
Iraq's modern borders were mostly demarcated in 1920 by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres. Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Republic of Iraq was created. Iraq was controlled by (Ba'athist Iraq) the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (Ba'ath Party (Iraqi-dominated faction)) from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion (2003 invasion of Iraq) by the United States and its allies (Multi-National Force – Iraq), Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power and multi-party parliamentary elections (Iraqi parliamentary election, December 2005) were held. The American presence in Iraq (Iraq War) ended in 2011 but the Iraqi insurgency (Iraqi insurgency (post-U.S. withdrawal)) continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country.