in 1876. G. Smith (George Smith (assyriologist)), "The Chaldean Account of Genesis" (London, 1876). File:USS Stark.jpg thumb Sectarianism is present throughout
, Kenya. Following the relocation efforts, ''Cleveland'' was ordered to steam into the North Persian Gulf to assist in deterring Iraq's massing of troops on the Kuwaiti border as part of Operation Vigilant Warrior. ;Egypt (7th century) Syria (until 13th century) : Low square towers sitting at the four corners of the mosque. ;Iraq : For a free-standing conical minaret surrounded by a spiral staircase, see Malwiya. ;Egypt (15th century) : Octagonal. Two
by several U.S. government sources. He was also the subject of a 2008 biography by investigative journalist Aram Roston, ''The Man Who Pushed America to War; The Extraordinary Life, Adventures, And Obsessions of Ahmad Chalabi'' The Man Who Pushed America to War; The Extraordinary Life, Adventures, And Obsessions of Ahmad Chalabi and a 2011 biography by 60 Minutes producer Richard Bonin, "''Arrows of the Night: Ahmad Chalabi's Long Journey to Triumph in Iraq''". Laura Miller, "'Arrows of the Night': The man behind the Iraq War." Salon (Dec. 4, 2011). -- '''Randall J "Randy" Scheunemann''' (born January 12, 1960) is an United States American neoconservative lobbyist (Lobbying). He is the President of the Committee for the Liberation of Iraq, which was created by the Project for the New American Century (PNAC), of which he is a board member. He was Trent Lott's National Security Aide and was an advisor to Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld on Iraq. He is a paid lobbyist for the country of Georgia (Georgia (country)) and was 2008 Presidential candidate (2008 U.S. presidential campaign) John McCain's foreign-policy aide. He lives in Castle Fairfax (Castle Fairfax, Virginia), Virginia. In November 2001, 15 members of a PLF cell were arrested by Israeli authorities. Some of those captured had received military training in Iraq. The cell had been planning attacks in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and the Ben Gurion airport. The cell had already been involved in other resistance activities including the targeted assassination of Israeli illegal settler Yuri Gushstein. Terrorism - In the Spotlight: The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) The 1958 revolt In 1953, Jumblatt was re-elected Deputy for the fourth time. He founded the Popular Socialist Front the same year and led the opposition against the new President, Camille Chamoun. During his presidency, the pro-Western President Chamoun tied Lebanon to the policies of the United States of America and the United Kingdom, who were at that time involved in the creation of the Baghdad Pact, comprising Hashemite Iraq, Turkey and Pakistan. This was seen by pan-Arabists (pan-Arabism) as an imperialist (imperialism) coalition, and it was strongly opposed by the influential Nasserist (Nasserism) movement. Jumblatt supported Egypt against an attack by Israel, France, and the United Kingdom in the Suez War of 1956, while Chamoun and parts of the Maronite Christian elite in Lebanon tacitly supported the invasion. The sectarian tensions (Demographics of Lebanon) of Lebanon greatly increased in this period, and both sides began to brace for violent conflict. PLF leader Muhammad Zaidan a.k.a. Abu Abbas was freed by the Italian government in the aftermath of the Achille Lauro affair, but was continually sought by the United States government. He was captured in Iraq in 2003 by U.S. forces during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Bechtel's recent history has been fraught with controversy. In 1988, just after Saddam Hussein had earned international condemnation for using poisonous gas against thousands of Kurds, Bechtel signed contracts with Iraq to build a chemical plant. Bechtel never completed the project due to the onset of the first Gulf War in 1990. On March 15, 2006, Congress (United States Congress) announced the formation of the Iraq Study Group, a high-level panel of prominent former officials charged by members of Congress with taking a fresh look at America (United States)'s policy on Iraq. Baker was the Republican co-chair along with Democratic Representative Lee H. Hamilton, to advise Congress on Iraq. Paley, Amit R.—"U.S. and Iraqi Forces Clash With Sadr Militia in South".—''Washington Post''.—October 9, 2006 Baker also advised George W. Bush on Iraq. "Baker surfaces as key adviser to Bush on Iraq".—''Insight Magazine''.—September 12, 2006 One of his many songs, "No One Left", which compares the aftermath of September 11 (September 11, 2001 attacks) to that of a U.S. attack on Iraq, appears on the album ''Songs and Artists that Inspired Fahrenheit 9 11''. '''Jay Montgomery Garner''' (born April 15, 1938) is a retired United States Army lieutenant general (Lieutenant general (United States)) who was appointed in 2003 as Director of the Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (Coalition Provisional Authority) for Iraq following the 2003 invasion of Iraq but was soon replaced by Ambassador Paul Bremer (L. Paul Bremer) and the ambassador's successor organization to ORHA, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA). US arms trader to run Iraq ''The Observer'', March 30, 2003. doi accessdate began publishing claims that United States' concerns over the alleged threat posed by the possibility that Iran may have a nuclear weapons program (Iran and weapons of mass destruction) might lead the US government to take military action against that country in the future. These reports, and the concurrent escalation of tensions between Iran and some Western governments, prompted the formation of grassroots organisations, including Campaign Against Sanctions and Military Intervention in Iran in the US and the United Kingdom, to advocate against potential military strikes on Iran. Additionally, several individuals, grassroots organisations and international governmental organisations, including the Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Mohamed ElBaradei, Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq
Goldberg on the Iraq war in ''National Review Online'' In its new form, NLR has led with controversial editorials on the direction of world politics and major articles on the United States, China, Japan, Turkey, Europe, Britain, Indonesia, Cuba, Iraq, Mexico, India and Palestine. It has published work by Alain Badiou, Slavoj Žižek, David Graeber and Michael Hardt and featured analysis of global imbalances, the wars in Iraq
regarding Iraq and the War on Terror. For instance, on December 16, 2003, he was the top guest on ''The Big Story With John Gibson (John Gibson (media host))'', commenting on the tactics interrogators were likely to use on the just-captured Saddam Hussein. <
and the Persian Gulf area to support a multinational force in a standoff with Iraq. The Black Obelisk is a significant artifact from his reign. It is a black limestone, bas-relief sculpture from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq. It is the most complete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, and is historically significant because it displays the earliest ancient depiction of an Israelite. On the top and the bottom of the reliefs there is a long cuneiform inscription recording the annals of Shalmaneser III. It lists the military campaigns which the king and his commander-in-chief headed every year, until the thirty-first year of reign. Some features might suggest that the work had been commissioned by the commander-in-chief, Dayyan-Assur. Zinn said his experience as a wartime bombardier, combined with his research into the reasons for, and effects of the bombing of Royan and Pilsen, sensitized him to the ethical dilemmas faced by G.I.s (GI (military)) during wartime. Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq
and Stender are pro-choice. Lance was firmly opposed to negotiations with Iran on the presidential level, saying that he only favors holding such talks on a ministerial level. He also made energy independence one of his signature issues, along with fiscal accountability and debt reduction. On foreign policy, both candidates supported withdrawal from Iraq, a two-state solution in the Israel-Palestine conflict, and increased attention to the genocide in Darfur. When Suleiman
: psd.museum.upenn.edu epsd epsd e2182.html ĝir NATIVE (7x: Old Babylonian) from The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary). Literally, "land of the native (local, noble) lords". Stiebing (1994) has "Land of the Lords of Brightness" (William Stiebing, Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture). Postgate (1994) takes ''en'' as substituting ''eme'' "language", translating "land of the Sumerian tongue" ( Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq
Cause in an ontological and logical sense), Ghazali argues that what we observe as regularity in nature based presumably upon some natural law is actually a kind of constant and continual regularity. There is no independent necessitation of change and becoming, other than what God has ordained. To posit an independent causality outside of God's knowledge and action is to deprive Him of true agency, and diminish his attribute of power. In his famous example, when fire and cotton are placed
; He visited Pakistan in 2004 and met with political and religious leaders there as a part of his efforts to promote global peace. 'There's dignity of religion in Pakistan', The Times of India He is involved in interfaith dialogue and currently sits on the Board of World Religious Leaders for the Elijah Interfaith Institute.world-religious-leaders leaders-of-religions-of-india.html The Elijah Interfaith Institute – Hindu Members of the Board of World Religious Leaders. Elijah-interfaith.org (2007-05-18). Retrieved on 2011-09-07. Many volunteers assisted the 2004 tsunami (2004 Indian Ocean earthquake) victims and Hurricane Katrina victims, in Haiti and many other regions of conflict and natural disaster. There is a prison stress management and rehabilitation techniques program, known as Prison SMART (Stress Management and Rehabilitation Training), which assists many prisoners and prison staff worldwide. Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq
'''Iraq''' ( ''), is a country with an autonomous region, called Iraqi Kurdistan, in Western Asia. The country borders Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest, and Syria to the west. The capital, Baghdad, is in the center of the country and its largest city. The largest ethnic groups in Iraq are Arabs and Kurds. Other ethnic groups include Assyrians (Assyrian people), Turcoman (Iraqi Turkmens), Shabaki (Shabak people), Armenians (Armenians in Iraq), Mandeans, Circassians (Circassians in Iraq) and Kawliya form the minorities. Around 95% of the country's 36 million citizens are Shia or Sunni Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also extant.
Iraq has a narrow section of coastline measuring Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through the center of Iraq and flow into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land.
The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is often referred to as Mesopotamia and thought to be the birthplace of writing and the world's oldest civilizations (cradle of civilization). The area has been home to continuous successive civilizations since the 6th millennium BC. At different periods in its history, Iraq was the center of the indigenous Akkadian (Akkadian Empire), Sumerian (Neo-Sumerian Empire), Assyrian (Neo-Assyrian Empire), and Babylonian (Neo-Babylonian Empire) empires. It was also part of the Median (Median Empire), Achaemenid (Achaemenid Assyria), Hellenistic (Seleucid Empire), Parthian (Arsacid Empire), Sassanid (Sassanid Empire), Roman (Roman Empire), Rashidun (Rashidun Caliphate), Umayyad (Umayyad Caliphate), Abbasid (Abbasid Caliphate), Mongol (Ilkhanate), Safavid (Safavid Empire), Afsharid (Afsharid dynasty), and Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) empires, and under British (United Kingdom) control as a League of Nations mandate.
Iraq's modern borders were mostly demarcated in 1920 by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres. Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Republic of Iraq was created. Iraq was controlled by (Ba'athist Iraq) the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (Ba'ath Party (Iraqi-dominated faction)) from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion (2003 invasion of Iraq) by the United States and its allies (Multi-National Force – Iraq), Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power and multi-party parliamentary elections (Iraqi parliamentary election, December 2005) were held. The American presence in Iraq (Iraq War) ended in 2011 but the Iraqi insurgency (Iraqi insurgency (post-U.S. withdrawal)) continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country.