was eventually subdued via French aerial bombardment of civilian areas, including Damascus. Michael Provence. ''The Great Syrian Revolt and the Rise of Arab Nationalism''. University of Texas, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005. '''Syria''' is located in Southwestern Asia (Southwest Asia), north of the Arabian Peninsula in the Middle East, at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Turkey on the north, Lebanon and Israel
Oriental Civilization, Number 63) The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (2010) ISBN 978-1-885923-66-0 p.2, at http: oi.uchicago.edu research pubs catalog saoc saoc63.html; "Radiometric data suggest that the whole Southern Mesopotamian Ubaid period, including Ubaid 0 and 5, is of immense duration, spanning nearly three millenia from about 6500 to 3800 B.C". these periods show ever increasing levels of advancement in agriculture, tool making and architecture
. Ancient Iraq thumb 320px right Cylinder Seal (File:Cylinder Seal, Old Babylonian, formerly in the Charterhouse Collection 09.jpg), Old Babylonian Period, c.1800 BCE, hematite. The king makes an animal offering to Shamash. This seal was probably made in a workshop at Sippar. Al-Gailani Werr, L., 1988. Studies in the chronology and regional style of Old Babylonian Cylinder Seals. Bibliotheca Mesopotamica, Volume 23. ref>
deployed to Iraq to conduct combat operations in the Al Anbar Province. From April to November 2008, 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion deployed to Iraq to conduct combat operations in Al Anbar Province for its third combat tour. In November 2009, elements of the Battalion deployed in support Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Gutierrez' post-2000 work and writings have moved away from an academic focus of literature and fine arts, and he now writes articles and essays more as a social
and became the 2d Cavalry Regiment - Stryker Brigade Combat Team with its home station in Germany. A new unit then uncased the colors of its new designation on June 1, 2006 - the 4th Brigade, 2d Infantry Division. Extermination camps It is believed that 25 major concentration camps existed, under the command of Şükrü Kaya, one of the right-hand men of Talaat Pasha. The majority of the camps were situated near Turkey's modern Iraqi
to widespread public recognition due to its remarkable service record. It has seen action in every major operation involving the RAF in the helicopter's 25-year service life,
Arabic scripts (Arabic alphabet) and consists of a modified form of the old Nabataean script (Nabataean alphabet). Its name is derived from the city of Kufa, Iraq, although it was known in Mesopotamia at least 100 years before the foundation of Kufa. At the time of the emergence of Islam, this type of script was already in use in various parts of the Arabian Peninsula. It was in this script that the first copies of the Qur'an were written. Life Eland received
, and called for expanding and developing social struggles against globalisation policies in the Arab region. Efforts toward Islamic unity Borujerdi was the first ''Marja''' to look beyond Iraq and Iran. He sent Sayyid Muhaqqiqi to Hamburg, Germany, Aqa-e-Shari'at to Karachi, Pakistan, Al-Faqihi to Madinah and Sayyid Musa Sadr (Musa al-Sadr) to Lebanon. The first verifiable presence of Islam in Korea dates back to the 9th century
is believed to illustrate Goudarz the Ashkanid king. Various war triumphs are also illustrated, and these are also believed to date back to the same historical era. The eminent Russian historian Tasit, claimed that these paintings illustrate the importance of this temple causing highly important triumph of Goudarz and Mehrdad the Ashkanid kings. The electorate of Iraq went to the polls on 15 October 2005 to vote in a referendum on whether or not to '''ratify the proposed constitution
in resolving theology and politics. His main contribution to the Mutazilite (Mu'tazili) school was in planting the seeds for the formation of its doctrine. Operational history Compass Call has demonstrated a powerful effect on enemy command and control networks in multiple military operations including Kosovo, Haiti, Panama, Iraq, Serbia, Afghanistan. Scowcroft was a leading Republican (U.S. Republican Party) critic of U.S. policy towards Iraq before and after
adult production and distribution studios (Pornography), including Anabolic Video, Black Market, Combat Zone (Combat Zone (Studio)), KBeech, Red Light District Video, Third World Media, and Wicked Pictures. Sex industry trade magazine AVN (AVN (magazine)) is also headquartered in Chatsworth. Following the declaration of independence in 1948, Arab armies invaded Israel. Egypt came from the south, Lebanon and Syria from the north, and Jordan from the east backed
'''Iraq''' ( ''), is a country with an autonomous region, called Iraqi Kurdistan, in Western Asia. The country borders Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest, and Syria to the west. The capital, Baghdad, is in the center of the country and its largest city. The largest ethnic groups in Iraq are Arabs and Kurds. Other ethnic groups include Assyrians (Assyrian people), Turcoman (Iraqi Turkmens), Shabaki (Shabak people), Armenians (Armenians in Iraq), Mandeans, Circassians (Circassians in Iraq) and Kawliya form the minorities. Around 95% of the country's 36 million citizens are Shia or Sunni Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also extant.
Iraq has a narrow section of coastline measuring Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through the center of Iraq and flow into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land.
The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is often referred to as Mesopotamia and thought to be the birthplace of writing and the world's oldest civilizations (cradle of civilization). The area has been home to continuous successive civilizations since the 6th millennium BC. At different periods in its history, Iraq was the center of the indigenous Akkadian (Akkadian Empire), Sumerian (Neo-Sumerian Empire), Assyrian (Neo-Assyrian Empire), and Babylonian (Neo-Babylonian Empire) empires. It was also part of the Median (Median Empire), Achaemenid (Achaemenid Assyria), Hellenistic (Seleucid Empire), Parthian (Arsacid Empire), Sassanid (Sassanid Empire), Roman (Roman Empire), Rashidun (Rashidun Caliphate), Umayyad (Umayyad Caliphate), Abbasid (Abbasid Caliphate), Mongol (Ilkhanate), Safavid (Safavid Empire), Afsharid (Afsharid dynasty), and Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) empires, and under British (United Kingdom) control as a League of Nations mandate.
Iraq's modern borders were mostly demarcated in 1920 by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres. Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Republic of Iraq was created. Iraq was controlled by (Ba'athist Iraq) the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (Ba'ath Party (Iraqi-dominated faction)) from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion (2003 invasion of Iraq) by the United States and its allies (Multi-National Force – Iraq), Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power and multi-party parliamentary elections (Iraqi parliamentary election, December 2005) were held. The American presence in Iraq (Iraq War) ended in 2011 but the Iraqi insurgency (Iraqi insurgency (post-U.S. withdrawal)) continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country.