of Parliament of the United Kingdom Parliament, 1801-1819#53 Geo. III 2 53 Geo. III , c. 155) (UK), also known as the Charter Act 1813.
communities . Epidemiology Among the Chinese, koro is confined to South China (Northern and southern China) and the lower Yangtze Valley. A 1992 study of self-report questionnaires suggests that in the epidemic area of China, koro victims are mostly Han (Han Chinese), male, young, single, poorly educated and fearful of supernatural forces (supernatural) and koro. The phenomenon is also found among
and European archipelagos, and the other covering Mesoamerica, the South East of the USA, and the Andean region. It was the Spanish (Spanish history) Conquistadores that fused this second oecumene within the first to create a single integrated "world system (World Systems Theory)". Cultural geography Some Muslim countries, like Indonesia and Malaysia were never subject to the authority of a Caliphate, with the exception of Aceh, which briefly acknowledged
volcanic lake in the world. Worldlakes.org '''Lombok''' is an island in West Nusa Tenggara (''Nusa Tenggara Barat'' or NTB) province, Indonesia. It forms part of the chain of the Lesser Sunda Islands, with the Lombok Strait separating it from Bali to the west and the Alas Strait between it and Sumbawa to the east. It is roughly circular, with a "tail" (Sekotong Peninsula) to the southwest, about 70 km across and a total area of about 4,725 km² (1,825 sq mi). The provincial capital and largest city on the island is Mataram (Mataram (city)). It is somewhat similar in size and density with neighboring Bali and shares some cultural heritage, but is administratively part of NTB along with sparsely populated Sumbawa. It is surrounded by a number of smaller islands locally called ''Gili (Gili Islands)''. Campus Lions Clubs Many Leos join a Campus Lions Club if they attend a university or college after high school graduation. There are more than 125 Campus Lions clubs in the world including nearly 2,500 members on college and university campuses in Australia, Brazil, China, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, England, Ethiopia, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Mongolia, Nepal, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uganda, United States, Venezuela, Kenya, Zimbabwe and Ghana-Lions KNUST. Campus Lions Clubs empower their members to create meaningful change in their communities while developing leadership and professional skills. Dmoz:Regional Asia Indonesia Commons:Category:Indonesia Wikipedia:Indonesia
Toba''' ( . It is the largest lake in Indonesia (List of lakes in Indonesia) and the largest
locations, Mount Lumut (the ''locus classicus (wikt:locus classicus)'' of the species), Mount Poka Pindjang, Mount Roroda Timbu, Mount Sojol, Mount Tambusisi, and the Tomongkobae Mountains. The species has a known altitudinal distribution of 1400–2500 m above sea level. It is a small modern housing area near Bogor, West Java. It is about 48 km south of Indonesia's capital city, Jakarta
. Pickpocket and theft are a real concern though. In addition to PELNI's slow boats, '''ASDP''' runs fast ferries (''Kapal Ferry Cepat'', rather amusingly abbreviated ''KFC'') on a number of popular routes. Both PELNI and ASDP tickets can be booked via travel agents. Last but not least, there are also countless services running short island-to-island hops, including between Merak in Java to Sumatra's Bakauheni (hourly), Java and Bali (every 15 min) and Bali and Lombok (near-hourly). In general, schedules are notional, creature comforts sparse and safety records poor. Try to check what, if any, safety devices are on board and consider postponing your trip if the weather looks bad. As maintenance is poor and overloading is common, sinkings are all too common on ferries run by smaller companies, with reports of such each year, so try to stick to the larger ones if possible. Food on ferries varies from bad to inedible, and journey times can stretch well beyond the schedule, so bring along enough to tide you over even if the engine stalls and you end up drifting for an extra day. If you have trouble with motion sickness, buy some medicine such as Dramamine or Antimo. Ferries have different classes of seats, with the most expensive (and cleanest) section on top with comfortable seats and windows for a nice frontal view, followed by second class behind that in a separate room that is more cramped and dirtier with less comfortable seating, and third class is usually on the lower decks and is the worst, although different ferries may have their own organisation. Of course, vehicles are housed below on the main deck. You may get hassled by people on board trying to extract extra money under some dubious excuse. Feel free to ignore them, although on the upside, it may be possible to bribe your way to a better class of accommodation. In some places, even smaller boats, such as outriggers, glass-bottom boats, sailboats, motorboats and fishing boats, may be the only form of transport available, and prices can vary from a small amount to tens of dollars. Be prepared by finding out the prices and routes ahead of time and always haggle. Some of these boats can be rented out for fishing, snorkeling, scuba diving and touring. By train '''PT Kereta Api''', ☎ +62 21 121, the government-owned train company, runs trains across most of Java and some parts of Sumatra. The network was originally built by the Dutch, but few new lines have been built since the Independence, with the exception of revitalization. Maintenance quality is increasingly acceptable, and derailments and crashes occur rarely. As are state-run companies, the customer service is polite but not always interested in pleasing the customer in the case of a problem. Java has by far the best railway network, with trains connecting the capital city, Jakarta, with other main cities such as Surabaya, Semarang, Yogyakarta and Solo. Jakarta also has a line of commuter trains within the metro area. Bandung is connected to Jakarta by some 20 trains per day, and is itself connected to Surabaya through Yogyakarta. Bali has no railway lines, but there are trains to Banyuwangi, connecting with ferries to the island. Generally, the trains travel through scenic areas, and travelers not in a hurry should consider the length of the journey and the scenery as a bonus to their travels, although some slums are built around tracks. Theft is not a big issue in executive class but precautions are advisable on all trains, especially the cheapest ones. Sumatra's networks exists around Medan, West Sumatra, Lampung, and South Sumatra. Passenger trains on the island are much less frequent than in Java. Class of service Please mentioned that all types of train and also the commuter train in Java are air conditioned. But all are not designed to accommodate disability persons and senior citizens. *'''Eksekutif''' class has pre-assigned seating only and you should be prepared with full-length clothes as the temperature is usually rather low (perhaps 18 degrees Celsius). These trains feature paired reclining seats with foot rests (and, for a group of four, you can have the paired seats turned to face each other), televised entertainment (when the TV isn't broken and the signal is good) and you can purchase food, although the quality is not very good and it's over-priced. You can ask rent for blankets and pillows during the trip. *'''Bisnis''' class has fans and windows that can be opened and the seats are positioned normally. *'''Ekonomi''' classes are also available for the most budget-conscious traveller. *Commuter trains have sideways seating with poles and hand straps for standing passengers and, during peak hours, can be very crowded, although they are usually air-conditioned and usually have cars at either end for women only. No sleeping car service is provided in Indonesia because of the relatively short duration of travel (a maximum of 7 hours). Train stations are guarded by train police, who wear drab uniforms, but there may also be regular police or, rarely, military personnel. Tickets can be purchased ninety days in advance, although generally they will still be available at the last minute. An exception is the very busy Lebaran season, when it is not advisable to travel due to the extremely high demand for tickets. Online ticket reservation is available on the official website. You may need to provide a photocopy of your identification at the time of purchase for all trains except the commuter trains. Sometimes, discounts are offered for particular lines, but you have to order well in advance to get them. Senior citizens ages 60 and above are eligible for a 20% discount. Be sure to check that your ticket is correct '''before''' you leave the ticketing window. You can also buy tickets at minimarts and post offices and charge Rp6,000 more for the administration fee, but they don't sell reduced fare tickets. Minimarts also allow for payment with debit credit card with a minimum payment of Rp50,000 and can be combined with your snack and drink payment. The ticket reservation from the official PT Kereta Api website and mobile app is only available in Indonesian. A common problem shared with quite a few airline booking was the rejection of foreign-issued credit cards used for payment. An alternative way to reserve your train ticket is through the booking portal tiket.com, with an English language interface and less glitches with payment.. A major drawback is that after payment is complete, you will receive an online confirmation which then has to be exchanged with the real ticket at your departure station an hour before departure or earlier by using machine likes ATMs in front of the station. You should use original ID and the ticket (same name) to enter the station. Larger train stations usually have multiple platforms and regular service to many cities, but the smallest stations only have infrequent stops and one platform. Be sure to ask in advance which platform you'll need to go to. While you are waiting, most stations have stores and restaurants where you can buy food and drink to be consumed on board. Previously, vendors (''asongan'') would jump on the train and hawk their wares until the train started to leave. This was intrusive and noisy, although certainly convenient for passengers and vendors alike. As of 2012, vendors are not allowed on the train, but in small stations many still block the entrances to the cars while they call out to passengers inside. But with more express trains, the vendors are relatively diminishing. Toilets vary between squatting toilets or sit-down toilets without proper seats. Most executive trains have sprayers to wash your posterior with and a sink, and using a toilet can require a balancing act. Bring your own (wet) tissue, because if available, the tissue maybe is not in the normal dry condition. The toilets generally release directly onto the tracks, so using them while at a station is forbidden. By bus Buses are often run by cooperatives of drivers or by private companies (of which there are many of both) and follow specific routes - but they may deviate from their route if you ask, usually for a little bit extra. There are few bus stops in most cities and, except busways like TransJakarta and TransJogja (which have their own stops and possibly lanes), they will stop almost anywhere to pick up and drop off passengers. The major types of buses are air-conditioned bus (executive or AC) and non-air-conditioned bus (non-AC or "economy class"), and come in various sizes, such as the small ''angkot'', which have no AC and are very cramped, the mid-sized ''metro mini'', which may or may not have AC and have very little leg-room between seats, and the large ''bus'', which vary from cramped seating and no AC to luxurious seating and full facilities. Bus maintenance is sometimes poor but, in some places, such as Bali and Kupang, bus drivers take a great deal of pride in their vehicles by decorating them and taking good care of them. In some areas, drivers may be drunk or on drugs and, in any event, most drive aggressively or just recklessly. Often, drivers and their conductors will pack as many people as possible into their bus to improve profits, thereby increasing the risk of petty theft and accidents. Due to competition with shuttle service minibuses everywhere, buses tend to lack passengers, even the non-AC buses can carry all the passengers in the buses, no more passengers hanging out of the doors with one foot on the step and a hand holding on to something inside. Many buses, except perhaps the small ones due to lack of space, will allow wandering vendors, beggars and buskers onto their buses for short periods of time. It is possible to charter buses. The air-conditioned chartered buses can be rented with its drivers for a tourist group and, in fact, any size city bus will take on a charter assignment if the money is right. Indonesian bus companies offer intercity (''antar kota'') and inter-province (''antar propinsi'') routes. The inter-province routes usually include transportation to other islands mainly between Java and Sumatra and Java and Bali. In several cities, the government offers its own line, DAMRI, which comes in medium and large sizes and is generally air-conditioned, and tends to be in better condition. On occasion, there are reports of drivers and conductors colluding with criminals, but this usually happens at night or in desolate places. There are also reports of hypnotists robbing people of their possessions, and street vendors selling drugged beverages and drinks to waiting passengers at stops and terminals, who then become victims of crimes. Long, overnight journeys are particularly dangerous. Guard your bags like a hawk. In the wilder parts of the country (notably South Sumatra), inter-province buses are occasionally ambushed by bandits. By scheduled travel shuttle Mini shuttle is the latest mode of Indonesian transportation, growing inline with the new toll roads and better highways. The ''travel'', as locals call it, uses various AC minibus with passengers from 6 to 12 persons on reclining seats and run based on 'point to point' routes. It means every operator has their own (multiple) departure point at the cities they serve. The most developed route is between Jakarta and Bandung with ticket prices varying from Rp80,000 to Rp110,000 depending on convenience, seat pitch and luxury. The scheduled travel is generally more expensive than the regular inter-city buses, but is faster and has multiple departure arrival points. Your belongings are more secure, but expect to pay additional fees for surfboards and bulky packages. You can book at the respective companies, but last minute passengers are sometimes welcomed. By car Indonesian driving habits are generally '''atrocious''' and the rule is "me first," often signaled by using the horn or lights, or sometimes not at all. Lanes and traffic laws are happily ignored, passing habits are suicidal and driving on the road shoulder is common. Emergency vehicles are often ignored simply because all their space has already been used, making a ride in an ambulance a chancy proposition. Drivers tend to pay the most attention to what they can see in front of them and peripherally, and far less to what is behind their peripherals and to the rear. Mirrors may or may not be consulted before lane changes. Distances between vehicles tend to be small and drivers are noted for their ability to squeak by with almost no space, but side view mirrors are frequent victims of such acts. Bumper to bumper driving at high speed is frequent; practice defensive driving and always be ready to brake suddenly if necessary. The number one cause of death and injury on the road, however, is motorcycle accidents. Traffic drives on the '''left''' in Indonesia, at least most of the time. Please beware of motorcycles passing on the left, especially when you turn left. Renting a car in Indonesia is cheap compared to renting in many other countries, costing start from USD12.5 day, and fuel costs remain relatively low, due to low (fuel) tax: starting on January 1, 2015 standard petrol (''bensin'' ''premium'') is not subsidized anymore with price Rp7,600 liter (octane number 88) and diesel (''Solar'') is still subsidized Rp1,000 liter becomes Rp7,250 liter, but both price will be fluctuated depends on international crude oil price. For affluent citizens, there are more expensive varieties of petrol with octane number 92 and 95 for an additional Rp1,000 to Rp2,000, the use of which is encouraged for cars. To drive a car in Indonesia yourself, a current home-nation-issued driver's licence of the appropriate class must be carried, plus an International Driver's Permit (IDP) of that same class. There are '''no''' exceptions to this unless you are holding an Indonesian SIM (driver's licence) of the appropriate class. Careful consideration must be given, however, as many travel insurance policies may only acknowledge responsibility if the driver has an applicable home-issued licence, with the fully matching IDP. Consider renting a car with a driver; the additional cost is quite low, approximately Rp150,000 or less, plus three square meals a day for Rp20,000 to Rp25,000 each, and an optional room and board. Having a driver also reduces your chance of having an accident for they know how to pass the frantic traffic and know a faster way to reach your destination. Road conditions and road maintenance in Indonesia are rudimentary outside major cities and certain tourist destinations. During the rainy season, major roads in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi are often flooded or blocked by landslide for several days. Toll roads, which are of better quality, still has spotty coverage and is only in big cities. Seat belts must be worn especially in the front seat, although this is sometimes poorly implemented and inspected. By taxi For a group of two to four people, a taxi may be the best choice for relatively short journeys. Taxi fares in Indonesia are relatively cheap: after the November 2014 fuel hike many taxis have a minimum payment of Rp 20,000 and Rp 25,000, it can drive for about 5 kilometres (the flagfall is about Rp 7,500 and subsequent kilometer is Rp 4,000), but rises higher if you are trapped in a traffic jam. Most people recommend taxis for their convenient booking, polite drivers and safe driving. Blue Bird Taxis are available in many of the main cities. Uber Taxi is now operating in Indonesia. The tariff is about half that for a regular taxi. UberBlack uses Toyota Camry or Toyota Innova cars: Flagfall is Rp 3000 and the next kilometer is Rp 2000. UberX, which will start operating soon (as of 2015), will use Toyota Avanza cars and have lower tariffs than UberBlack. Uber Taxi currently operates in Jakarta and will start business soon in other big cities and Bali. Payments are by credit card. By angkot Angkot means Angkutan Perkotaan or City Transport, but in big cities, angkot also serve up to 20 kilometers outside the city boundaries, such as in Jakarta-Depok, Bandung-Soreang, Bandung-Cimahi, Bandung-Lembang, etc. The tariff is more expensive than TransJakarta and other Trans in other cities, but still relatively low — about Rp2000 to Rp4000. Angkot use modified pickups to be minibuses, but the seats are face to face and can carry more than 10 persons. New angkot use high roofs, which is more convenient for getting in and out. Since many people who previously rode angkot now have their own motorcycle (a faster way to get through traffic jams), angkot now typically have many empty seats, and there are many available even during peak hours, when waits are less than 5 minutes. By becak thumb 240px ''Becak'' in Bandung (Image:Indonesia bike46.jpg) '''''Becak''''' ("BEH-chahk") is a colourfully decorated tricycle (pedicab) transportation mode for short distances such as residential areas in many cities. The passengers' seat can be covered by a convertible-style canvas or plastic roof, and they sometimes add a sheet of clear plastic in front during rainstorms. In some areas, the driver is sitting at the back of the passenger, but in some areas (like Medan) the driver is sitting to the side of the passenger. Some drivers have started to outfit their ''becak'' with small motors in various cities. Good communication and haggling skills are integral to assure you get to your destination and to prevent getting overcharged on these rides. Some sly drivers try to get some more money out of you after you've reached your destination, ensure you know how much it costs beforehand. You can hire a group of ''becak'' if you're in a group, or you can even hire them to transport belongings, blocks of ice, groceries, building materials etc. You may ask the driver to take you somewhere else for an extra fee, and they may be willing to take you on a viewing and or shopping tour for even more money. If you take a shopping tour, they will generally guide you to specific venues with which they have informal agreements that give them extra income from your purchases, or perhaps a free meal. Note that there are no ''becak'' in Jakarta or Bali. Instead, the motorised ''bajaj'' (BAH-jai), somewhat similar to the Thai tuk-tuk, serves the same function. In some other provinces (e.g. North Sumatra, Aceh) you can also find motorbikes with sidecars, known as '''bentor''' or '''bemo''' (short for ''becak bermotor''). Becak is the most expensive form of public transport, and nowadays, it's rarely used except by elderly women who are carrying goods from traditional markets. Youngsters use ojek if they are carrying fish or other smelly products, or otherwise use angkot. In some cities such as Yogyakarta, the use of the becak has diminished so much that it's almost only for tourists. By bajaj Less common than the ''becak'', and found only practically in Jakarta city is the Indian '''''bajaj''''' (BAH-jai), which the new ones are blue painted (likes BlueBird Taxi color), with a black roof. This small, three-wheeled vehicle is powered by CNG, so it is quieter than the old 2-power strokes bajajs which it are not exist anymore, because it follow replacement program with more old bajajs are replaced by one new bajaj, so the new bajajs are not so many as old bajajs before. The driver sits in front and the passengers (up to 3 small adults) in the back. The cabin is covered by a canvas roof and there is a windshield and, while doors don't have windows and are half-height, the sides and back of the roof may have soft plastic windows. You may ask the driver to take you somewhere else for an extra fee, and they may be willing to take you on a viewing and or shopping tour for even more money. If you take a shopping tour, they will generally guide you to specific venues with which they have informal agreements that give them extra income from your purchases, or perhaps a free meal. As with most small forms of transport, communication and haggling skills are important, and it is best to know the price before talking to a driver. By bemo thumb left Daihatsu Midget MP4, which in Indonesia are used to carry passengers (File:Daihatsu Midget MP5 at Toyota Museum.jpg) Less common than the ''bajaj'' is the '''''bemo''''' (BAY-mo), which are usually painted blue. This odd and unique three-wheeler looks like a tiny truck and passengers gain access through the back, which is open and benches are fixed to each side of the bed for six passengers and one passenger side of the driver. Introduced in the late 1950s, the Daihatsu Midget MP4 was originally designed for cargo but in Indonesia the cargo bed has been modified to carry passengers. The engine is just 305 cc and so it is slowly, and suited only for journeys of a few kilometres. Haggling with the driver over the price is needed. By horsecart Horsecarts, often called '''''delman''''' (DEL-mahn) or '''''dokar''''' (DOE-car), usually sport a roof for the wagon, which usually has 2 wheels but may have 4, are quaintly decorated, and are pulled by one horse. These are not available everywhere, but are more common than one might think. In some places, such as Gili Air (Lombok) where motorised vehicles are both impractical and forbidden, they are the only form of transport, but you can also find them in large cities like Jogjakarta and Semarang. They generally follow a specific route but you may ask the driver to take you somewhere else for an extra fee, and they may be willing to take you on a viewing and or shopping tour for even more money. If you take a shopping tour, they will generally guide you to specific venues with which they have informal agreements that give them extra income from your purchases, or perhaps a free meal. As with most small forms of transport, communication and haggling skills are important, and it is best to know the price before talking to a driver. By ojek If you're in a hurry and you are alone, then an '''''ojek''''' (OH-jeck), or motorcycle taxi without meter, might be the ticket for you. Ojek services consist of people with bikes lounging around street corners, or less commonly in motorcycle taxi stands (POS OJEK), rarely identified with a coloured, numbered jacket, who usually shuttle people short distances down alleys and roads but will also do longer trips for a higher price. As with most small forms of transport, communication and haggling skills are important, and it is best to know the price before talking to a driver. The price is about Rp10,000 to Rp15,000 for 5 kilometres, negotiating skill is important and in POS OJEK usually is more expensive, you are better to appointed your direct finger to driver you assume as Ojek driver. By motorcycle In many parts of Indonesia, such as Bali and Yogyakarta, it is possible for tourists to rent a motorcycle to get around. The prices are usually around Rp 50,000-60,000. These days an automatic transmission motorcycle is normally provided. Popular models are Honda Vario, Honda Beat, Honda Scoopy, and Yamaha Mio, and they range in engine capacity from 110cc to 125cc. You should negotiate a price and seek a discount for longer rental periods. Be sure to check the motorcycle offered is completely roadworthy and that a current Surat Tanda Nomor Kendaraan (STNK, which is proof of registration and legality) is present with the motorcycle. People who rent the motorcycles may be unconcerned with whether or not you have a driver's license, however, to ride a motorcycle in Indonesia, a current home nation issued driver's license of the appropriate class must be carried, plus an International Driver's Permit (IDP) of that same class. There are '''no''' exceptions to this unless you are holding an Indonesian Surat Izin Mengemudi (SIM C), that is a license for a sepeda motor (motorbike). Careful consideration must be given to being provided with a SIM C if not also possessing an appropriate home-issued license and IDP. Many travel insurance policies may only acknowledge responsibility if you possess an applicable home issued license, with the fully matching IDP. A 'moped' classification or endorsement is not sufficient, it must be a '''full''' license. Helmets are required to be worn, so make sure they provide them for you. Having an accident while not wearing one will also likely void your travel insurance policy, or provide some serious policy complications if making a claim. When riding in Indonesia, it is required to wear a helmet and have your headlamp and tail lamp illuminated, night and day. Be sure to drive defensively as most road users are quite reckless and an astounding number of the visitors to Indonesian hospital emergency rooms and morgues were only recently sitting on a motorbike. On foot A typically unpopular way to explore what the world has to offer is by foot. Especially in a big city with all the traffic frenzies and small alleys in many others, walking can be a dramatically faster and more efficient option, although the hot humid air may still tempt you to use a taxi. However, most cities do not have properly marked sidewalks or even none at all, the best thing you can do is walk along its rim. Especially in big cities, cross only at the marked crosswalks or use the overhead bridge if you do not want to get caught in an accident. Talk Dmoz:Regional Asia Indonesia Commons:Category:Indonesia Wikipedia:Indonesia
to feature music videos. The album sold 40 million copies worldwide. Nazia and Zoheb released their fourth studio album, ''Hotline (Hotline (Nazia and Zohaib Hassan album))'' (1987), which featured the duo's younger sister, Zahra Hassan. The group released their last studio album ''Camera Camera (Camera Camera (Nazia and Zohaib Hassan album))'' in 1992, which was also the first album produced by Zoheb Hassan. '''antv''' is an Indonesian television network based in South Jakarta. It is owned by PT Visi Media Asia Tbk. (Visi Media Asia) Dmoz:Regional Asia Indonesia Commons:Category:Indonesia Wikipedia:Indonesia
, Indonesia also wanted a powerful position in the region that could be lessened by the creation of united Malaysia. The Netherlands retained Dutch New Guinea, but Indonesia threatened to invade and annex it. A vote was supposedly taken under the UN sponsored Act of Free Choice to allow West New Guineans to decide their fate, although many dispute its veracity. Later, Portugal relinquished control over East Timor in 1975, at which time Indonesia promptly invaded and annexed it. Sarawak and Sabah Another controversial episode with perhaps more relevance was the British beginning their exit from British Malaya. An experience concerned the findings of a ''United Nations Assessment Team'' that led the British territories of Sarawak and Sabah in 1963 to determine whether or not the populations wished to become a part of the new Malaya Federation. Dmoz:Regional Asia Indonesia Commons:Category:Indonesia Wikipedia:Indonesia
, 15 km north from Mungkid and 75 km south of Semarang, the capital of Central Java. http: www.javatourism.com index.php?Page 619 History and geography Indonesians and others have farmed shrimp for centuries, using traditional low-density methods. Indonesian brackish water ponds, called ''tambaks'', can be traced back as far as the 15th century. They used small scale ponds for monoculture or polycultured
islands were passed down from the Sultan of Sulu to Spain, the United States, Great Britain on behalf of the State of North Borneo, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and finally to Malaysia. Even though this is not the reason that the islands fall into sovereignty of Malaysia because neither the parties having found to have treaty based title to Sipadan Island and Ligitan Island. Sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan (Indonesia Malaysia) (17 December 2002
'''Indonesia''' ( ), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising thousands of islands (List of islands of Indonesia). "The Naming Procedures of Indonesia's Islands", ''Tenth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names'', New York, 31 July – 9 August 2012, United Nations Economic and Social Council It encompasses 34 provinces (Provinces of Indonesia). Two provinces were Special Administrative Regions (one (Special Region of Yogyakarta) for being governed by pre-colonial monarchy and another one (Aceh) for using the Sharia Law), with an estimated population of over 252 million people, making it the world's fourth most populous (List of countries by population) country. Indonesia's republican form of government comprises an elected legislature and president. The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia (Australia–Indonesia border), Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy (Economy of Indonesia) is the world's 17th (List of countries by GDP (nominal)) largest by nominal GDP.
The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE (Common Era), and Hindu (Hinduism in Southeast Asia) and Buddhist (Buddhism) kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history (History of Indonesia) has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought the now-dominant Islam (Islam in Southeast Asia), while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku (Maluku Islands) during the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism (Dutch East Indies), Indonesia secured its independence (Indonesian National Revolution) after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, mass slaughter (Indonesian killings of 1965–66), corruption (Corruption in Indonesia), separatism, a democratization process (Post-Suharto era), and periods of rapid economic change.
Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic (Ethnic groups in Indonesia) and linguistic groups (Languages of Indonesia). The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese (Javanese people). A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, ''"Bhinneka Tunggal Ika"'' ("Unity in Diversity" ''literally,'' "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.