Airlines Flight 091 crash. *Raja Inal Siregar, 67, former Governor of North Sumatra, Indonesia, Mandala Airlines Flight 091 crash. thumb 200px The Blue Diamonds with host on the set of a 1961 Dutch tv show (File:The_Blue_Diamonds.png) The '''Blue Diamonds''' were a Dutch (Netherlands) 1960s doo-wop duo (Duet (music)), best known for their million-selling chart-topping (record chart) single (single (music)), "Ramona (Ramona (song))". Indo people Indo
as an arranger, producer and pianist, resulted in his wife Ilse Huizinga's first nomination for Holland's top music award, The Edison Award. In August 2004 he was a finalist at the Deloitte Jazz Award 2004 at the Bimhuis cultural centre in Amsterdam. In the same year he conducted a series of masterclasses in Indonesia, at the invitation of the Conservatory (music school) of Rotterdam. '''Club Monaco''' is a mid-priced, high-end casual clothing retailer Dmoz:Regional Asia Indonesia Commons:Category:Indonesia Wikipedia:Indonesia
, Sukarno made friendly advances to the US, the Soviet Union and later, China. He also tried to play one against another as he attempted to develop the nation as a non-aligned state. Much to the dismay of post-war Western governments, Sukarno became engaged in extensive dialogue with the Soviets and accepted civil and military aid, equipment, and technical assistance from the USSR. Sukarno publicly claimed that his engagement with the Soviets was to assist in promoting the new Republic of Indonesia as a non-aligned post-war state and to assist in rebuilding the nation following the Pacific arena of WWII. The US, confronted by an archipelago apparently in the grasp of emerging Indonesian nationalism, sought to gain and maintain control over the important resources and shipping routes of the region. It supported anti-Sukarno activities and operations to destabilise the nationalist movement. In 1957-58, the CIA infiltrated arms and personnel in support of regional rebellions against Sukarno, but many other actions were taken. The actions were supported from the US embassy in Singapore, by elements of the US 7th fleet and with the co-operation and support of the UK government and western intelligence agencies. The New Order The Coup There appear to have been two factions - those generals that were in support of Sukarno and the foreign-backed generals who sought his downfall. From 1960-1966, Subandrio, Sukarno's foreign minister, second deputy prime minister and chief of intelligence, had infiltrated agents into a secret meeting of right-wing generals plotting the overthrow of Sukarno. In September 1965, six army generals were kidnapped and murdered in an apparent coup attempt. The circumstances surrounding what happened and why are not entirely known, and official accounts seem suspect. Parts of the military were active, including armed forces in strategic Merdeka Square. General '''Suharto''' then reportedly quelled this action within the armed forces in a single day. The communists were blamed for the uprising, but it appears probable that Suharto used the situation to usurp power from Sukarno, and those who had conspired against Sukarno condemned what had happened to their opponents. The Purges Suharto initially claimed to support President Sukarno but then seized power himself, sidelining Sukarno, and proclaimed an ''Orde Baru'' (New Order). A series of bloody anti-Communist purges was then initiated, leading to the death of up to two million people (estimates vary widely). The Western governments turned a blind eye to the massacres and they remained substantially unreported in the West for a considerable time. Many historians have since shed light on the involvement of the US intelligence services and to a lesser degree their mutual contacts in British, German and Japanese intelligence in the circumstances leading up to the seizure of power by Suharto and the subsequent murderous purges. Criminal gangs' services were also employed to commit acts of political murder and torture, and this is still a sensitive subject in Indonesia, as some of the same gangs continue to have power and influence today. Suharto's regime Under Suharto from 1966 to 1998, Indonesia enjoyed stability and economic growth, but most of the wealth was concentrated in the hands of a small corrupt elite and dissent was brutally crushed. Opposition to Suharto was reputedly dealt with by kidnappings in the middle of the night, kangaroo courts and imprisonment, and some dissidents simply vanished. Despite these black events, many Indonesians still choose to focus on the relative prosperity of his reign. Reformation During the Asian economic crisis of 1997, the value of the Indonesian rupiah plummeted, halving the purchasing power of ordinary Indonesians. In the ensuing violent upheaval in 1998, there were riots and ethnic purges that mostly targeted ethnic Chinese, primarily in and around Jakarta. Looting, rape and murder of many Chinese occurred and it is still unclear how many victims there were. Many cases remain unsolved. Suharto became a major target for those who sought to reform Indonesia and, after the period known as ''Reformasi'', Suharto was brought down and a more democratic regime installed. Years later, a case was eventually brought against him on various charges. However, the trial was never completed as his doctors kept claiming he was too ill to stand trial and he eventually died in 2010 and received a hero's burial. Secessionist movements thumb The Grasberg open-pit gold and copper mine, in Tembagapura, Papua (File:Grasberg mine.jpg), has been a scene of conflict The former Portuguese colony of East Timor was occupied and annexed by Indonesia in 1975, but experienced armed resistance. After decades of occupation a referendum for independence was overwhelmingly approved by the people of East Timor in 1999 followed by independence from Indonesia in 2002. A violent secessionist movement took place in the devoutly Islamic state of Aceh at the northern tip of Sumatra. Decades of insurgency was broken by the '''2004 tsunami''', which killed over 200,000 people in Aceh. The Indonesian government and the Free Aceh Movement (''Gerakan Aceh Merdeka'', GAM) signed a peace deal the next year, with Aceh giving up its fight for independence in exchange for being granted special autonomy including the right to enact ''Syariah'' (Islamic) law and, to date, the peace has held. Some attempts to gain Papua's independence have occurred over the years and there is still sporadic violence, including the shootings of locals and foreigners. The capital Jayapura, Wamena and Asmat as well as the new Raja Ampat resort and diving site are considered safe since they are far from the trouble on the main Papua island. Elections by citizens After Suharto's fall, he was replaced by a series of interim leaders: B.J. Habibie (Suharto's vice president), Parliament-chosen Abdurrahman "Gus Dur" Wahid (who only lasted one year) and, finally, Gus Dur's vice president Megawati Sukarnoputri, the daughter of Sukarno. In 2004, Indonesia held the first direct election of the president and vice president. Former General Susilo Bambang Yudhono (SBY) and Jusuf Kalla defeated incumbent Megawati through an alliance between then-weak ''Partai Demokrat'' and ''Partai Golongan Karya'' (Workers' Party), as well as other small parties. The second election was held in 2009, and "SBY" as incumbent with Boediono as his new running mate handily defeated all contenders, including Jusuf Kalla and Megawati. In 2014, Joko Widodo, from Megawati's Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan (Indonesian Democratic Party – Struggle) won a hard-fought election against Prabowo Subianto, a former general with a very unsavoury past. Known as Jokowi in Indonesia, the new president is a popular reformist whose work as Governor of Jakarta has been widely praised. Reinvention Currently, Indonesia is one of the world's largest democracies and the most populous Muslim-majority democracy. It is going through a period of difficult reforms and re-invention following the Reformasi and the institution of a democratically elected government. To assist in the transformation from the years of centralised control under the Suharto regime, the role of regional and provincial governments has been strengthened and enhanced. The election process in Indonesia has a high participation rate and the nature and fabric of governance and administration is slowly changing across Indonesia. Change in the nation since the fall of Suharto has also been characterised by greater freedom of speech and a massive reduction in the political censorship that was a feature of Suharto's New Order era. There is more open political debate in the news media as well as in general discourse, political and social debate. Indonesia is now the largest economy in Southeast Asia, and a member of the elite G-20 group of major economies. Legal concerns However, there are laws in place that prevent foreigners from being involved politically, and another law prevents derogatory comments about the state-approved religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism and Islam). Sadly, laws about corruption are weak and sentences are generally light when handled by the regular courts. The ''Komite Pemberantasan Korupsi'' (Anti-Corruption Commission) is stricter about this and has its own police force and courts, but the KPK has been experiencing problems. KPK cases are mostly for Jakarta and Java and cases involving other islands are rarely enforced well enough to stop the illegal behaviour that caused them, such as the illegal deforestation and development in Kalimantan. Don't lose hope, fearless traveller! Things have slowly been improving, despite some intransigent corrupt operators in various departments of the government that you may have to deal with, and the requests for money, furniture, "blue" films and such have decreased and the quality of service in some Immigration offices has become better. The key is to remember that one bribe opens the floodgates, so never bribe. People Despite 50 years of promoting ''Bhinneka Tunggal Ika'' ("Unity in Diversity") as the official state motto, the concept of an "Indonesia" remains artificial and the country's citizens divide themselves amongst a vast slew of ethnicities, clans, tribes and even castes. If this isn't enough, religious differences add a volatile ingredient to the mix and the vast gaps in wealth reinforce a class society as well. On a purely numerical scale, the largest ethnic groups are the Javanese (45%) of central (Central Java) and eastern Java (East Java) who enjoy an unfair dominance across the nation, the Sundanese (14%) from western Java (West Java), the Madurans (7.5%) from the island of Madura, and Coastal Malays (7.5%), mostly from Sumatra. This leaves 26% for the Acehnese and Minangkabau of Sumatra, the Balinese, the Iban and Dayaks of Kalimantan, and a bewildering patchwork of groups in Nusa Tenggara and Papua — the official total is no less than 3,000. For the most part, Indonesia's many peoples co-exist happily, but ethnic conflicts do continue to fester in some remote areas of the country. The policy of '''transmigration''' (''transmigrasi''), initiated by the Dutch but continued by Suharto, resettled Javanese, Balinese and Maduran migrants to less crowded parts of the archipelago. The new settlers, viewed as privileged and insensitive, were often resented by the indigenous populace and, particularly on Kalimantan and Papua, this has sometimes led to violent conflict. One particularly notable ethnic group found throughout the country are the '''Indonesian Chinese''', known as ''Tionghoa'' or the somewhat derogatory ''Cina''. With an estimated 6-7 million, they make up 3% of the population and represent one of the largest ethnic Chinese groups outside of China itself. Indonesian Chinese were encouraged to settle in the then-Dutch East Indies by the Dutch, although they were treated as second-class citizens, effectively middle managers between the European rulers and the rest of the population. After the departure of the Dutch, many Indonesian Chinese worked as shopkeepers and money-lenders, but a very wealthy subset of the community has wielded enormous influence in the locally-owned economic sector, with one famous — if largely discredited — study of companies on the Jakarta Stock Exchange concluding that as many as 70% of its companies (and, by extension, the country) were controlled by ethnic Chinese. They have thus been subject to persecution, with Chinese forcibly relocated into urban areas in the 1960s, forced to adopt Indonesian names and bans imposed on teaching Chinese and displaying Chinese characters. Anti-Chinese pogroms have also taken place, notably in the 1965-66 anti-Communist purges after Suharto's coup and again in 1998 after his downfall, when over 1,100 people were killed in riots in Jakarta and some other major cities. However, the post-''Reformasi'' governments have overturned most of the discriminatory legislation, and Chinese writing and Chinese festivals have made a reappearance, with the Chinese New Year having been declared a public holiday nationwide since 2003. While most of the Javanese Chinese only speak Indonesian, many of the Chinese in Sumatra and Kalimantan still continue to speak various Chinese dialects. To this day, many people feel resentment of, and sometimes even threatened by, the supposed ascendency of the Chinese. However, a sign of a new climate of greater tolerance may be detected in the October 2014 election to office of a new Jakarta Governor often known by his Hakka Chinese affectionate nickname of ''Ahok''. Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, to give him his proper Indonesian name, was not born in Java and is only the second Christian to be the Governor of Jakarta. His brave fights against corruption and transparent honesty have endeared him to many locals. Culture thumb 300px ''Wayang kulit'' shadow puppetry, Solo (Image:WayangKulit Scene Zoom.JPG) There is no one unified Indonesian culture as such, but the Hindu culture of the former Majapahit empire does provide a framework for many of the cultural traditions found across the central islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali and Lombok. Perhaps the most distinctively "Indonesian" arts are '''''wayang kulit''''' shadow puppetry, where intricately detailed cut-outs are used to act out scenes from the ''Mahabharata'' and ''Ramayana'' and other popular Hindu folk stories, and its accompaniment the '''''gamelan''''' orchestra, whose incredibly complex metallic rhythms are the obligatory backdrop to both religious ceremonies and traditional entertainment. Indonesia is culturally intertwined with the Malays (Malaysia), with notable items such as ''batik'' cloth and ''kris'' daggers, and Arabic culture has also been adopted to varying degrees thanks to Islam. Let's not forget the impact of Buddhism, the Portuguese, the English, the Japanese, the Chinese and, of course, the Dutch. Words from these can be found in Indonesian as well as in ethnic languages, and ethnic languages spill over into Indonesian, but only rarely have a national dispersion. The process of standardisation of language and culture in Indonesia has made headway as communications between villages and islands have become easier, and many areas that use to use only local languages now use Indonesian, too. Yet regional cultures remain strong in many areas, and probably will for the foreseeable future. For the visitor to Indonesia, the regional diversity is a wonderful thing, as cultures as different as those of Flores (Flores (Indonesia)), Bali, Sunda (West Java), Minangkabau (West Sumatra) and the Toba Batak (Lake Toba) country can be experienced on a single trip, with adequate time and planning. The variety of cultural, historical and religious sites and experiences, the vast array of traditional handicrafts, and the variety of activities one can experience in Indonesia are truly amazing. One interesting cultural experience is the Baduy (BAH-doo-ee) settlement in the province of West Java. This Sundanese city is characterised by people who reject technology and all its trappings, including deodorant! Visitors are welcome, but there are some restrictions such as a ban on the use of technology. This ban is most strictly enforced in the middle of the city, but also (to a lesser degree) in the outer parts. Culture hounds will find Ubud, a city on Bali to be an excellent place to go, but there are so many cultural experiences in Indonesia that it's almost impossible to make a list. Modern-day Indonesian popular culture is largely dominated by the largest ethnic group, the Javanese. Suharto's ban on Western imports like rock'n'roll, while long since repealed, led to the development of indigenous forms of music like ''dangdut'', a sultry form of pop developed in the 1970s, and the televised pelvic gyrating "''ngebor''" of singer Inul Daratista in 2003 was nearly as controversial as Elvis once was. '''Anggun Cipta Sasmi''' is a talented Indonesian singer who became famous in France. Her single "La neige au sahara" became a top hit on the European charts in the summer of 1997. '''Agnes Monica''' is an energetic dancer, actress and singer who recently performed a duet with Michael Bolton and gained international fame. Most Indonesian films are low-budget B-rated movies, although both the number of film productions and quality have increased steadily. "Daun di Atas Bantal" (1998) won the "best movie" award at the 1998 Asia Pacific Film Festival in Taipei, Taiwan. '''The Raid, Redemption''' (Indonesian: Serbuan maut), also known as ''The Raid'', was released in 2011 at the Toronto International Film Festival and has international distribution. This Indonesian ''action film'' had a production budget of GBP1.1 million. It was written and directed by Gareth Evans (''UK'') and starred Iko Uwais. Evans and Uwais released their first action film, '''Merantau''' in 2009. Both films showcase the traditional Indonesian martial art, Pencak Silat, which comes in numerous different flavors, and Iko's skills got the attention of Jackie Chan. thumb 300px Sundanese traditional singing performance (Image:SambaSunda Quintett in Cologne (0244).jpg) Indonesian literature has shown considerable domestic success as themes got more liberal and freedom of speech was expanded, but not a lot has made its way onto the world stage. Torch-bearer '''Pramoedya Ananta Toer''''s works were long-banned in his own homeland, but the post-Suharto era has seen a small boom. One notable example is '''Ayu Utami''''s ''Saman'', breaking both taboos and sales records right in the midst of Soeharto's fall. Perhaps the best example would be '''Andrea Hirata'''s '''Laskar Pelangi''' (2007): both the series of books and the movies are praised in Indonesia and around the globe. Probably the most important (although not universal) cultural feature present in most of the archipelago that you should be aware of is that of "face" or "honour," which stems from the principle of harmony. Harmony is considered so important that religious prohibitions on lying take a back seat to protecting someone's honour, which can be looked down on by foreigners. Harmony is, simply put, the effort to maintain peaceful co-existence and pleasant relationships. The harmonious organization of society is in fact the fundamental basis of ''wayang kulit'' plots and performances, and those of related traditional dramas, although some of these traditional values have been somewhat weakened in the process of transition from kingdoms through dictatorship to today's more democratic form of government. Nevertheless, conflict resolution is handled much differently than many foreigners might expect - don't expect that things will be done the way you are accustomed to. Religion thumb right 300px The Istiqlal Mosque and the Jakarta Catholic Cathedral at the center right are across each other to symbolize the harmony in religious diversity. (File:Istiqlal Mosque Monas.jpg) It is expected that people here have a religion, especially since the first principle of the ''Panca Sila'' ("five principles") is: "Ketuhanan yang maha esa", roughly translated as "There's only one god," so don't feel offended if someone asks you about your religious beliefs. Be careful, however, to avoid making disparaging remarks about any of the official religions, as the law protects them from such comments and you don't want to spend time in jail. Roughly 88% of the population of Indonesia state their religion as being Islam, making it numerically by far the largest religion in the nation and Indonesia the largest Muslim-majority country in the world. Nevertheless, Indonesia officially remains a secular state, with all the state-sanctioned religions, at least theoretically, given equal status under Indonesian law. Although religious orthodoxies do vary across the Indonesia archipelago, the strict observance of Islamic dress codes apparent in some countries is generally absent. In larger cities, headscarves and overt manifestations of faith are exceptions rather than the rule. In some regional areas and the devout state of Aceh, things can be considerably stricter. Despite being nominally Muslim, many local stories and customs which are Hindu, Buddhist or animist in origin are faithfully preserved by much of the population. During the 5 obligatory "''adzhan''" (call to prayer) and the subsequent time of prayer, it is expected that people will stop whatever they are doing, but this is not enforced in most places. The other five state-sanctioned religions are Protestantism (5%), Roman Catholicism (3%), Hinduism (2%), Buddhism (1%) and Confucianism (1%). Hindus are concentrated on Bali, while Christians are found mostly in parts of North Sumatra, Papua, North Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara, and Kalimantan. Buddhism, on the other hand, is mainly practiced by the ethnic Chinese in the larger cities, such as Bandung and Semarang. There are also some people in various parts of the country who practice traditional animist religions exclusively, and many Indonesians practice a form of Islam or Christianity that is syncretised with animistic or and Hindu beliefs that their ancestors had previously followed. In Java, this animistic belief system is called Kejawen, and while it is popular, it is condemned by the more strictly orthodox practitioners. Indonesian national law decrees that all citizens of the Republic must declare their religion and that the declared religion must be one of the six that are officially sanctioned by the state. This results in obvious distortions. For example, many animist practitioners notionally call themselves Muslim or Christian for the benefit of the state bureaucracy. There is some strife between religions, with the occasional bombing of a place of worship - usually mosques and churches, or violent conflicts between different religious groups - but these are isolated and usually happen in areas where travellers do not go. Folk beliefs Folk beliefs - both traditional ones and others recently adopted from other lands - are very much alive and a vital part of Indonesian culture(s). These are just a few examples of Indonesian folk beliefs and practices: The use of paranormals as well as ''dukun'' (medicine men, shamans or wizards) for both the black and white magic persuasions, and medical needs, is frequent, and there are even "reality" TV programs that feature Muslim clerics doing battle with invisible supernatural beings, which are usually bottled up and a painting or drawing is shown of the creature later, which is usually created by another Muslim cleric who makes the picture while blindfolded. Many people also believe that ''keris'' (wavy-bladed daggers traditionally made from the metal in a meteorite) and special rings with any one of a number of types of stones and gems affixed to them contain magical beings of limited intelligence and specific powers for the owner. These ''"makluk halus"'' (supernatural beings) are thought to prefer specific, well-cared for homes in these daggers and rings, and will desert them if the owner doesn't perform proper ceremonies on a specific basis. If the inhabited object or and spirits are neglected or abandoned, the spirits may attack people nearby, which may necessitate a healing ceremony and the propitiation of the spirits. The use of sleight of hand and other trickery is employed by some mystics and traditional healers, and some European and Chinese superstitions have been adopted, such as the fear of the number 13. Another example is a kejawen tradition that has been added to some religions, including Islam, whereby the umbilical cord and afterbirth are put in a clay urn and either hung outside the house from the rafters or buried in the yard with a red light placed over it. It is believed that it is the companion of the baby that was born and the light serves double duty by lighting its way into the afterlife and letting neighbours know the family has a new baby. A crying baby may sometimes be taken to this place to pacify or to provide it with reassurance, and an infant might be bathed at the location on some occasions for the same reason. Holidays Dmoz:Regional Asia Indonesia Commons:Category:Indonesia Wikipedia:Indonesia
and the ability to lock elbows in suspension. Its diet consists of fruits, leaves, and flowers. Partner universities The university maintains international ties with 136 universities in 26 countries: Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan
300px thumb Location of the epicentre of the quake An earthquake measuring 6.3 or 6.4 (according to preliminary data) on the Richter scale hit Indonesia (w:Indonesia) today, days after a larger earthquake hit the same region and triggered a tsunami and killed at least 520 people. The earthquake struck the Sunda Straits (w:Sunda Straits) separating the islands of Sumatra (w:Sumatra) and Java (w:Java). There are no immediate reports of damages. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said
, and Pura Uluwatu (Bukit Peninsula). A unique temple, Tanah Lot, is situated on an island right off the coast and is reached by an elevated land bridge. In the north of Bali, you can find small villages of the original Balinese, the Bali Aga (A-geh), as well as Trunyan island where the dead are buried above ground yet the smell of corpses is absent. Further east, Sumba is home to one of the few remaining megalithic cultures anywhere on earth. Many of the tribes there still live
for the Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy in NHL history after he made his NHL debut less than four months after suffering two broken legs in a serious automobile accident. He is best known for his strong defence and physical ability. His younger brother Richie (Richie Regehr) briefly played with him on the Flames. Early life Regehr was born on April 19, 1980 in Recife, Brazil, the second son of Canadian Mennonite missionaries (missionary) Ron and Edith Regehr. ref>
Edition page 74 url http: www.roughguides.com publisher Rough Guides isbn 1-84353-437-1 date August 2005 thumb A street dog in Bali (File:Street dog-Gianyar Bali-2009.jpeg), Indonesia, suffers from sarcoptic mange. In the Asia-Pacific region, Jersey Standard had oil production and refineries in Indonesia
himself is partly Chinese. His Predecessor, King Taksin of Thonburi dynastry, is the son of Chinese immigrant from Guangdong Province and is born with Chinese name. In Myanmar, the Chinese rarely intermarry (even amongst different Chinese linguistic groups), but have largely adopted the Burmese culture whilst maintaining Chinese culture affinities. Between 1965 to 1993, the affairs of state once were prevent to those with Chinese name, yielded the number of people switched to the local term instead in Cambodia. Indonesia, and Myanmar were among the countries that do not allow birth names to be registered in foreign languages, including Chinese. But since 2003, the Indonesian government has allowed overseas Chinese to use their Chinese name or using their Chinese family name on their birth certificate. Dmoz:Regional Asia Indonesia Commons:Category:Indonesia Wikipedia:Indonesia
, the United Kingdom, and the United States. :'''2.''' Of your articles or contributions to Wikipedia, are there any about which you are particularly pleased, and why? ::'''A'''. I'm pretty fond of Mataram; I really enjoyed researching and writing it. Lately, I've been gradually expanding the many short articles on the islands (Islands of Indonesia) and provinces (Provinces of Indonesia) of Indonesia with history and general background information. This is taking a while, but Ternate and Morotai are coming along. :'''3.''' Have you been in any conflicts over editing in the past or do you feel other users have caused you stress? How have you dealt with it and will deal with it in the future? In 1661, Koxinga forced a landing on Luerhmen ( Dmoz:Regional Asia Indonesia Commons:Category:Indonesia Wikipedia:Indonesia
'''Indonesia''' ( ), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising thousands of islands (List of islands of Indonesia). "The Naming Procedures of Indonesia's Islands", ''Tenth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names'', New York, 31 July – 9 August 2012, United Nations Economic and Social Council It encompasses 34 provinces (Provinces of Indonesia). Two provinces were Special Administrative Regions (one (Special Region of Yogyakarta) for being governed by pre-colonial monarchy and another one (Aceh) for using the Sharia Law), with an estimated population of over 252 million people, making it the world's fourth most populous (List of countries by population) country. Indonesia's republican form of government comprises an elected legislature and president. The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia (Australia–Indonesia border), Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy (Economy of Indonesia) is the world's 17th (List of countries by GDP (nominal)) largest by nominal GDP.
The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE (Common Era), and Hindu (Hinduism in Southeast Asia) and Buddhist (Buddhism) kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history (History of Indonesia) has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought the now-dominant Islam (Islam in Southeast Asia), while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku (Maluku Islands) during the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism (Dutch East Indies), Indonesia secured its independence (Indonesian National Revolution) after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, mass slaughter (Indonesian killings of 1965–66), corruption (Corruption in Indonesia), separatism, a democratization process (Post-Suharto era), and periods of rapid economic change.
Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic (Ethnic groups in Indonesia) and linguistic groups (Languages of Indonesia). The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese (Javanese people). A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, ''"Bhinneka Tunggal Ika"'' ("Unity in Diversity" ''literally,'' "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.