History of the National Park Service

What is History of the National Park Service known for?


numerous legal

thumb (File:Redwood light.jpg)During the 1960s numerous legal challenges arose over the mission of the National Park Service. Using the court decisions, Congress supplemented and clarified the Organic Act of 1916 (National Park Service Organic Act) through the General Authorities Act of 1970. Additional challenges during the 1970s required that Congress again clarify the mission of the National Park Service. The Redwood Act


national wild

include a diverse varieties of areas —National Parks, National Monuments (U.S. National Monument), National Memorials, National Military Parks, National Historic Sites (National Historic Sites (United States)), National Parkways, National Recreation Areas, National Seashores, National Scenic Riverways (National Wild and Scenic River), National Scenic Trails, and others. Lee, Ronald F.; Family Tree of the National Park System, A Chart


quot creation

and prosecution of Mission 66, the emergence of a national "crisis in outdoor recreation," creation of the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission and the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, and mounting national concern for better preservation of America's vanishing wilderness. Between the Reorganization of 1933 and the Reorganization of 1964, 1 102 areas were added to the System as defined today, increasing the total number from 137 to 239 The distribution of the new areas among categories is significant. Of the new additions, 11 were "Natural Areas", increasing their number from 58 to 69 or 19%. Seventy-five were "Historical Areas", increasing their number from 77 to 152 or 96%. Fifteen were "Recreation Areas", increasing their number from one to 16, or 1500%. It is clear that during this period the growth rate for Natural Areas noticeably diminished from previous levels and by comparison with the rate for other categories, even though very important additions of natural lands were still being made. On the other hand the growth rates for Historical and Recreation Areas accelerated sharply. It took the Service a generation, from 1933 to 1964, to assimilate these 102 diverse new areas and the 71 areas added by the Reorganization of 1933 and incorporate them securely into one National Park System. Natural areas, 1933 - 1966 thumb 400 px right Olympic National Park (Pacific Coast section) (File:Coast3full.jpg) class "wikitable" border "1" - ! Date ! Park - 1933, Aug 22 Cedar Breaks N.M (Cedar Breaks National Monument)., Utah - 1934, May 30 Everglades N.P. (Everglades National Park), Florida - 1935, June 20 Big Bend N.P. (Big Bend National Park), Texas - 1936, Aug 16 Joshua Tree N.M. (Joshua Tree National Park), Calif (California) - 1937, April 13 Organ Pipe Cactus N.M. (Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument), Ariz (Arizona) - 1937, Aug 2 Capitol Reef N.M. (Capitol Reef National Park), Utah - 1938, April 26 Channel Islands N.M. (Channel Islands National Park), Calif (California). - 1938, June 29 Olympic N.P. (Olympic National Park), Washington (Washington (U.S. state)) - 1940, March 4 Kings Canyon N.P. (Kings Canyon National Park), Calif (California). - 1943, March 15 Jackson Hole N.M. (Jackson Hole National Monument), Wyoming - 1950, Sept 14 Grand Teton N.P. (Grand Teton National Park), Wyoming - 1956, Aug 2 Virgin Islands N.P. (Virgin Islands National Park), V.I. (Virgin Islands) - 1958, March 28 Petrified Forest N.P. (Petrified Forest National Park), Arizona - 1960, Sept 13 Haleakala N.P. (Haleakala National Park), Hawaii - 1961, Dec 28 Buck Island Reef N.M. (Buck Island Reef National Monument), V.I. (Virgin Islands) - Jackson Hole (Jackson Hole, Wyoming), had been talked of as a possible addition to Yellowstone (Yellowstone National Park) as early as 1892, and from 1916 onward the Service and Department of the Interior (United States Department of the Interior) actively sought its preservation in the National Park System. It was John D. Rockefeller, Jr., however, who rescued Jackson Hole. In 1926 he visited the area and discovered the cheap commercial development, on private lands, in the midst of superlative natural beauty. There were dance halls, hot dog stands, filling stations, rodeo grand stands, and billboards, blocking the view of the Teton Range. thumb 400 px right Grand Teton National Park (File:Barns grand tetons.jpg)Rockefeller began a land acquisition program. In a few years he held over (Category:United States National Park Service) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


national historical

on military reservations; thumb 300 px right Fort Matanzas National Monument (File:Fortwestern.jpg) class "wikitable" border "1" - ! Year ! ! Monument - 1910 June 23 Big Hole Battlefield (Big Hole National Battlefield), Mont. - 1913 Oct. 14 Cabrillo (Cabrillo National Monument), Calif. - 1923 March 2 Mound City, Ohio (now Hopewell Culture National Historical Park) - Fort Marion, Fla. (now Castillo de San Marcos National Monument

Man National Historical Park Seventy-five Historical Areas were added to the National Park System between 1933 and 1964, including nine National Historic Sites and one International Park in non-federal ownership. Areas represented nine historic themes: I. ''The Original Inhabitants'' (6); II. ''European Exploration & Settlement'' (12): III. ''Development of the English Colonies'', 1700-1775 (2); IV. ''Major American Wars'' (10): V. ''Political and Military Affairs'' (16); VI. ''Westward

and important urban historic site. Some architectural monuments, including the Old St. Louis Post Office and the Cathedral, have been carefully preserved, but the main feature of the area is the only major national memorial of modern design in the United States, and one of a small number in the world — Eero Saarinen's stainless steel Arch. In 1948 Congress authorized another major urban project, the Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, the most important historical area in the United States, embracing Independence Hall and Square, Congress Hall, Carpenters Hall, and many other sites and buildings associated with independence and the establishment of a government under the Constitution. The method of analyzing complex urban problems was used in Boston, where it led to authorization of Minute Man National Historical Park in 1959 and other sites, including the Bunker Hill Monument, Faneuil Hall, and the Old Boston State House (Old State House (Boston)). A commission was established for New York City, where a complex of urban monuments were added, including Federal Hall, Castle Clinton, Grant Memorial, Hamilton Grange, Theodore Roosevelt's Birthplace (Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site), and Sagamore Hill to the previously authorized Statue of Liberty National Monument, whose boundaries were extended to include Ellis Island. The Historic American Buildings Survey was organized in 1933 upon the initiative of Mr. Charles E. Peterson of the National Park Service in cooperation with officials of the Library of Congress and the American Institute of Architects. Since 1933 the HABS has gathered more than 30,000 measured drawings, 40,000 photographs, and 13,000 pages of documentation for more than 13,000 of the Nation's historic buildings. thumb 300 px right Ellis Island, Main Hall (File:Ellis Island Hall Interior.JPG)The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings was organized after passage of the Historic Sites Act in 1935. Beginning in 1960, the responsibilities of this Survey staff were extended to include recommendation of an important series of National Historic Landmarks, officially designated by the Secretary of the Interior. On October 9, 1960 Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton announced the first official list of 92 historic sites and buildings eligible for designation as National Historic Landmarks. (Category:United States National Park Service) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


small white

as the small white frame house General Meade had used as headquarters. With interest and support from both North and South Congress decided to go beyond the former battlefield monument concept to authorize the first four National Military Parks — Chickamauga & Chattanooga (Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park) in 1890, Shiloh (Shiloh National Military Park) in 1894, Gettysburg (Gettysburg Battlefield) in 1895, and Vicksburg (Vicksburg National Military Park) in 1899


interest

and Henry David Thoreau and painters Thomas Cole and Frederick Edwin Church began to compete with prevailing view of wilderness as a challenge to overcome. Slowly unspoiled nature and spectacular natural areas of the West became better known, the idea of saving such places became of interest. In California, several state leaders sought to protect Yosemite Valley. In 1864, Sen. John Conness of California sponsored an act to transfer the valley and nearby Mariposa

600 ft m abbr on vertical climb The Antiquities Act of 1906 was designed to protect antiquities and objects of scientific interest on the public domain. It authorized the President (President of the United States), "to declare by public proclamation historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest" that existed on public lands in the United States. The Act declared these sites to be National Monuments. It prohibited

as the small white frame house General Meade had used as headquarters. With interest and support from both North and South Congress decided to go beyond the former battlefield monument concept to authorize the first four National Military Parks — Chickamauga & Chattanooga (Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park) in 1890, Shiloh (Shiloh National Military Park) in 1894, Gettysburg (Gettysburg Battlefield) in 1895, and Vicksburg (Vicksburg National Military Park) in 1899


national interest

Almanac The Alaska expansion File:Lake Clark National Park.jpg thumb to the National Park System


high public/

the people of the United States. The authorization of activities shall be construed and the protection, management, and administration of these areas shall be conducted in light of the high public value and integrity of the National Park System and shall not be exercised in derogation of the values and purposes for which these various areas have been established, except as may have been or shall be directly and specifically provided by Congress.’ (16 USC Ia-I) Management Policies 2001, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service; December 2000 National lakeshores thumb Grand portal at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (File:Pictured Rocks - Grand portal.jpg)The first national lakeshores were created in 1966 from some of the remaining unspoiled or unique coastlines of the Great Lakes. The first lakeshores were Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in the Upper Penninsla of Michigan and the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Indiana as a part of the Greater Chicago urban area. In 1970, two additional lakeshores were added. Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore on Michigans western shore of Lake Michigan, and Apostle Islands National Lakeshore on Wisconsins Lake Superior shore. National Heritage Area Heritage areas were first established to identify regions having a common cultural impact on the development of the United States. The Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail in the Virginia, Maryland and District of Columbia was established on March 28, 1983. Fourteen areas exited by November 12, 1996. Initially, all the heritage areas were in the east and northeast. Today, they exist from coast to coast. The entire State of Tennessee has been designated as the Tennessee Civil War Heritage Area NPS Heritage Areas Urban recreation areas During the Richard Nixon (Richard M. Nixon) presidency, public parks expanded with the creation of the two gateway parks. Golden Gate National Recreation Area in San Francisco became the western book end to Gateway National Recreation Area in New York City. Both were specifically created to serve these two major urban areas and create open space, rather than to preserve a specific scenic or cultural value. The Alaska expansion thumb Category:United States National Park Service (File:Lake Clark National Park.jpg) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


major national

and important urban historic site. Some architectural monuments, including the Old St. Louis Post Office and the Cathedral, have been carefully preserved, but the main feature of the area is the only major national memorial of modern design in the United States, and one of a small number in the world — Eero Saarinen's stainless steel Arch. In 1948 Congress authorized another major urban project, the Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, the most important historical area in the United States, embracing Independence Hall and Square, Congress Hall, Carpenters Hall, and many other sites and buildings associated with independence and the establishment of a government under the Constitution. The method of analyzing complex urban problems was used in Boston, where it led to authorization of Minute Man National Historical Park in 1959 and other sites, including the Bunker Hill Monument, Faneuil Hall, and the Old Boston State House (Old State House (Boston)). A commission was established for New York City, where a complex of urban monuments were added, including Federal Hall, Castle Clinton, Grant Memorial, Hamilton Grange, Theodore Roosevelt's Birthplace (Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site), and Sagamore Hill to the previously authorized Statue of Liberty National Monument, whose boundaries were extended to include Ellis Island. The Historic American Buildings Survey was organized in 1933 upon the initiative of Mr. Charles E. Peterson of the National Park Service in cooperation with officials of the Library of Congress and the American Institute of Architects. Since 1933 the HABS has gathered more than 30,000 measured drawings, 40,000 photographs, and 13,000 pages of documentation for more than 13,000 of the Nation's historic buildings. thumb 300 px right Ellis Island, Main Hall (File:Ellis Island Hall Interior.JPG)The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings was organized after passage of the Historic Sites Act in 1935. Beginning in 1960, the responsibilities of this Survey staff were extended to include recommendation of an important series of National Historic Landmarks, officially designated by the Secretary of the Interior. On October 9, 1960 Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton announced the first official list of 92 historic sites and buildings eligible for designation as National Historic Landmarks. (Category:United States National Park Service) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


service published

on work projects guided by a technical and professional staff numbering several thousand. As this program got under way it became painfully evident that in the 1930s most states lacked any kind of comprehensive plans for state park systems. In 1941 the Service published its first comprehensive report, ''A Study of the Park and Recreation Problem in the United States'', a careful review of the whole problem of recreation and of national, state, county, and municipal parks in the United States

History of the National Park Service

Lee, Ronald F.; Family Tree of the National Park System, A Chart with Accompanying Text Designed to Illustrate the Growth of the National Park System 1872-1972; 1972 (File:FamilyTree ofthe NationalParkService.jpg) -- Since 1872 the United States National Park System has grown from a single, public reservation called Yellowstone National Park to embrace over 450 natural, historical, recreational, and cultural areas throughout the United States, its territories, and island possessions. These areas include a diverse varieties of areas —National Parks, National Monuments (U.S. National Monument), National Memorials, National Military Parks, National Historic Sites (National Historic Sites (United States)), National Parkways, National Recreation Areas, National Seashores, National Scenic Riverways (National Wild and Scenic River), National Scenic Trails, and others. Lee, Ronald F.; Family Tree of the National Park System, A Chart with Accompanying Text Designed to Illustrate the Growth of the National Park System 1872-1972; 1972

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