History of the National Park Service

What is History of the National Park Service known for?


national interest

Almanac The Alaska expansion File:Lake Clark National Park.jpg thumb to the National Park System


critical history

: Howe Brothers, 1985. * Albright, Horace M, and Marian Albright Schenck. ''Creating the National Park Service: The Missing Years''. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999. * EVERHARDT, William C. ''The National Park Service''. New York: Praeger, 1972. * Hartzog, George B. Jr; ''Battling for the National Parks''; Moyer Bell Limited; Mt. Kisco, New York; 1988 * Ise, John. '''Our National Park Policy: A Critical History'''. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1961. * Lee, Ronald F.; ''Family Tree


parks

longEW region_code employees 21,000 budget minister1_name minister1_pfo minister2_name minister2_pfo (etc.) chief1_name chief1_position chief2_name chief2_position (etc.) parent_agency Department of the Interior child1_agency child2_agency (etc.) website www.nps.gov footnotes !-- Deleted image removed: File:FamilyTree ofthe NationalParkService.jpg thumb right 200 Illustration of the lines of parks that form the National Park Service today

include a diverse varieties of areas —National Parks, National Monuments (U.S. National Monument), National Memorials, National Military Parks, National Historic Sites (National Historic Sites (United States)), National Parkways, National Recreation Areas, National Seashores, National Scenic Riverways (National Wild and Scenic River), National Scenic Trails, and others. Lee, Ronald F.; Family Tree of the National Park System, A Chart

with Accompanying Text Designed to Illustrate the Growth of the National Park System 1872-1972; 1972 Beginnings National Parks 1864-1891 Thumb 250 px left Half Dome by Gunnar Widfoss(1922) (File:Half Dome Yosemite National Park Painting.jpg)The national park idea has been credited to the artist George Catlin. In 1832 he traveled the northern Great Plains of the United States, where he became concerned about the destruction of the Indian civilization, wildlife


service published

on work projects guided by a technical and professional staff numbering several thousand. As this program got under way it became painfully evident that in the 1930s most states lacked any kind of comprehensive plans for state park systems. In 1941 the Service published its first comprehensive report, ''A Study of the Park and Recreation Problem in the United States'', a careful review of the whole problem of recreation and of national, state, county, and municipal parks in the United States


main feature

and important urban historic site. Some architectural monuments, including the Old St. Louis Post Office and the Cathedral, have been carefully preserved, but the main feature of the area is the only major national memorial of modern design in the United States, and one of a small number in the world — Eero Saarinen's stainless steel Arch. In 1948 Congress authorized another major urban project, the Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, the most important historical area in the United States, embracing Independence Hall and Square, Congress Hall, Carpenters Hall, and many other sites and buildings associated with independence and the establishment of a government under the Constitution. The method of analyzing complex urban problems was used in Boston, where it led to authorization of Minute Man National Historical Park in 1959 and other sites, including the Bunker Hill Monument, Faneuil Hall, and the Old Boston State House (Old State House (Boston)). A commission was established for New York City, where a complex of urban monuments were added, including Federal Hall, Castle Clinton, Grant Memorial, Hamilton Grange, Theodore Roosevelt's Birthplace (Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site), and Sagamore Hill to the previously authorized Statue of Liberty National Monument, whose boundaries were extended to include Ellis Island. The Historic American Buildings Survey was organized in 1933 upon the initiative of Mr. Charles E. Peterson of the National Park Service in cooperation with officials of the Library of Congress and the American Institute of Architects. Since 1933 the HABS has gathered more than 30,000 measured drawings, 40,000 photographs, and 13,000 pages of documentation for more than 13,000 of the Nation's historic buildings. thumb 300 px right Ellis Island, Main Hall (File:Ellis Island Hall Interior.JPG)The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings was organized after passage of the Historic Sites Act in 1935. Beginning in 1960, the responsibilities of this Survey staff were extended to include recommendation of an important series of National Historic Landmarks, officially designated by the Secretary of the Interior. On October 9, 1960 Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton announced the first official list of 92 historic sites and buildings eligible for designation as National Historic Landmarks. (Category:United States National Park Service) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


including early

Memorial Commission were assigned to the National Park Service in 1933 and the Memorial itself in 1938. National Military Parks line, 1781-1933 thumb left 300 px Battle of Cowpens Reenactment, 225th anniversary, January 14, 2006 (File:Cowpens225-2.JPG)The National Military Park line, including early battlefield monuments, began in 1781. Between 1890 and 1933 the War Department developed it into a National Military Park System. In 1933, there were twenty


interpretation+education

''. Merrillville, IN: ICS Books, 1994. * Sellars,Richard West, -- "A Very Large Array: Early Federal Historic Preservation--The Antiquities Act, Mesa Verde, and the National Park Service Act" (evolution of early national park system; legislative history; discussion of interpretation education in early national parks, etc.), published by the University of New Mexico School of Law, 2007. * WIRTH


public+involvement

Almanac National Park Service Almanac, Rocky Mountain Region, National Park Service, Office of Public Affairs, 2007 Director Hartzog (George B. Hartzog, Jr.) has been the superintendent of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial in St. Louis and was a supporter of public involvement and publicly accessible parks. It was the second 50 years that saw a significant increase in parks accessible to the general populations. Redwood amendment


early emphasis

turned over to state control in 1895. U.S. cavalry units took up a position in California-controlled Yosemite Park in 1891 and took over some management duties. In 1906 the park was completely taken into federal control. National Monument line I, 1906-1916 Early emphasis had been on the creation of National Parks, there was another movement seeking to preserve the cliff dwellings, pueblo ruins, and early missions throughout the west and southwest. Often local ranchers would try


Grand Canyon

- Growth, 1933-1966 thumb right 200 px Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1933 (File:FDR in 1933.jpg)The long period between 1933 and 1964, began with the need to assimilate 71 diverse areas into the System. Among many other measures in 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt instituted a broad program of natural resource conservation implemented in large part through the newly created Civilian Conservation Corps. At the program's peak in 1935, the Service had 600 CCC camps, 118 of them assigned to National Park System areas and 482 to State Parks, employing approximately 120,000 enrollees and 6,000 professionally trained supervisors. By mid-century, a great and growing backlog of deferred park maintenance and development projects, posed vast new problems for the Service and System. It was an era marked by the dramatic inauguration and prosecution of Mission 66, the emergence of a national "crisis in outdoor recreation," creation of the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission and the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, and mounting national concern for better preservation of America's vanishing wilderness. Between the Reorganization of 1933 and the Reorganization of 1964, 1 102 areas were added to the System as defined today, increasing the total number from 137 to 239 The distribution of the new areas among categories is significant. Of the new additions, 11 were "Natural Areas", increasing their number from 58 to 69 or 19%. Seventy-five were "Historical Areas", increasing their number from 77 to 152 or 96%. Fifteen were "Recreation Areas", increasing their number from one to 16, or 1500%. It is clear that during this period the growth rate for Natural Areas noticeably diminished from previous levels and by comparison with the rate for other categories, even though very important additions of natural lands were still being made. On the other hand the growth rates for Historical and Recreation Areas

History of the National Park Service

Lee, Ronald F.; Family Tree of the National Park System, A Chart with Accompanying Text Designed to Illustrate the Growth of the National Park System 1872-1972; 1972 (File:FamilyTree ofthe NationalParkService.jpg) -- Since 1872 the United States National Park System has grown from a single, public reservation called Yellowstone National Park to embrace over 450 natural, historical, recreational, and cultural areas throughout the United States, its territories, and island possessions. These areas include a diverse varieties of areas —National Parks, National Monuments (U.S. National Monument), National Memorials, National Military Parks, National Historic Sites (National Historic Sites (United States)), National Parkways, National Recreation Areas, National Seashores, National Scenic Riverways (National Wild and Scenic River), National Scenic Trails, and others. Lee, Ronald F.; Family Tree of the National Park System, A Chart with Accompanying Text Designed to Illustrate the Growth of the National Park System 1872-1972; 1972

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