History of the National Park Service

What is History of the National Park Service known for?


early emphasis

turned over to state control in 1895. U.S. cavalry units took up a position in California-controlled Yosemite Park in 1891 and took over some management duties. In 1906 the park was completely taken into federal control. National Monument line I, 1906-1916 Early emphasis had been on the creation of National Parks, there was another movement seeking to preserve the cliff dwellings, pueblo ruins, and early missions throughout the west and southwest. Often local ranchers would try


professional study

. These areas were not selected at random but constituted, almost from the beginning, a rational system, designed to preserve major battlefields for historical and professional study and as lasting memorials to the great armies of both sides. The National Military Park System was approaching maturity under the War Department (United States Department of War) in 1933 when all these battlefields were transferred to the National Park Service to become a significant and unique element in the National Park System. All of the exhibits are permanent,and will always be shown in the museum. National Cemetery line, 1867-1933 thumb 300 px right Gettysburg National Cemetery (File:Gettysburg national cemetery img 4164.jpg)The National Cemeteries (United States National Cemetery) in the National Park System are closely related to the National Military Parks. The battle of Gettysburg was scarcely over when Governor Andrew Y. Curtin (Pennsylvania) hastened to the field to assist local residents in caring for the dead or dying. More than 6,000 soldiers had been killed in action, and among 21,000 wounded hundreds more died each day. Initially interred in improvised graves on the battlefield, Curtin approved plans for a Soldier's National Cemetery. William Saunders (William Saunders (botanist)) planned Gettysburg National Cemetery. He enclosed it with a massive stone wall, the lawns were framed by trees and shrubs. The graves were laid out in a great semicircle, state by state, around the site for a sculptured central feature, a Soldier's National Monument. The Soldier's National Cemetery, as it was then called, was dedicated by President Abraham Lincoln on November 19, 1863. The speaker's platform occupied the site set aside for the Soldier's National Monument, then awaiting future design. The immortal words of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address gave this spot a historical and patriotic association. Gettysburg National Cemetery became the honored property of the nation on May 1, 1872, now a century ago. Congress recognized the importance of honoring and caring for the remains of the war dead by enacting general legislation in 1867 which provided for a system of National Cemeteries developed by the War Department. Eleven of the National Cemeteries established under that authority were added to the National Park System in 1933. The act of 1867 also provided authority for preserving an important battlefield of the Indian wars when, on January 29, 1879, the Secretary of War designated "The National Cemetery of Custer's Battlefield Reservation." National Monument line II, 1910-1933; War Department The Antiquities Act of 1906 authorized the President to proclaim National Monuments not only on western public lands but on any lands owned or controlled by the United States. Between 1906 and 1933 successive Presidents proclaimed ten National Monuments on military reservations; thumb 300 px right Fort Matanzas National Monument (File:Fortwestern.jpg) class "wikitable" border "1" - ! Year ! ! Monument - 1910 June 23 Big Hole Battlefield (Big Hole National Battlefield), Mont. - 1913 Oct. 14 Cabrillo (Cabrillo National Monument), Calif. - 1923 March 2 Mound City, Ohio (now Hopewell Culture National Historical Park) - Fort Marion, Fla. (now Castillo de San Marcos National Monument) - 1924 Oct. 15 Fort Matanzas (Fort Matanzas National Monument), Fla. - Fort Pulaski, Ga. - Castle Pickney, S.C. (abolished 3 29 56) - Statue of Liberty, N.Y. - 1925 Feb. 6 Meriwether Lewis, Tenn. (now part of Natchez Trace Parkway - 1925 Sept. 5 Father Millet Cross, N.Y. (abolished March 29, 1956) The authority to proclaim National Monuments on military reservations is still valid, no others have been proclaimed. Instead, historic but obsolete fortifications are declared surplus by the United States Department of Defense and transferred to the National Park Service, the States, or other political subdivisions following Congressional authorization. National Monument line III, 1907-1933; Department of Agriculture Between 1907 and 1933, six presidents proclaimed 21 National Monuments on National Forest (United States National Forests) lands administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture: thumb right 300 px Sunset Crater, cinder cone (File:SUCR2262.jpg) * Lassen Peak, Calif. included in Lassen Volcanic National Park * Cinder Cone, Calif. * Gila Cliff Dwellings (Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument), N. Mex. * Tonto (Tonto National Monument), Ariz. * Grand Canyon (Grand Canyon National Park), Ariz. * Pinnacles (Pinnacles National Monument), Calif. (trans. to Interior Dept. Dec. 12, 1910) * Jewel Cave (Pinnacles National Monument), S. Dak. * Wheeler (Wheeler National Monument), Colo. (abolished Aug. 3, 1950) * Mount Olympus (Mount Olympus (Washington)), Wash. included in Olympic National Park * Oregon Caves (Oregon Caves National Monument), Ore. * Devils Postpile (Devils Postpile National Monument), Calif. * Walnut Canyon (Walnut Canyon National Monument), Ariz. * Bandelier (Bandelier National Monument), N. Mex. (trans. to N.P.S. Feb. 25, 1932) * Old Kassan, Alaska (abolished July 26, 1955) * Lehman Caves, Nev. became the nucleus of Great Basin National Park in 1986. * Timpanogos Cave (Timpanogos Cave National Monument), Utah * Bryce Canyon (Bryce Canyon National Park), Utah * Chiricahua (Chiricahua National Monument), Ariz. * Holy Cross (Mount of the Holy Cross), Colo. (abolished Aug. 3, 1950) * Sunset Crater, Ariz. * Saguaro (Saguaro National Monument), Ariz. The first two National Monuments in the Department of Agriculture were Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone, created within Lassen Peak National Forest, California, on May 6, 1907, to preserve evidence of what was then the most recent volcanic activity in the United States south of Alaska. In 1916 these two monuments formed the nucleus for Lassen Volcanic National Park. Fourteen of the other Department of Agriculture National Monuments were established to preserve "scientific objects". Moved by a report of plans to build an electric railway along its rim, President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed Grand Canyon National Monument on lands within the Grand Canyon National Forest, Arizona, on January 11, 1908. In 1919 the National Monument became the nucleus of Grand Canyon National Park. thumb right 300 px Downed Western Red Cedar (File:2000-09-23 GracieByDownedCyprus.jpg)Two days before leaving office, on March 2, 1909, Roosevelt proclaimed Mount Olympus National Monument, from lands in the Olympic National Forest, Washington (Washington (U.S. state)). It was established to protect the Olympic elk and important stands of Sitka spruce, western hemlock, Douglas-fir, and Alaska cedar and redcedar (Thuja plicata). It formed the nucleus for Olympic National Park in 1938. The authority to proclaim National Monuments on National Forest (United States National Forest) lands is still valid, only two others have been created between the Reorganization of 1933 and 1974. Both were placed under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, Cedar Breaks, Utah, (August 22, 1933), and Jackson Hole, Wyoming, (March 13, 1943). National Park System areas by category following the reorganization of 1933 class "wikitable" border "1" - ! Date ! Natural Areas ! Historical Areas ! Recreation Areas ! National Cap. Parks ! Others ! Total Areas in N.P. System - (Category:United States National Park Service) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


home national

World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument incorporated USS Arizona Memorial - 05 08 2008 Carter G. Woodson Home National Historic

-137 Ronald Reagan Boyhood Home National Historic Site, IL awaiting land acquisition - 01 10 2002 Additional reading * ALBRIGHT, Horace M. (as told to Robert Cahn). ''The Birth of the National Park Service''. Salt Lake City


national historical

on military reservations; thumb 300 px right Fort Matanzas National Monument (File:Fortwestern.jpg) class "wikitable" border "1" - ! Year ! ! Monument - 1910 June 23 Big Hole Battlefield (Big Hole National Battlefield), Mont. - 1913 Oct. 14 Cabrillo (Cabrillo National Monument), Calif. - 1923 March 2 Mound City, Ohio (now Hopewell Culture National Historical Park) - Fort Marion, Fla. (now Castillo de San Marcos National Monument

Man National Historical Park Seventy-five Historical Areas were added to the National Park System between 1933 and 1964, including nine National Historic Sites and one International Park in non-federal ownership. Areas represented nine historic themes: I. ''The Original Inhabitants'' (6); II. ''European Exploration & Settlement'' (12): III. ''Development of the English Colonies'', 1700-1775 (2); IV. ''Major American Wars'' (10): V. ''Political and Military Affairs'' (16); VI. ''Westward

and important urban historic site. Some architectural monuments, including the Old St. Louis Post Office and the Cathedral, have been carefully preserved, but the main feature of the area is the only major national memorial of modern design in the United States, and one of a small number in the world — Eero Saarinen's stainless steel Arch. In 1948 Congress authorized another major urban project, the Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, the most important historical area in the United States, embracing Independence Hall and Square, Congress Hall, Carpenters Hall, and many other sites and buildings associated with independence and the establishment of a government under the Constitution. The method of analyzing complex urban problems was used in Boston, where it led to authorization of Minute Man National Historical Park in 1959 and other sites, including the Bunker Hill Monument, Faneuil Hall, and the Old Boston State House (Old State House (Boston)). A commission was established for New York City, where a complex of urban monuments were added, including Federal Hall, Castle Clinton, Grant Memorial, Hamilton Grange, Theodore Roosevelt's Birthplace (Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site), and Sagamore Hill to the previously authorized Statue of Liberty National Monument, whose boundaries were extended to include Ellis Island. The Historic American Buildings Survey was organized in 1933 upon the initiative of Mr. Charles E. Peterson of the National Park Service in cooperation with officials of the Library of Congress and the American Institute of Architects. Since 1933 the HABS has gathered more than 30,000 measured drawings, 40,000 photographs, and 13,000 pages of documentation for more than 13,000 of the Nation's historic buildings. thumb 300 px right Ellis Island, Main Hall (File:Ellis Island Hall Interior.JPG)The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings was organized after passage of the Historic Sites Act in 1935. Beginning in 1960, the responsibilities of this Survey staff were extended to include recommendation of an important series of National Historic Landmarks, officially designated by the Secretary of the Interior. On October 9, 1960 Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton announced the first official list of 92 historic sites and buildings eligible for designation as National Historic Landmarks. (Category:United States National Park Service) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


quot creation

and prosecution of Mission 66, the emergence of a national "crisis in outdoor recreation," creation of the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission and the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, and mounting national concern for better preservation of America's vanishing wilderness. Between the Reorganization of 1933 and the Reorganization of 1964, 1 102 areas were added to the System as defined today, increasing the total number from 137 to 239 The distribution of the new areas among categories is significant. Of the new additions, 11 were "Natural Areas", increasing their number from 58 to 69 or 19%. Seventy-five were "Historical Areas", increasing their number from 77 to 152 or 96%. Fifteen were "Recreation Areas", increasing their number from one to 16, or 1500%. It is clear that during this period the growth rate for Natural Areas noticeably diminished from previous levels and by comparison with the rate for other categories, even though very important additions of natural lands were still being made. On the other hand the growth rates for Historical and Recreation Areas accelerated sharply. It took the Service a generation, from 1933 to 1964, to assimilate these 102 diverse new areas and the 71 areas added by the Reorganization of 1933 and incorporate them securely into one National Park System. Natural areas, 1933 - 1966 thumb 400 px right Olympic National Park (Pacific Coast section) (File:Coast3full.jpg) class "wikitable" border "1" - ! Date ! Park - 1933, Aug 22 Cedar Breaks N.M (Cedar Breaks National Monument)., Utah - 1934, May 30 Everglades N.P. (Everglades National Park), Florida - 1935, June 20 Big Bend N.P. (Big Bend National Park), Texas - 1936, Aug 16 Joshua Tree N.M. (Joshua Tree National Park), Calif (California) - 1937, April 13 Organ Pipe Cactus N.M. (Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument), Ariz (Arizona) - 1937, Aug 2 Capitol Reef N.M. (Capitol Reef National Park), Utah - 1938, April 26 Channel Islands N.M. (Channel Islands National Park), Calif (California). - 1938, June 29 Olympic N.P. (Olympic National Park), Washington (Washington (U.S. state)) - 1940, March 4 Kings Canyon N.P. (Kings Canyon National Park), Calif (California). - 1943, March 15 Jackson Hole N.M. (Jackson Hole National Monument), Wyoming - 1950, Sept 14 Grand Teton N.P. (Grand Teton National Park), Wyoming - 1956, Aug 2 Virgin Islands N.P. (Virgin Islands National Park), V.I. (Virgin Islands) - 1958, March 28 Petrified Forest N.P. (Petrified Forest National Park), Arizona - 1960, Sept 13 Haleakala N.P. (Haleakala National Park), Hawaii - 1961, Dec 28 Buck Island Reef N.M. (Buck Island Reef National Monument), V.I. (Virgin Islands) - Jackson Hole (Jackson Hole, Wyoming), had been talked of as a possible addition to Yellowstone (Yellowstone National Park) as early as 1892, and from 1916 onward the Service and Department of the Interior (United States Department of the Interior) actively sought its preservation in the National Park System. It was John D. Rockefeller, Jr., however, who rescued Jackson Hole. In 1926 he visited the area and discovered the cheap commercial development, on private lands, in the midst of superlative natural beauty. There were dance halls, hot dog stands, filling stations, rodeo grand stands, and billboards, blocking the view of the Teton Range. thumb 400 px right Grand Teton National Park (File:Barns grand tetons.jpg)Rockefeller began a land acquisition program. In a few years he held over (Category:United States National Park Service) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


numerous legal

thumb (File:Redwood light.jpg)During the 1960s numerous legal challenges arose over the mission of the National Park Service. Using the court decisions, Congress supplemented and clarified the Organic Act of 1916 (National Park Service Organic Act) through the General Authorities Act of 1970. Additional challenges during the 1970s required that Congress again clarify the mission of the National Park Service. The Redwood Act


high public

the people of the United States. The authorization of activities shall be construed and the protection, management, and administration of these areas shall be conducted in light of the high public value and integrity of the National Park System and shall not be exercised in derogation of the values and purposes for which these various areas have been established, except as may have been or shall be directly and specifically provided by Congress.’ (16 USC Ia-I) Management Policies 2001, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service; December 2000 National lakeshores thumb Grand portal at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (File:Pictured Rocks - Grand portal.jpg)The first national lakeshores were created in 1966 from some of the remaining unspoiled or unique coastlines of the Great Lakes. The first lakeshores were Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in the Upper Penninsla of Michigan and the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Indiana as a part of the Greater Chicago urban area. In 1970, two additional lakeshores were added. Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore on Michigans western shore of Lake Michigan, and Apostle Islands National Lakeshore on Wisconsins Lake Superior shore. National Heritage Area Heritage areas were first established to identify regions having a common cultural impact on the development of the United States. The Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail in the Virginia, Maryland and District of Columbia was established on March 28, 1983. Fourteen areas exited by November 12, 1996. Initially, all the heritage areas were in the east and northeast. Today, they exist from coast to coast. The entire State of Tennessee has been designated as the Tennessee Civil War Heritage Area NPS Heritage Areas Urban recreation areas During the Richard Nixon (Richard M. Nixon) presidency, public parks expanded with the creation of the two gateway parks. Golden Gate National Recreation Area in San Francisco became the western book end to Gateway National Recreation Area in New York City. Both were specifically created to serve these two major urban areas and create open space, rather than to preserve a specific scenic or cultural value. The Alaska expansion thumb Category:United States National Park Service (File:Lake Clark National Park.jpg) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


"demonstration forest"

, MS-AL-TN * 1949 Suitland (Suitland Parkway), DC-MD '''National Seashores''' * 1937 Cape Hatteras (Cape Hatteras National Seashore), NC * 1961 Cape Cod (Cape Cod National Seashore), MA * 1962 Point Reyes (Point Reyes National Seashore), CA * 1962 Padre Island (Padre Island National Seashore), TX * 1965 Assateague Island (Assateague Island National Seashore), MD-VA '''Recreational Demonstration Areas''' * 1936 Catoctin Mountain Park, MD * 1936 Prince William Forest

, the earliest inn on the Trace, Emerald Mound, one of the largest Indian ceremonial structures in the United States, Chickasaw Village and Bynum Mounds in Mississippi, and Colbert's Ferry and Metal Ford in Tennessee. Recreational demonstration areas thumb 300 px right One of many small cascades on the North Valley Trail in Prince William Forest Park (File:North valley trail pwfp.jpg)Like the Blue Ridge Parkway, two other Recreation Areas in today's National Park

Montezuma Castle , Arizona, is one of the best preserved cliff dwellings. Petrified Forest (Petrified Forest National Park), Arizona, is world renowned for its petrified wood, Indian ruins and petroglyphs. Three of these original National Monuments later became the core of National Parks. Mukuntuweap became Zion (Zion National Park), Sieur de Monts grew into Acadia (Acadia National Park), and Petrified Forest which was expanded by Congress to become a National Park of the same name


main feature

and important urban historic site. Some architectural monuments, including the Old St. Louis Post Office and the Cathedral, have been carefully preserved, but the main feature of the area is the only major national memorial of modern design in the United States, and one of a small number in the world — Eero Saarinen's stainless steel Arch. In 1948 Congress authorized another major urban project, the Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, the most important historical area in the United States, embracing Independence Hall and Square, Congress Hall, Carpenters Hall, and many other sites and buildings associated with independence and the establishment of a government under the Constitution. The method of analyzing complex urban problems was used in Boston, where it led to authorization of Minute Man National Historical Park in 1959 and other sites, including the Bunker Hill Monument, Faneuil Hall, and the Old Boston State House (Old State House (Boston)). A commission was established for New York City, where a complex of urban monuments were added, including Federal Hall, Castle Clinton, Grant Memorial, Hamilton Grange, Theodore Roosevelt's Birthplace (Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site), and Sagamore Hill to the previously authorized Statue of Liberty National Monument, whose boundaries were extended to include Ellis Island. The Historic American Buildings Survey was organized in 1933 upon the initiative of Mr. Charles E. Peterson of the National Park Service in cooperation with officials of the Library of Congress and the American Institute of Architects. Since 1933 the HABS has gathered more than 30,000 measured drawings, 40,000 photographs, and 13,000 pages of documentation for more than 13,000 of the Nation's historic buildings. thumb 300 px right Ellis Island, Main Hall (File:Ellis Island Hall Interior.JPG)The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings was organized after passage of the Historic Sites Act in 1935. Beginning in 1960, the responsibilities of this Survey staff were extended to include recommendation of an important series of National Historic Landmarks, officially designated by the Secretary of the Interior. On October 9, 1960 Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton announced the first official list of 92 historic sites and buildings eligible for designation as National Historic Landmarks. (Category:United States National Park Service) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


service

longEW region_code employees 21,000 budget minister1_name minister1_pfo minister2_name minister2_pfo (etc.) chief1_name chief1_position chief2_name chief2_position (etc.) parent_agency Department of the Interior child1_agency child2_agency (etc.) website www.nps.gov footnotes !-- Deleted image removed: File:FamilyTree ofthe NationalParkService.jpg thumb right 200 Illustration of the lines of parks that form the National Park Service today

Service on August 25, 1916. For years J. Horace McFarland, President of the American Civic Association; Secretaries of the Interior Walter Fisher (Walter L. Fisher) and Franklin K. Lane; Presidents William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson; Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr.; Representatives William Kent (William Kent (U.S. Congressman)) and John E. Raker of California; Senator Reed Smoot of Utah; Stephen T. Mather and Horace M. Albright had been seeking

History of the National Park Service

Lee, Ronald F.; Family Tree of the National Park System, A Chart with Accompanying Text Designed to Illustrate the Growth of the National Park System 1872-1972; 1972 (File:FamilyTree ofthe NationalParkService.jpg) -- Since 1872 the United States National Park System has grown from a single, public reservation called Yellowstone National Park to embrace over 450 natural, historical, recreational, and cultural areas throughout the United States, its territories, and island possessions. These areas include a diverse varieties of areas —National Parks, National Monuments (U.S. National Monument), National Memorials, National Military Parks, National Historic Sites (National Historic Sites (United States)), National Parkways, National Recreation Areas, National Seashores, National Scenic Riverways (National Wild and Scenic River), National Scenic Trails, and others. Lee, Ronald F.; Family Tree of the National Park System, A Chart with Accompanying Text Designed to Illustrate the Growth of the National Park System 1872-1972; 1972

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