Harran

What is Harran known for?


quot classical

as king in the Paikuli inscription, recording the victory of Narseh in the Sassanid civil war of 293. Historians identify this Amru as ''Amru ibn Adi'', the fourth king of the Lakhmid dynasty which was at that time still based in Harran, not yet moved to Hirah (al-Hirah) in Babylonia. A. T. Olmstead, "The Mid-Third Century of the Christian Era. II", ''Classical Philology'' (1942): 398-420 (see p. 399) - Nabu-na'id (Nabonidus) 556


prominent ancient

;. In classical Antiquity the region was called Osrhoene (Osroene) with the capital at Edessa Callirrhoe (ar-Ruha' (Şanlıurfa).) Ar-Ruha' and another prominent ancient town of the Balikh valley, Harran (Roman Carrhae), figure in the Muslim and Jewish traditions respectively in the stories of Abraham and other Hebrew patriarchs (Patriarchs (Bible)) (and matriarchs.) After the Islamic conquest in the 7th c. CE the region was known by the name of an Arab tribe Diyar Mudar, the land of the Mudar. In 762 the Caliph al-Mansur built a garrison city at the junction of the Euphrates, Ar-Rafiqa, which merged with the Hellenistic city Kallinikos into the urban agglomeration Ar-Raqqah. Meetings The Brethren regularly met on a fixed schedule. The meetings apparently took place on three evenings of each month: once near the beginning, in which speeches were given, another towards the middle, apparently concerning astronomy and astrology, and the third between the end of the month and the 25th of that month; during the third one, they recited hymns with philosophical content "The liturgy of the first night consisted of personal oratory; that of the second of a 'cosmic text', read under the starry heavens facing the polar star; and that of the third night of a philosophical hymn (implying a metaphysical or metacosmic theme) which was a 'prayer of Plato', 'supplication of Idris', or 'the secret psalm of Aristotle'." pg 35 of Nasr 1964 . During their meetings and possibly also during the three feasts they held, on the dates of the sun's entry into the Zodiac signs "Ram, Cancer, and Balance"), besides the usual lectures and discussions, they would engage in some manner of liturgy reminiscent of the Harranians "...the liturgy described by the Ikhwan seems to be more closely related to the religion of the heirs of the prophet Idris, that is, the Harranians who were the principal inheritors in the Middle East of what has been called "Oriental Pythagoreanism" and who were the guardians and propagators of Hermeticism in the Islamic world." pg 34 of Nasr 1964


site decades

;) surveyed the ancient Harran site. Decades later, in 1950, Seton Lloyd conducted a three-week archaeological survey there. Seton Lloyd and William Brice, Harran, Anatolian Studies, vol. 1, pp. 77–111, 1951 An Anglo (United Kingdom)–Turkish (Turkey) excavation was begun in 1951, ending in 1956 with the death of D. S. Rice. David Storm Rice, "Medieval Harran. Studies on Its Topography and Monuments I", ''Anatolian Studies'' '''2''':36–84, 1952 “The grand Mosque of Harran is the oldest mosque built in Anatolia as a part of the Islamic architecture. Also known as the Paradise Mosque, this monument was built by the last Ummayad caliph Mervan II between the years 744 -750. The entire plan of the mosque which has dimensions of 104x107 m, along with its entrances, was unearthed during the excavations led by Dr Nurettin Yardimer since 1983. The excavations are currently being carried out also outside the northern and western gates. The grand Mosque, which has remained standing up until today, with its 33.30 m tall minaret, fountain, mihrab, and eastern wall, has gone through several restoration processes”. Official noticeboard displayed on site Notables * Al-Battani, Sabian astronomer and mathematician * Belshazzar, Nabonidus's son and regent * Hammad al-Harrani, Islamic scholar * Ibn Taymiyyah, Islamic scholar * Nabonidus, the last Neo-Babylonian king See also *Cities of the ancient Near East *Short chronology timeline Notes Meetings The Brethren regularly met on a fixed schedule. The meetings apparently took place on three evenings of each month: once near the beginning, in which speeches were given, another towards the middle, apparently concerning astronomy and astrology, and the third between the end of the month and the 25th of that month; during the third one, they recited hymns with philosophical content "The liturgy of the first night consisted of personal oratory; that of the second of a 'cosmic text', read under the starry heavens facing the polar star; and that of the third night of a philosophical hymn (implying a metaphysical or metacosmic theme) which was a 'prayer of Plato', 'supplication of Idris', or 'the secret psalm of Aristotle'." pg 35 of Nasr 1964 . During their meetings and possibly also during the three feasts they held, on the dates of the sun's entry into the Zodiac signs "Ram, Cancer, and Balance"), besides the usual lectures and discussions, they would engage in some manner of liturgy reminiscent of the Harranians "...the liturgy described by the Ikhwan seems to be more closely related to the religion of the heirs of the prophet Idris, that is, the Harranians who were the principal inheritors in the Middle East of what has been called "Oriental Pythagoreanism" and who were the guardians and propagators of Hermeticism in the Islamic world." pg 34 of Nasr 1964


616

into an alliance with the Median king Cyaxares the Great, who had taken advantage of the upheavals in Assyria to free his people from Assyrian vassalage and unite the Iranic Medes and Persians, and the remnants of the Elamites and Manneans, into a powerful Median-dominated force. The Babylonians and Medes, together with the Scythians and Cimmerians, attacked Assyria in 616 BC. After four years of bitter fighting, Nineveh was finally sacked in 612 BC, after

-ishkun was marching on Babylon in an attempt to regain control. Nabopolassar seized Nippur and thus Babylonia as a whole. Nabopolassar's position, and the fate of Assyria was sealed when he entered into an alliance with another of Assyria's former vassals, the Medes, the now dominant people of what was to become Persia. The Medes, and Chaldean ruled Babylonians, together with the Scythians and Cimmerians attacked Assyria in 616 BC, and by 612 BC the alliance had sacked

encamped in Babylonia trying to unseat him. However, the Assyrian king, Sin-shar-ishkun was plagued by constant revolt in Nineveh, and was thus unable to eject Nabopolassar. The stalemate ended in 616 BC, when Nabopolassar entered into alliance with Cyaxares, king of the Medes and Persians, (who had also taken advantage of the anarchy in Assyria to free his peoples from the Assyrian yoke) and the Scythians. After 4 years of fierce fighting Nineveh was sacked in 612 BC


service title

Agricultural Service title Southeastern Anatolia Becomes a Major Cotton Producing Region for Turkey date 2001-08-28 accessdate 2008-02-03 which consists of two parallel tunnels, each , which makes one-third of the total flow of the Euphrates. ref name


scientific biography

quoted by many medieval astronomers, including Copernicus. Little is known about al


classical world

of dispute. The Harranians may have identified themselves as Sabians in order to retain their religious beliefs. During the late 8th and 9th centuries Harran was a centre for translating works of astronomy, philosophy, natural sciences, and medicine from Greek (Greek language) to Syriac (Syriac language) by Assyrians (Assyrian people), and thence to Arabic (Arabic language), bringing the knowledge of the classical world (Classical antiquity) to the emerging Arabic-speaking civilization in the south. Baghdad came to this work later than Harran. Many important scholars of natural science, astronomy, and medicine originate from Harran; they were non-Arab and non-Islamic ethnic Assyrians (Assyrian people), including possibly the alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān. Meetings The Brethren regularly met on a fixed schedule. The meetings apparently took place on three evenings of each month: once near the beginning, in which speeches were given, another towards the middle, apparently concerning astronomy and astrology, and the third between the end of the month and the 25th of that month; during the third one, they recited hymns with philosophical content "The liturgy of the first night consisted of personal oratory; that of the second of a 'cosmic text', read under the starry heavens facing the polar star; and that of the third night of a philosophical hymn (implying a metaphysical or metacosmic theme) which was a 'prayer of Plato', 'supplication of Idris', or 'the secret psalm of Aristotle'." pg 35 of Nasr 1964 . During their meetings and possibly also during the three feasts they held, on the dates of the sun's entry into the Zodiac signs "Ram, Cancer, and Balance"), besides the usual lectures and discussions, they would engage in some manner of liturgy reminiscent of the Harranians "...the liturgy described by the Ikhwan seems to be more closely related to the religion of the heirs of the prophet Idris, that is, the Harranians who were the principal inheritors in the Middle East of what has been called "Oriental Pythagoreanism" and who were the guardians and propagators of Hermeticism in the Islamic world." pg 34 of Nasr 1964


important temple

, and Shauskha had an important temple in Nineve, when the city was under Hurrian rule. A temple of Nergal was built in Urkesh in the late third millennium BCE. The town of Kahat was a religious centre in the kingdom of Mitanni. In cult practice (Cult (religion)), the dead Tammuz was widely mourned in the Ancient Near East. Locations associated in antiquity with the site of his death include both Harran and Byblos, among others. A Sumerian tablet from Nippur (Ni 4486) reads


years building

literature ) states that Nimrod built the towns of Hadâniûn, Ellasar, Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Rûhîn, Atrapatene, Telalôn, and others, that he began his reign as king over earth when Reu was 163, and that he reigned for 69 years, building Nisibis, Raha (Edessa (Edessa, Mesopotamia)) and Harran when Peleg was 50. It further adds that Nimrod "saw in the sky a piece of black cloth and a crown." He called upon Sasan the weaver and commanded him to make him


modern critical

(based around the movements of the Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury (Mercury (planet)), Jupiter, Venus and Saturn) found its greatest development in the community which was based in the Harran region of south-eastern Anatolia and northern Syria. Ibn al-Qayyim distinguished them as the Sabians of Harran from the south Mesopotamian ''Sābi'ūna Hunafā''. Modern critical scholarship Possible identifications for the Sabians

Harran

thumb Harran and other major cities of ancient Syria (File:Syria2mil.JPG) thumb Districts of Şanlıurfa (File:Şanlıurfa districts.png) '''Harran''' ( , Tahir Sezen, ''Osmanlı Yer Adları (Alfabetik Sırayla)'', T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Yayın Nu 21, Ankara, p. 223. ) was a major ancient city (Cities of the ancient Near East) in Upper Mesopotamia (Al-Jazira, Mesopotamia) whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa. The location is in a district (Districts of Turkey) of Şanlıurfa Province that is also named "Harran".

A few kilometers from the village of Altınbaşak are the archaeological remains of ancient Harran, a major commercial, cultural, and religious center first inhabited in the Early Bronze Age III (3rd millennium BCE) period. It was known as '''Ḫarrānu''' in the Assyrian (Assyrian Empire) period; possibly ''Ḫaran'' ( 'Greek city') in the Early Christian period; and '''Ḥarrān''' (حرّان) in the Islamic period. David Noel Freedman ''et al.'', ''Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible'' ''s.v.'' Haran ''Encyclopedia of Islam'', ''s.v.'' Ḥarrān

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