Harran

What is Harran known for?


commercial cultural

kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa. The location is in a district (Districts of Turkey) of Şanlıurfa Province that is also named "Harran". A few kilometers from the village of Altınbaşak are the archaeological remains of ancient Harran, a major commercial, cultural, and religious center first inhabited in the Early Bronze Age III (3rd millennium BCE) period. It was known as '''Ḫarrānu''' in the Assyrian (Assyrian Empire) period; possibly ''Ḫaran'' (


prominent+ancient

;. In classical Antiquity the region was called Osrhoene (Osroene) with the capital at Edessa Callirrhoe (ar-Ruha' (Şanlıurfa).) Ar-Ruha' and another prominent ancient town of the Balikh valley, Harran (Roman Carrhae), figure in the Muslim and Jewish traditions respectively in the stories of Abraham and other Hebrew patriarchs (Patriarchs (Bible)) (and matriarchs.) After the Islamic conquest in the 7th c. CE the region was known by the name of an Arab tribe Diyar Mudar, the land of the Mudar. In 762 the Caliph al-Mansur built a garrison city at the junction of the Euphrates, Ar-Rafiqa, which merged with the Hellenistic city Kallinikos into the urban agglomeration Ar-Raqqah. Meetings The Brethren regularly met on a fixed schedule. The meetings apparently took place on three evenings of each month: once near the beginning, in which speeches were given, another towards the middle, apparently concerning astronomy and astrology, and the third between the end of the month and the 25th of that month; during the third one, they recited hymns with philosophical content "The liturgy of the first night consisted of personal oratory; that of the second of a 'cosmic text', read under the starry heavens facing the polar star; and that of the third night of a philosophical hymn (implying a metaphysical or metacosmic theme) which was a 'prayer of Plato', 'supplication of Idris', or 'the secret psalm of Aristotle'." pg 35 of Nasr 1964 . During their meetings and possibly also during the three feasts they held, on the dates of the sun's entry into the Zodiac signs "Ram, Cancer, and Balance"), besides the usual lectures and discussions, they would engage in some manner of liturgy reminiscent of the Harranians "...the liturgy described by the Ikhwan seems to be more closely related to the religion of the heirs of the prophet Idris, that is, the Harranians who were the principal inheritors in the Middle East of what has been called "Oriental Pythagoreanism" and who were the guardians and propagators of Hermeticism in the Islamic world." pg 34 of Nasr 1964


agricultural service

Agricultural Service title Southeastern Anatolia Becomes a Major Cotton Producing Region for Turkey date 2001-08-28 accessdate 2008-02-03 which consists of two parallel tunnels, each , which makes one-third of the total flow of the Euphrates. ref name

; Origins and career Bay Irsu is called a Syrian (Hurru Hurrian (Hurrians) or Harran-born) Asiatic. While his precise background is unknown except for his Syrian origins, Bay is first attested as scribe and butler, an important position in Egypt, during the reign


important position

an important position in the economic life of Northern Mesopotamia. Pliny, ‘’Naturalis Historia’’, XII. 40 Assyrian period Meetings The Brethren regularly met on a fixed schedule. The meetings apparently took place on three evenings of each month: once near the beginning, in which speeches were given, another towards the middle, apparently concerning astronomy and astrology, and the third between the end of the month and the 25th of that month; during the third one, they recited hymns with philosophical content "The liturgy of the first night consisted of personal oratory; that of the second of a 'cosmic text', read under the starry heavens facing the polar star; and that of the third night of a philosophical hymn (implying a metaphysical or metacosmic theme) which was a 'prayer of Plato', 'supplication of Idris', or 'the secret psalm of Aristotle'." pg 35 of Nasr 1964 . During their meetings and possibly also during the three feasts they held, on the dates of the sun's entry into the Zodiac signs "Ram, Cancer, and Balance"), besides the usual lectures and discussions, they would engage in some manner of liturgy reminiscent of the Harranians "...the liturgy described by the Ikhwan seems to be more closely related to the religion of the heirs of the prophet Idris, that is, the Harranians who were the principal inheritors in the Middle East of what has been called "Oriental Pythagoreanism" and who were the guardians and propagators of Hermeticism in the Islamic world." pg 34 of Nasr 1964


building made

, the land of the Mudar. In 762 the Caliph al-Mansur built a garrison city at the junction of the Euphrates, Ar-Rafiqa, which merged with the Hellenistic city Kallinikos into the urban agglomeration Ar-Raqqah. Meetings The Brethren regularly met on a fixed schedule. The meetings apparently took place on three evenings of each month: once near the beginning, in which speeches were given, another towards the middle, apparently concerning astronomy and astrology, and the third between the end of the month and the 25th of that month; during the third one, they recited hymns with philosophical content "The liturgy of the first night consisted of personal oratory; that of the second of a 'cosmic text', read under the starry heavens facing the polar star; and that of the third night of a philosophical hymn (implying a metaphysical or metacosmic theme) which was a 'prayer of Plato', 'supplication of Idris', or 'the secret psalm of Aristotle'." pg 35 of Nasr 1964 . During their meetings and possibly also during the three feasts they held, on the dates of the sun's entry into the Zodiac signs "Ram, Cancer, and Balance"), besides the usual lectures and discussions, they would engage in some manner of liturgy reminiscent of the Harranians "...the liturgy described by the Ikhwan seems to be more closely related to the religion of the heirs of the prophet Idris, that is, the Harranians who were the principal inheritors in the Middle East of what has been called "Oriental Pythagoreanism" and who were the guardians and propagators of Hermeticism in the Islamic world." pg 34 of Nasr 1964


century long

Meetings The Brethren regularly met on a fixed schedule. The meetings apparently took place on three evenings of each month: once near the beginning, in which speeches were given, another towards the middle, apparently concerning astronomy and astrology, and the third between the end of the month and the 25th of that month; during the third one, they recited hymns with philosophical content "The liturgy of the first night consisted of personal oratory; that of the second of a 'cosmic text', read under the starry heavens facing the polar star; and that of the third night of a philosophical hymn (implying a metaphysical or metacosmic theme) which was a 'prayer of Plato', 'supplication of Idris', or 'the secret psalm of Aristotle'." pg 35 of Nasr 1964 . During their meetings and possibly also during the three feasts they held, on the dates of the sun's entry into the Zodiac signs "Ram, Cancer, and Balance"), besides the usual lectures and discussions, they would engage in some manner of liturgy reminiscent of the Harranians "...the liturgy described by the Ikhwan seems to be more closely related to the religion of the heirs of the prophet Idris, that is, the Harranians who were the principal inheritors in the Middle East of what has been called "Oriental Pythagoreanism" and who were the guardians and propagators of Hermeticism in the Islamic world." pg 34 of Nasr 1964


translating+works

of dispute. The Harranians may have identified themselves as Sabians in order to retain their religious beliefs. During the late 8th and 9th centuries Harran was a centre for translating works of astronomy, philosophy, natural sciences, and medicine from Greek (Greek language) to Syriac (Syriac language) by Assyrians (Assyrian people), and thence to Arabic (Arabic language), bringing the knowledge of the classical world (Classical antiquity) to the emerging Arabic-speaking civilization


608

after a prolonged siege in which Sin-shar-ishkun was killed. The last Assyrian king, Ashur-uballit II was defeated at Harran in 608 BC, and a final victory was achieved at Carchemish in 605 BC, which included also defeating the Egyptian Pharaoh Necho II who had belatetly tried to aid Egypts former masters. The seat of empire was thus transferred to Babylonia for the first time since Hammurabi over a thousand years before. Of the reign of the last Babylonian king

persecutions. - align 'center' 608 BCE Fall of Harran Nabopolassar of Babylonia takes the Assyrian city of Harran, ruled by Ashur-Uballit II. - Nusku-Girru is the symbol of the heavenly as well as of the terrestrial fire. As the former he is the son of Anu, the god of heaven, but he is likewise associated with Enlil of Nippur as the god of the earth and regarded as his first-born son. A centre of his cult in Assyria was in Harran, where, because

– 539 BC Last Mesopotamian king of Babylon, originated in Harran in Assyria. Was not a Chaldean, often left rule to his son Belshazzar. - - bgcolor "#fffaf0" Ashur-uballit II 612 BC–ca. 608 to 605 BC Harran defeated by Cyaxares of Media (Median Empire) and Nabopolassar of Babylonia, Assyrian-Egyptian force defeated at Carchemish in 605 BC An early Arabic work known as ''Kitab al-Magall'' or the ''Book of Rolls'' (part of Clementine


special interest'

Origins and career Bay Irsu is called a Syrian (Hurru Hurrian (Hurrians) or Harran-born) Asiatic. While his precise background is unknown except for his Syrian origins, Bay is first attested as scribe and butler, an important position in Egypt, during the reign of Seti II. Gae Callender, The Cripple, the Queen & the Man from the North, KMT Volume 17, No.1 (Spring 2006), p.53 However, Bay probably entered Egypt's civil administration earlier under a previous pharaoh–either Merneptah, Seti II's father, or Ramesses II. Quraysh died in 1061 and was followed by his son Muslim ("Sharaf al-Daula"). Sharaf al-Daula was a just ruler; the 'Uqailid domains were relatively stable for most of his reign. He furthermore gained Aleppo from the Mirdasids in 1080 when its inhabitants offered to hand the city over to him in the hopes that he could protect from Seljuk raids, and he took Harran from the Numayrids in the following year. Soon, however, he ran into trouble with the Seljuks himself. He fought against Sultan Malik Shah's (Malik Shah I) forces and was defeated, but he was pardoned. In 1085 he was killed fighting the Seljuks of Süleyman b. Qutulmush (Suleyman I of Rûm). Following Sharaf al-Daula's death, his brother Ibrahim, who had previously been imprisoned, was released and declared


Religion

houses (3).JPG thumb Harran beehive houses thumb Ruins of the University at Harran. It was one of the main Ayyubid buildings of the city, built in the classical revival style. (File:Harran University.JPG) The earliest records of Harran come from Ebla tablets (late 3rd millennium BCE). Holloway, Steven W. ''Aššur is King! Aššur is King! - Religion in the Exercise of Power in the Neo-Assyrian Empire'', BRILL, 2002, ISBN 9-004-12328-8, p.391 From these, it is known

had dried up. But the plain is irrigated by the recent Southeastern Anatolia Project and is becoming green again. Cotton and rice can now be grown. Religion The city was the chief home of the Mesopotamian moon god (Lunar deity) Sin (Sin (mythology)), under the Assyrians and Neo-Babylonians Chaldeans (Neo-Babylonian Empire) and even into Roman (Roman Empire) times. According to an early Arabic work known as ''Kitab al-Magall'' or the ''Book of Rolls'' (part of Clementine

. In addition the Mandean (Mandaeans) religion, a form of Gnosticism, was born in Harran. Carrhae was the seat of a Christian diocese before the First Council of Nicaea of 325, which was attended by its bishop Gerontius. In 361, its bishop Barses (List of bishops of Edessa) was transferred to Edessa, the capital of the Roman province of Osrhoene and therefore the metropolitan see of which the bishopric of Carrhae was a suffragan. The names of another eleven bishops

Harran

thumb Harran and other major cities of ancient Syria (File:Syria2mil.JPG) thumb Districts of Şanlıurfa (File:Şanlıurfa districts.png) '''Harran''' ( , Tahir Sezen, ''Osmanlı Yer Adları (Alfabetik Sırayla)'', T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Yayın Nu 21, Ankara, p. 223. ) was a major ancient city (Cities of the ancient Near East) in Upper Mesopotamia (Al-Jazira, Mesopotamia) whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa. The location is in a district (Districts of Turkey) of Şanlıurfa Province that is also named "Harran".

A few kilometers from the village of Altınbaşak are the archaeological remains of ancient Harran, a major commercial, cultural, and religious center first inhabited in the Early Bronze Age III (3rd millennium BCE) period. It was known as '''Ḫarrānu''' in the Assyrian (Assyrian Empire) period; possibly ''Ḫaran'' ( 'Greek city') in the Early Christian period; and '''Ḥarrān''' (حرّان) in the Islamic period. David Noel Freedman ''et al.'', ''Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible'' ''s.v.'' Haran ''Encyclopedia of Islam'', ''s.v.'' Ḥarrān

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