Harar

What is Harar known for?


extensive+religious

The extensive religious complex dedicated to the saint includes the town and the nearby valley of Kachamsare. In the 18th century, Emir `Abd al-Shakur ibn Yusuf of Harar constructed a shrine to the Baghdadi saint `Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani near the tomb of Sheikh Hussein, inside the shrine compound. A graveyard has also been consecrated as part of the complex. Other landmarks of the complex include the pond of Dinkiro, 300 meters south


political character

parts of Eritrea and Djibouti, the region began to assume a political character independent of Ethiopia. Three Islamic sultanates were founded in and around the area named Shewa (a Semitic-speaking sultanate in eastern Ethiopia, modern Shewa province and ruled by the Mahzumi dynasty, related to Muslim Amhara (Amhara people)s and Argobbas), Ifat (Kingdom of Ifat) (another Semitic-speaking Pankhurst, Richard. ''The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from


regular+fighting

Ethiopian air attacks on their supply lines, and the onset of the rainy season which made the dirt roads unusable. During that time, the Ethiopian government managed to raise and train a giant militia force 100,000 strong and integrated it into the regular fighting force. Also, since the Ethiopian army was a client of U.S weapons, hasty acclimatization to the new Warsaw Pact bloc weaponry took place. In a communique, the ONLF claimed to have captured seven towns in the Somali Region on 10


extremely diverse

of the seventies, Mengistu presided over the second largest army in all of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as a formidable airforce (Ethiopian Air Force) and navy. thumb right The ''begena (File:BegenaFingers.jpg)'''s standard finger positioning. The '''music of Ethiopia''' is extremely diverse, with each of Ethiopia's ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. Some forms of traditional music are strongly influenced by folk music from elsewhere in the Horn


program+design

acid , and is used in paint formulations, coatings plasticizers, and as a reagent for many industrial chemicals. "Alamata Pilot Learning Site Diagnosis and Program Design" IPMS Information Resources Portal - Ethiopia (23 June 2005), p. 12 (accessed 3 March 2009) It is grown in many parts of Ethiopia, especially around the city of Harar, with an average seed yield of 2 to 2.5 t ha

. It is reported that the Ethiopian strains of ''Vernonia'' have the highest oil content, up to 41.9% with up to 80% vernolic acid, and is used in paint formulations, coatings plasticizers, and as a reagent for many industrial chemicals. "Alamata Pilot Learning Site Diagnosis and Program Design" IPMS Information Resources Portal - Ethiopia (23 June 2005), p. 12 (accessed 3 March 2009) Along


religious music

of Africa , especially Somalia. However, Ethiopian religious music also has an ancient Christian element, traced to Yared, who lived during the reign of Gabra Masqal (Gabra Masqal of Axum). In northeastern Ethiopia, in Wollo, a Muslim musical form called manzuma developed. Sung in Amharic (Amharic language), manzuma has spread to Harar and Jimma, where it is now sung in the Oromo language. In the Ethiopian Highlands, traditional secular music is played


religious complex

The extensive religious complex dedicated to the saint includes the town and the nearby valley of Kachamsare. In the 18th century, Emir `Abd al-Shakur ibn Yusuf of Harar constructed a shrine to the Baghdadi saint `Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani near the tomb of Sheikh Hussein, inside the shrine compound. A graveyard has also been consecrated as part of the complex. Other landmarks of the complex include the pond of Dinkiro, 300 meters south


describing poetry

reason why Fondane refused to write poems between 1923 and 1927. Cernat, p. 288; Răileanu & Carassou, p. 18, 94, 138 As he stated in various contexts, he mistrusted the innate ability of words to convey the tragedy of existence, describing poetry as the best tool for rendering a universal "wordless scream", Chitrit, p. 61 an "ultimate reality", Răileanu & Carassou, p. 141 ref>


title wild

for their conservation, as the animals are greatly endangered. The Harar Brewery was established in 1984. Its beers can be sampled at the brewery social club adjacent


48'A=0

in the sky via a cowhide rope, which was subsequently severed by a hungry hyena. Lynch, Patricia Ann (2004) ''African mythology A to Z'', Infobase Publishing, page 47-48, ISBN 0-8160-4892-4 The spotted hyena is a sacred totem animal for some Pedi (Pedi people) tribes, with the skin often being used as robes by chieftans and their bones as divining instruments. Quin, P.J. 1959. ''Food abd feeding habits of the Pedi''. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University

Harar

blank_name blank_info blank1_name blank1_info website '''Harar''', formerly written '''Harrar''' "Harrar (s:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica Harrar)" in the ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 11th ed. 1911. Other variants include '''Hārer''' and '''Harer'''. and known to its inhabitants as '''Gey''', is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia, formerly the capital of Harergey (Hararghe) and now the capital of the modern Harari (Harari Region) ethno-political division (Regions of Ethiopia) (or ''kilil'') of Ethiopia. The city is located on a hilltop in the eastern extension of the Ethiopian Highlands, about five hundred kilometers from Addis Ababa at an elevation of 1,885 meters. Based on figures from the Central Statistical Agency (Central Statistical Agency (Ethiopia)) in 2005, Harar has an estimated total population of 122,000, of whom 60,000 were males and 62,000 were females. CSA 2005 National Statistics, Table B.4 According to the census of 1994, on which this estimate is based, the city has a population of 76,378.

For centuries, Harar has been a major commercial centre, linked by the trade routes with the rest of Ethiopia, the entire Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and, through its ports, the outside world. '''Harar Jugol''', the old walled city, was included in the World Heritage List in 2006 by UNESCO in recognition of its cultural heritage.

The ''Fath Madinat Harar'' records that the cleric Abadir Umar Ar-Rida and several other religious leaders settled in Harar circa 612H (1216 AD). Siegbert Uhlig, ''Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: He-N'', Volume 3, (Otto Harrassowitz Verlag: 2007), pp.111 & 319. Harar was later made the new capital of the Adal Sultanate in 1520 by the Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad. Richard Pankhurst, ''History of Ethiopian Towns'' (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1982), p. 49. The city saw a political decline during the ensuing Sultanate of Harar, only regaining some significance in the Khedivate of Egypt period. During Abyssinian (Ethiopian Empire) rule, the city decayed while maintaining a certain cultural prestige. Today, it is the seat of the Harari ethno-political division.

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