to fail". That year, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution 161–1 in favour of a motion on the Golan Heights that reaffirmed Security Council resolution 497 and called on Israel to desist from "changing the physical
(left) meets with Richard Nixon (middle) and Henry Kissinger (right), about a week after the end of fighting in the Yom Kippur War Israel regained the territory it lost in the early fighting and gained new territories from Syria and Egypt, including land in Syria east of the previously captured Golan Heights, and additionally on the western bank of the Suez Canal, although they did lose some territory on the eastern side of the Suez Canal that had been in Israeli hands since
a population of 6,400. There another 19 moshavim and 10 kibbutzim. In 1989, the settler population was 10,000.original+population+of+the+golan&hl en&ei bzJYTJjjKMX-Obbp4JEJ&sa X&oi book_result&ct book-preview-link&resnum 9&ved 0CFQQuwUwCA#v onepage&q&f false Report of the Director-General, Volume 2, International Labour Conference, 1991.pg. 34. ISBN 92-2-107533-8. In 2010 the Jewish settlers had expanded to 20,000 Regions and territories: The Golan Heights ''BBC'' living in 32 settlements. Oudat, Basel.Shouting in the hills, ''Al-Ahram Weekly'', 12–18 June 2008. Issue No. 901. WikiPedia:Golan Heights Commons:Golan Heights DMOZ:Regional Middle East Israel Metro Areas and Regions Golan Heights
at frequencies from 900 MHz to 1.7 GHz using a 400 MT s FSB (Front Side Bus), and had 1 megabyte (MB) of Level 2 cache. The core average TDP (Thermal Design Power) (Thermal Design Power) is 24.5 watts. While most Paleolithic figurines are from the Upper Paleolithic, the Venus of Berekhat Ram found at Berekhat Ram on the Golan Heights is a Middle Paleolithic artefact of the later Acheulian possibly made by Homo erectus. An arrangement
emeyda.htm Golan Archaeological Museum Golan Heights Winery, a major Israeli winery, and the mineral water plant of Mey Eden, which derives its water from the spring (Spring (hydrosphere)) of Salukiya in the Golan. One can tour these factories as well as factories of oil products and fruit products. Two open air strip malls, one which holds the ''Kesem ha-Golan'' (Golan Magic), a three-dimensional movie and model of the geography and history of the Golan
The Maccabean revolt saw much action in the regions around the Golan and it is possible that the Jewish communities of the Golan were among those rescued by Judas Maccabeus during his campaign in the Galilee and Gilead (Transjordan (Transjordan (Bible))) mentioned in Chapter 5 of 1 Maccabees. The Golan, however, remained in Seleucid hands until the campaign of Alexander Jannaeus from 83–80 BC. Jannaeus established the city of Gamla in 81 BC as the Hasmonean capital for the region. During the Roman (Ancient Rome) and Byzantine periods the area was administered as part of Phoenicia Prima (Phoenicia) and Syria Palaestina, and finally Golan Gaulanitis was included together with Peraea (Perea (Holy Land)) in Palaestina Secunda, after 218 AD (Anno Domini). Ancient kingdom Bashan was incorporated into the province of Batanea. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal Following the death of Herod the Great in 4 BC, Augustus Caesar adjudicated that the Golan fell within the Tetrarchy of Herod's son, Herod Philip I. After Philip's death in 34 AD, the Romans (Roman Empire) absorbed the Golan into the province of Syria (Syria (Roman province)), but Caligula restored the territory to Herod's grandson Agrippa (Agrippa I) in 37. Following Agrippa's death in 44, the Romans again annexed the Golan to Syria, promptly to return it again when Claudius traded the Golan to Agrippa II, the son of Agrippa I, in 51 as part of a land swap. Although nominally under Agrippa's control and not part of the province of Judea, the Jewish communities of the Golan joined their coreligionists in the First Jewish-Roman War, only to fall to the Roman armies in its early stages. Gamla was captured in 67; according to Josephus, its inhabitants committed mass suicide, preferring it to crucifixion and slavery (Roman slavery). Agrippa II contributed soldiers to the Roman war effort and attempted to negotiate an end to the revolt. In return for his loyalty, Rome allowed him to retain his kingdom, but finally absorbed the Golan for good after his death in 100. In about 250, the Ghassanids, Arab Christians from Yemen, established a kingdom which encompassed southern Syria and the Transjordan, building their capital at Jabiyah on the Golan. Like the later Herodians, the Ghassanids ruled as clients of Byzantine Rome; unlike the Herodians, the Ghassanids were able to hold on to the Golan until the Sassanid invasion of 614. Following a brief restoration under the Emperor Heraclius, the Golan again fell, this time to the invading Arabs after the Battle of Yarmouk in 636. Middle Ages thumb 250px Nimrod Fortress (File:Nimrod-S-332.jpg) After Yarmouk, Muawiyah I, a member of Muhammad's tribe, the Quraish (Quraysh (tribe)), was appointed governor of Syria, including the Golan. Following the assassination of his cousin, the Caliph Uthman, Muawiya claimed the Caliphate for himself, initiating the Umayyad dynasty. Over the next few centuries, while remaining in Muslim hands, the Golan passed through many dynastic changes, falling first to the Abbasids, then to the Shi'ite Fatimids, then to the Seljuk Turks, then to the Kurdish (Kurdish people) Ayyubids. During the Crusades, the Heights represented a formidable obstacle the Crusader armies were not able to conquer, and the area was a part of the Emirate of Damascus during this time. Utexas.edu UMN.edu The Mongols swept through in 1259, but were driven off by the Mamluk sultan Qutuz at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. Ain Jalut ensured Mamluk dominance of the region for the next 250 years. For many centuries nomadic tribes lived together with the sedentary population in the region. At times, the central government attempted to settle the nomads which would result in the establishment of permanent communities. When the power of the governing regime declined, as happened during the early Muslim period (Abbasid Caliphate), nomadic trends increased and many of the rural and agricultural villages were abandoned due to harassment from the Bedouins. They were not resettled until the second half of the 19th century. Ronnie Ellenblum, Ronnie. Frankish Rural Settlement in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, Cambridge University Press, 2003. pg. 219-20. ISBN 0-521-52187-4 Ottoman era thumb Natural spring in Golan Heights (File:Iris waterfall3289.JPG) In the 16th century, the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Turks conquered Syria. During this time, the Golan formed part of the southern district of their empire. Some Druze communities were established in the Golan during the 17th and 18th centuries. Shoup, John A. Culture and customs of Jordan, Volume 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. pg. 31. ISBN 0-313-33671-7. In 1868, the region was described as "almost entirely desolate." According to a travel handbook of the time, only 11 of 127 ancient towns and villages in the Golan were inhabited. Porter, Josias Leslie (Josias Leslie Porter). A handbook for travellers in Syria and Palestine, J. Murray, 1868. pg. 439. Harvard University, 4 Jan 2007 As a result of the Russo-Turkish War (Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)) of 1877–78, there was a huge influx of refugees from the Caucasus into the empire. The Ottomans encouraged them to settle in southern Syria, particularly the Golan Heights, by granting them land with a 12-year tax exemption. The Caspian Region: The Caucasus, M. Gammer, pg. 64. Gudrun Krämer. A history of Palestine: from the Ottoman conquest to the founding of the state of Israel, Princeton University Press, 2008. pg.137. ISBN 0-691-11897-3 David Dean Commins. Historical dictionary of Syria, pg. 77. Bat Yeʼor. The decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: from Jihad to Dhimmitude, Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. Press, 1996. pg. 206. Early Jewish settlement In 1884 there were still open stretches of uncultivated land between villages in the lower Golan, but by the mid-1890s most was owned and cultivated. Martha Mundy, Basim Musallam. The transformation of nomadic society in the Arab East, Cambridge University Press, 2000. pg. 40. ISBN 0-521-77057-2, Some land had been purchased in the Golan and Hawran by Zionist associations based in Romania, Bulgaria, the USA and England, in the late 19th century and early 20th century. In 1880, Laurence Oliphant (Laurence Oliphant (author)) published ''Eretz ha-Gilad'' (The Land of Gilead), which described a plan for large-scale Jewish settlement in the Golan. A hundred years of settlement, Keter, 1985. pg. 200. In the winter of 1885, members of the Old Yishuv in Safed formed the Beit Yehuda Society and purchased 15,000 dunams of land from the village of Ramthaniye in the central Golan. Separation of Trans-Jordan from Palestine, Yitzhak Gil-Har, The Jerusalem Cathedra, ed. Lee Levine, Yad Yitzhak Ben Zvi and Wayne State University, Jerusalem, 1981, p.306 Due to financial hardships and the long wait for a ''kushan'' (Ottoman land deed) the village, Golan be-Bashan, was abandoned after a year. Soon afterwards, the society regrouped and purchased 2,000 dunams of land from the village of Bir e-Shagum on the western slopes of the Golan.
for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force". The continued Israeli control of the Golan Heights remains highly contested and is still regarded as belligerent occupation by most countries. However, the international community rejects the validity of the Golan Heights Law as an attempted annexation by force, illegal under the UN Charter and the Geneva Conventions. "United Nations Security Council Resolution 497" Israeli settlements and human rights policy in the occupied territory have also drawn criticism from the UN. of the United Nations 2005, Volume 59" pg.524 "Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories" September 2002 The Israeli-occupied territory is administered by the Golan Regional Council, based in Katzrin, which has a population of 6,400. There another 19 moshavim and 10 kibbutzim. In 1989, the settler population was 10,000. Report of the Director-General, Volume 2, International Labour Conference, 1991.pg. 34. ISBN 92-2-107533-8. In 2010 the Jewish settlers had expanded to 20,000 Regions and territories: The Golan Heights ''BBC'' living in 32 settlements. Oudat, Basel.Shouting in the hills, ''Al-Ahram Weekly'', 12–18 June 2008. Issue No. 901. WikiPedia:Golan Heights Commons:Golan Heights DMOZ:Regional Middle East Israel Metro Areas and Regions Golan Heights
, a few kilometers from Rosh Pinna. * "Nimrod Lookout", a green spot with water views as seen from the viewpoint flowing through, facing the landscapes of the Hula Valley, the Golan Heights and Mount Hermon, will be built in the Pioneers National Restoration Site in old Rosh Pina. Notable residents The '''Israeli-occupied territories''' are the territories which have been designated as occupied territory by the United Nations and other
of the canal, while the Israelis focused on directing their main efforts against the Syrians in the Golan and reorganized their battered forces. Israeli failures led to the replacement of the chief of the Israeli Southern Command, Major General Shmuel Gonen, with Chaim Bar-Lev, although Gonen was retained as his aide. Hammad (2002), pp.85–200 Gawrych (1996), pp.27–55 - WikiPedia:Golan Heights Commons:Golan Heights DMOZ:Regional Middle East Israel Metro Areas and Regions Golan Heights
before the outbreak of hostilities, Meir met with Minister of Defense Moshe Dayan and general David Elazar. While Dayan continued to argue that war was unlikely and thus was in favor of calling up the air force and only two divisions, Elazar advocated launching a full-scale pre-emptive strike on Syrian forces. Interview with Abraham Rabinovich: The Yom Kippur War as a Turning Point History News Network On June 5, the Six-Day
is best but feel alienated from the autocratic regime in Damascus. According to the Associated Press, "many young Druse have been quietly relieved at the failure of previous Syrian-Israeli peace talks to go forward." Ties to Syria are on the wane, and many have come to appreciate aspects of Israel's liberal democratic (Liberal democracy) society, although few risk saying so publicly for fear of Syrian retribution. On the other hand, expressing pro
The '''Golan Heights''' ( is a region in the Levant. The exact region defined as the Golan Heights is different in different disciplines:
*As a geological and biogeographical region, the Golan Heights is a basaltic plateau bordered by the Yarmouk River in the south, the Sea of Galilee and Hula Valley in the west, Mount Hermon in the north, and the Raqqad Wadi (Ruqqad) in the east. The western two-thirds of this region are currently occupied by Israel, whereas the eastern third is controlled by Syria.
*As a geopolitical region, the Golan Heights is the area captured from Syria and occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War, territory which Israel effectively annexed in 1981. This region includes the western two-thirds of the geological Golan Heights, as well as the Israeli-occupied part of Mount Hermon.
The earliest evidence of human habitation dates to the Upper Paleolithic period. Tina Shepardson. Stones and Stories: Reconstructing the Christianization of the Golan, Biblisches Forum, 1999. According to the Bible, an Amorite Kingdom in Bashan was conquered by Israelites during the reign of King Og (Og). In the 16th century, the Golan was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and was part of the Vilayet of Damascus until it was transferred to French control (French Mandate of Syria) in 1918. When the mandate terminated in 1946, it became part of the newly independent Syrian Arab Republic (Syria).
Internationally recognized as Syrian territory, the Golan Heights has been occupied and administered by Israel since 1967. It was captured during the 1967 Six-Day War, establishing the Purple Line (Purple Line (ceasefire line)).
On 19 June 1967, the Israeli cabinet voted to return the Golan to Syria in exchange for a peace agreement. Such overtures were dismissed by the Arab world with the Khartoum Resolution on September 1, 1967. Herzog, Chaim, The Arab Israeli Wars, New York: Random House (1982) p.190-191 In the aftermath of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israel agreed to return about 5% of the territory to Syrian civilian control. This part was incorporated into a demilitarised zone that runs along the ceasefire line and extends eastward. This strip is under the military control of UN peace keeping forces (UNDOF).
Construction of Israeli settlements began in the remainder of the territory held by Israel, which was under military administration until Israel passed the Golan Heights Law extending Israeli law and administration throughout the territory in 1981. Golan Heights Law, MFA. This move was condemned by the United Nations Security Council in UN Resolution 497 (United Nations Security Council Resolution 497), UN Security Council Resolution 497 which said that "the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect." Israel asserts it has a right to retain the Golan, citing the text of UN Resolution 242 (United Nations Security Council Resolution 242), which calls for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force". Y.Z Blum "Secure Boundaries and Middle East Peace in the Light of International Law and Practice" (1971) pages 24–46 However, the international community rejects Israeli claims to title to the territory and regards it as sovereign Syrian territory.
* "The international community maintains that the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan is null and void and without international legal effect." * "...occupied Syrian Golan Heights..." (The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002, ''www.al-bab.com''. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * In 2008, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly voted by 161–1 in favour of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution 497. (General Assembly adopts broad range of texts, 26 in all, on recommendation of its fourth Committee, including on decolonization, information, Palestine refugees, United Nations, December 5, 2008.) *"the Syrian Golan Heights territory, which Israel has occupied since 1967". Also, "the Golan Heights, a 450-square mile portion of southwestern Syria that Israel occupied during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war." (CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues, Congressional Research Service. 19 January 2006) Occupied territory:
* "Israeli-occupied Golan Heights" (Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Factbook 2010, Skyhorse Publishing Inc., 2009. pg. 339. ISBN 1-60239-727-9.) * "...the United States considers the Golan Heights to be occupied territory subject to negotiation and Israeli withdrawal..." ("CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Israeli-United States Relations", Congressional Research Service, April 5, 2002. pg. 5. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * "Occupied Golan Heights" (Travel advice: Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * "In the ICRC's view, the Golan is an occupied territory." (ICRC activities in the occupied Golan during 2007, International Committee of the Red Cross, April 24, 2008.) Korman, Sharon. The right of conquest: the acquisition of territory by force in international law and practice, Oxford University Press, 1996. pg. 265. ISBN 0-19-828007-6. "The continued occupation of the Syrian Golan Heights is recognized by many states as valid and consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Charter, on a self-defence basis. Israel, on this view, would be entitled to exact as a condition of withdrawal from the territory the imposition of security measures of an indefinite character--such as perpetual demilitarization, or the emplacement of a United Nations force--which would ensure, or tend to ensure, that the territory would not be used against it for aggression on future occasions. But the notion that Israel is entitled to claim any status other than that of belligerent occupant in the territory which it occupies, or to act beyond the strict bounds laid down in the Fourth Geneva Convention, has been universally rejected by the international community--no less by the United States than by any other state."
Israeli Prime Ministers Yitzhak Rabin, Ehud Barak, and Ehud Olmert each stated that they were willing to exchange the Golan for peace with Syria. However, in 2010, Israeli foreign minister Avigdor Lieberman told Syria to abandon its dreams of recovering the Golan Heights. Approximately 10% of Syrian Golan Druze have accepted Israeli citizenship. At a Glance: The Golan Heights World News Australia, 6 June 2011 According to the CIA World Factbook, as of 2010, "there are 41 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights."