, the Tartessians, Celts and Celtiberians, Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Romans (Ancient Rome), Suebi and Visigoths. In 711, the Moors, a Berber (Berber people) and Arab army, invaded and conquered nearly the entire peninsula. During the next 750 years, independent Muslim states were established, and the entire area of Muslim control became known as Al-Andalus. Meanwhile the Christian kingdoms in the north began the long and slow recovery
-45 Mid-Atlantic route (reverse GUS) * XIF. Egypt to Italy (reverse IXF) * XK (XK (convoy)). Gibraltar to UK (United Kingdom) (reverse KX) * XT. Alexandria to Tripoli (reverse TX) Support for Cuba's Independence and José Maceo's freedom Immediately after returning to Paris, Betances became a key contact for the Cuban insurgency in Paris. He made several fund raising efforts, including one that attempted to fund quinine shipments to the Cuban rebels, to ease their pain when infected by malaria in the island battlefields. These efforts outlasted the Pact of Zanjón, which ended the Ten Years' War in 1878. Betances also used his diplomatic contacts to guarantee humane treatment (and eventually freedom from imprisonment) to José Maceo, the brother of Antonio Maceo (Antonio Maceo Grajales), the later military leader of the Cuban War of Independence, when both Antonio and José were arrested by the Spanish government in 1882. The Maceo brothers both escaped imprisonment, were recaptured in Gibraltar and turned over to the Spanish authorities, but José remained in jail long after Antonio regained his liberty and fled to New York City. Betances even used Lord Gladstone (Herbert Gladstone, 1st Viscount Gladstone) as a mediator, and attempted to convince him of having Jamaica (where his family had properties) join an Antillean Federation. Estrade Paul (as told to Collado-Schwarz, Ángel), Dr. Ramón Emeterio Betances: diplomático de Puerto Rico y Cuba en París, available at ''Duncan''''' was a C and D class destroyer D-class destroyer leader built for the Royal Navy in the early 1930s. The ship was initially assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet before she was transferred to the China Station in early 1935 where she remained until mid-1939. ''Duncan'' returned to the Mediterranean Fleet just after World War II began in September 1939. She was transferred to the Home Fleet in December 1939, although she was badly damaged in a collision the following month, and required repairs that lasted until July 1940. The ship joined Force H at Gibraltar in October, escorting the larger ships and various convoys until March 1941 when she was transferred to West Africa for convoy escort duties for a few months. ''Duncan'' rejoined the 13th Destroyer Flotilla at Gibraltar in July and escorted several convoys to Malta during the rest of the year. After a refit, she briefly returned to the 13th Destroyer Flotilla before joining the Eastern Fleet in the Indian Ocean to participate in Operation Ironclad in May 1942. The ship was recalled home to be converted into an escort destroyer in late 1942. The four ships that remained with the Mediterranean Fleet sank three Italian submarines in 1940 whilst escorting Malta convoys and larger warships of the fleet. Several participated in the Battles of Calabria (Battle of Calabria) and Cape Spartivento (Battle of Cape Spartivento) that year. ''Duncan'', the ship that had been damaged in a collision earlier joined Force H at Gibraltar in October and escorted those ships. One ship was sunk by German bombers in February 1941 and another in April whilst evacuating Allied personnel from Greece (Operation Demon). A third had to be scuttled in July when she was crippled by a German bomber whilst returning from escorting a convoy to Tobruk. The two survivors remained on escort duties for the rest of the year before being transferred to the Eastern Fleet in early 1942. They returned to the UK late in the year to begin conversions to escort destroyers. One was transferred to the RCN in early 1943, but both became convoy escorts in the Atlantic. They sank two German submarines before being assigned to the UK to protect Allied shipping during Operation Overlord. They sank three more submarines before the end of the war and were paid off (Ship decommissioning) in 1945. One was scrapped 1945–49 and the other during 1946. ''Deutschland'' quickly weighed anchor and left port. She rendezvoused with ''Admiral Scheer'' to take on additional doctors before proceeding to Gibraltar where the dead were buried with full military honors. Ten days later, however, Hitler ordered the men be exhumed and returned for burial in Germany. The ship's wounded men were also evacuated in Gibraltar for treatment. Hitler, furious over the attack, ordered ''Admiral Scheer'' to bombard the port of Almería in retaliation for the so-called "''Deutschland'' incident (Deutschland incident (1937))". Stalin subsequently issued orders that further attacks on German and Italian warships were strictly prohibited. Collection Over 40,000 of Wilson's photographic glass plates still exist today, largely due to the meticulous washing and chemical treatments he insisted on. Aberdeen University is in possession of some 38,000 of these, Elizabeth Bennett, Photographic treasures in the George Washington Wilson Collection. ''Aberdeen University Review'', no. 167, 1982, 168-170. which were donated by an Aberdeen photographer, the late Archie Strachan (Archibald J.B. Strachan), Diane Morgan, Archie Strachan - Photographer, ''Leopard Magazine'' (Aberdeen), November 1985. in 1958. They date from the late 1850s down to the early years of the twentieth century and cover not only Aberdeen and the North East (North East Scotland) but the whole of Scotland and most of England, as well as parts of Wales and Northern Ireland, Gibraltar, Morocco including Tangier, the South of Spain (Andalusia), and (especially) colonial South Africa and Australia. Heather F. C. Lyall, Treasures on glass, ''Leopard Magazine'', January 1989, 6-10. * Israel: '''*42''' * United Kingdom: '''1471''' (also used in Gibraltar, Ireland (Republic of Ireland), the Channel Islands and the Falkland Islands) *Ghost_in_the_Shell → Project_2501 *Gibraltar → Geography_of_Gibraltar *Giessenlanden → Arkel Gibraltar voted for the first time, as part of the South West England region (South West England (European Parliament constituency)). The Conservative Party (Conservative Party (UK)) won overwhelming support there on a higher than average turnout. For full results, see European Parliament Election, 2004 (Gibraltar). In August 1704, while returning to Lisbon after the unsuccessful attempt to seize the city of Barcelona, an Anglo-Dutch fleet of 45 English and 10 Dutch ships under the command of Admiral Sir George Rooke landed about 10,000 sailors and marines to take the city of Gibraltar from about 400 defenders, on behalf of Archduke Charles of Austria (Charles VI of the Holy Roman Empire). The terms of surrender (s:Terms of surrender of the Spanish authorities of Gibraltar in 1704) provided certain assurances but commanders lost control, sailors and marines engaged in rape and pillage (looting), desecrating most Catholic churches, and townspeople carried out reprisal killings. Andrews, Allen, ''Proud Fortress The Fighting Story Of Gibraltar'', p32-33: Jackson, Sir William (William Jackson (British Army officer)), ''Rock of the Gibraltarians'', p100-101 Andrews, Allen, ''Proud Fortress The Fighting Story Of Gibraltar'', p32-33 Jackson, Sir William (William Jackson (British Army officer)), ''Rock of the Gibraltarians'', p100-101: ''Rock of Contention. A History of Gibraltar''. George Hills (1974). London: Robert Hale. pp. 173-174. ISBN 0-7091-4352-4 By 7 August, after order was restored, almost all the population felt that staying in Gibraltar was too dangerous and fled across the area of modern La Linea to San Roque (San Roque, Cádiz) and other nearby areas of Spain (Campo de Gibraltar). Most hoped that they would shortly be able to go back to their homes, but this never happened, British control of Gibraltar became firm, and in 1713 the Treaty of Utrecht was signed, by which Spain ceded Gibraltar to Britain. The municipality of San Roque (San Roque, Cádiz) still has as its motto ''"Donde reside la de Gibraltar"'' ("where Gibraltar's population lives"). The town lands included the area of the modern La Línea de la Concepción. Second term In 1999 the introduction of proportional representation in the UK for European elections meant Watson's constituency was abolished in favour of a larger multi-member constituency encompassing South West England. The South West constituency (South West England (European Parliament constituency)) would later also include Gibraltar in 2004. Watson was re-elected in this constituency as the sole Liberal Democrat member at the 1999 European Parliamentary election (European Parliament election, 1999 (United Kingdom)). He had gained 171,398 votes, 15.7% of the total behind both Labour (Labour Party (UK)) and the Conservatives (Conservative Party (UK)) (1 and 4 seats respectively).
) Progressive Democratic Party (PDP). The PDP is a new party, formed in 2006 and fielded candidates in the 2007 election, but none were elected. The head of government is the Chief Minister (Chief Minister of Gibraltar) (as of December 2011, Fabian Picardo). All local political parties oppose any transfer of sovereignty to Spain, instead supporting self-determination. The main UK opposition parties also support this policy and it is UK Government policy not to engage in talks about
government to be the "keys to the Mediterranean". Davide Rodogno. Fascism's European empire. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006 Pp. 47. In 1939, Germany prepared for war with Poland, but attempted to gain territorial concessions from Poland through diplomatic means. Germany demanded that Poland accept the annexation of the Free City of Danzig to Germany and authorize the construction of automobile highways from Germany through the Polish
actually delivered their troops by parachute drop. The remainder off-loaded after 28 C-47 troop carriers, short on fuel, landed on the Sebkra d'Oran dry lake, and marched overland to their objectives. Hispania * Under the command of Punicus and then Cesarus, the Lusitani, a Hispanic tribe, reach a point near modern day Gibraltar. Here they are defeated by the Roman (Roman Republic) praetor Lucius Mummius (Lucius Mummius Achaicus). Philip decided to relinquish his right
'' , rather than choosing a more powerful but slower traditional battleship, despite criticism from other officers. ''Dreadnought'', pp. 433–434. thumb Adjutant Emile Fayolle who fought the battle of Britain (File:Emile Fayolle portrait battle of britain free french RAF.jpg) as RAF Free French and was shot down by AA during the Battle of Dieppe on August 19, 1942. At least thirteen Free French pilots (from France) fought the battle of Britain against the German
home port in August. The destroyer was overhauled from October 1954 until January 1955. ''Lancaster'' recommissioned on 26 August 1881 and on 12 September sailed from Portsmouth, via New York, for Europe. Arrived at Gibraltar 9 November, she became flagship of the European Squadron and during the following years cruised extensively in the Mediterranean, northern European waters, and on the coast of Africa, protecting American citizens and commerce and promoting friendly relations with other countries. From 27 June to 20 July 1882 the flagship was at Alexandria, Egypt, during a series of riots and was present when the British fleet bombarded the forts (Bombardment of Alexandria (1882)) 11 July. Rear Admiral James W. Nicholson, commanding the U.S. squadron, welcomed on board both American and foreign refugees for protection, and landed a force of 100 men to guard the American consulate and assist in extinguishing fires, in burying the dead, and in preserving order. Rear Adm. Charles Henry Baldwin relieved Rear Admiral Nicholson of command of the squadron 10 March 1883. Acting under instructions from the Navy Department, Admiral Baldwin proceeded in ''Lancaster'' to Kronstadt, Russia, and on 27 May he and his staff attended the coronation of Tzar Alexander III (Alexander III of Russia) at Moscow. ''Lancaster'' sailed 18 January 1888 from Montevideo for Europe arriving Gibraltar on 6 April. As flagship of the European Squadron she cruised in the Mediterranean until she departed Gibraltar 2 July 1889 and returned to the United States via Funchal, Madeira, arriving at New York 8 August. She decommissioned at the New York Navy Yard 7 September 1889 and was towed to the Portsmouth yard for repairs.
and the Falkland Islands, use number plates similar to the UK, with the same colours and typeface. Some former British colonies (Crown colony) which adopted British style number plates have continued with those customs, notable examples are Hong Kong (Vehicle registration plates of Hong Kong), Singapore (Vehicle registration plates of Singapore) and Cyprus (Vehicle registration plates of Cyprus) 225px thumb left The province of al-Andalus circa 720 (File:Península ibérica 750.svg) During
and provided cover to several Arctic convoys in early 1942. The ship was transferred back to Force H for Operation Torch and spent much of 1943 refitting or transporting Winston Churchill and his staff to and from various conferences (List of World War II conferences) with various Allied leaders. In early 1944 ''Renown'' was transferred to the Eastern Fleet in the Indian Ocean where she supported numerous attacks on Japanese-occupied facilities in Indonesia and various island
with various Allied leaders. In early 1944 ''Renown'' was transferred to the Eastern Fleet in the Indian Ocean where she supported numerous attacks on Japanese-occupied facilities in Indonesia and various island groups in the Indian Ocean. The ship returned to the Home Fleet in early 1945 and was refitted before being placed in reserve (Wikt:mothball) after the end of the war. ''Renown'' was sold for scrap (ship breaking) in 1948. 16 January 2006 saw ''Kent'' deploy on a 28
supported numerous attacks on Japanese-occupied facilities in Indonesia and various island groups in the Indian Ocean. The ship returned to the Home Fleet in early 1945 and was placed in reserve (Wikt:mothball) after the end of the war. ''Renown'' was sold for scrap in 1948. Burt 1986, pp. 301–02 ''Hood'', however, was sufficiently advanced in construction that she was completed in 1920 and immediately became flagship of the Battlecruiser Squadron (United
Gibraltarians (Gibraltarian people) and other nationalities. ''The civilian population includes Gibraltarian residents, other British residents (including the wives and families of UK-based servicemen
uk 6203673.stm accessdate 2008-05-18 date 2006-12-23 Sea power Modern views of the rise of Rome have tended to be economic, often focused on Roman control of the sea lanes, which was achieved at great cost after many sea-borne encounters with Carthage, the pirates of Macedon, and so on, all of which led ultimately to control of the Mediterranean and its important ports and bottlenecks (such as Gibraltar, later to be critical also to the British Empire). In this view, it was the capacity to land troops in large numbers more or less anywhere there was a sea coast, and to keep them in supply from areas enemy actions could not touch, that defined Roman military and economic advantage. According to Barbara Tuchman in ''The Proud Tower: Europe 1880-1914'', this view was so influential on the British empire and American naval strategists of the turn of the 19th to 20th century, that it effectively motivated the rise of the United States Navy and Germany's and Russia's and Japan's attempts to become main naval powers. And, also, Italy's attempts to renew traditional Roman control of Mediterranean and North Africa. OriginalAirDate
. Black, 1980 reprint: ISBN 0-7136-2131-1) '''Charles Ramirez''' (born 1953 in Gibraltar) is a concert guitarist based in London. He is also Professor of guitar (classical guitar) at the Royal College of Music.
title Topics relating to Gibraltar list
(Category:Gibraltar) Category:British Overseas Territories Category:Capitals in Europe Category:Headlands of Europe Category:Peninsulas of Europe Category:English-speaking countries and territories Category:European Union Category:Former British colonies Category:Jewish Spanish history Category:Umayyad Caliphate Category:Southwestern Europe Category:Western Europe Category:Territorial disputes of Spain date April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783 ( ) place Eastern North America, Gibraltar, Balearic Islands, Central America; French, Dutch, and British colonial possessions in the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere; European coastal waters, Caribbean Sea, Atlantic (Atlantic Ocean) and Indian Oceans
Spain entered the war as a French ally with the goal of recapturing Gibraltar and Minorca, which it had lost to the British in 1704. Gibraltar was besieged (Great Siege of Gibraltar) for more than three years, but the British garrison stubbornly resisted and was resupplied twice: once after Admiral Rodney (George Rodney)'s victory over Juan de Lángara in the 1780 "Moonlight Battle" (Battle of Cape St. Vincent (1780)), and again after Admiral Richard Howe (Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe) fought Luis de Córdova y Córdova to a draw in the Battle of Cape Spartel. Further Franco-Spanish efforts to capture Gibraltar were unsuccessful. One notable success took place on February 5, 1782, when Spanish and French forces captured Minorca (Invasion of Minorca, 1781), which Spain retained after the war. Ambitious plans for an invasion of Great Britain in 1779 had to be abandoned (Armada of 1779).