for the German Empire, both used rotary shaft-driven single overhead camshaft valve drive systems, and were among the most prominent aviation powerplants of the First World War era. The late-war Liberty L-12 V12 configuration American aviation engine also used the general Mercedes D-series single overhead camshaft design, based primarily on the later D.IIIa's drive system from rocker box to valvestem. The causes of World War I included many factors, including
War I the 1920 East Prussian plebiscite held in the town resulted in 3461 against 52 votes cast for Germany. ''Bischofsburg'' was again 50% destroyed during the East Prussian Offensive of the Red Army in the late days of World War II. The ROC can trace its roots to the First World War and the requirement for a warning system to bolster UK defences, predominantly over south east England, against bombing raids by Zeppelin airships
it was thought that he would help Russia to solve the Eastern question in accordance with her own interests, but to the surprise and indignation of the cabinet of Saint Petersburg he confined himself to acting the part of "honest broker" at the Congress, and shortly afterwards he ostentatiously contracted an alliance with Austria for the express purpose of counteracting Russian designs in Eastern Europe. The Tsarevich could point to these results as confirming the views he had expressed during the Franco-Prussian War, and he drew from them the practical conclusion that for Russia the best thing to do was to recover as quickly as possible from her temporary exhaustion and to prepare for future contingencies by a radical scheme of military and naval reorganization. In accordance with this conviction, he suggested that certain reforms should be introduced. Following its construction, the ''Arc de Triomphe'' became the rallying point of French troops parading after successful military campaigns and for the annual Bastille Day Military Parade. Famous victory marches around or under the Arc have included the Germans (German Empire) in 1871, the French in 1919, the Germans (Occupation of France by Nazi Germany) in 1940, and the French and Allies (Liberation of Paris) in 1944 Image of Liberation of Paris parade and 1945. A United States postage stamp of 1945 shows the ''Arc de Triomphe'' in the background as victorious American troops march down the Champs-Élysées and U.S. airplanes fly overhead on 29 August 1944. After the interment of the Unknown Soldier, however, all military parades (including the aforementioned post-1919) have avoided marching through the actual arch. The route taken is up to the arch and then around its side, out of respect for the tomb and its symbolism. Both Hitler in 1940 and de Gaulle in 1944 observed this custom. thumb right The Admiralty Extension (which is also one of the two buildings which are sometimes referred to as the "Old Admiralty") dates from the turn of the 20th century. (Image:Admiralty Extension from Horse Guards Parade - Sept 2006.jpg) This is the largest of the Admiralty Buildings. It was begun in the late 19th century and redesigned while the construction was in progress to accommodate the extra offices needed due to the naval arms race with the German Empire. It is a red brick building with white stone detailing in the Queen Anne style (Queen Anne style architecture) with French influences. It is now used by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. In 1794, the town was seized by French (France) troops, becoming a part of the First French Empire. In 1815 following the Napoleonic Wars, Bonn became part of the Kingdom
far into Russia. The continued series of actions lasted the majority of the campaigning season for 1915, starting in early May and only ending due to bad weather in October. The '''Lake Naroch Offensive''' was a battle mainly fought in March 1916 to relieve the German (German Empire) pressure against the French (France) at Verdun (Battle of Verdun). File:Berthacar.jpg thumb Bertha Benz, the first long distance automobile driver in the world, driving the ''Benz Patent-Motorwagen'' ca
and Dresden. Iova, p.xxxiv Between 1890 and the end of 1893, he had published three works: his debut in poetry (''Poezii'', "Poems"), the first volume of ''Schiţe din literatura română'' ("Sketches on Romanian Literature", 1893; second volume 1894), and his Leipzig thesis, printed in Paris as ''Thomas III, marquis de Saluces. Étude historique et littéraire'' ("Thomas, Margrave of Saluzzo. Historical and Literary
to the victorious colonial empires, based on the different levels of previous development and the creation of the League of Nations. The following treaties were prepared at the Paris Peace Conference (with, in parentheses, the affected countries): * the Treaty of Versailles, 1919 (Treaty of Versailles), 28 June 1919, (the German Empire in Weimar Republic form) * the Treaty of Saint-Germain, 10 September 1919, (Austria) In 1701 Landsberg (Gorzów) - like all of Brandenburg - became ruled in personal union with the Kingdom of Prussia. On 4 February 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars the Russian Ataman Aleksandr Chernichev and his Cossack troops defeated a French (First French Empire) bataillon of 1,500 men of Louis-Nicolas Davout's corps. In 1815 - in the course of an administrative restructuring - Landsberg became part of Prussia's Province of Brandenburg. The city, like all of Prussia, was included in the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany. Between 1249 and 1945 Landsberg (Gorzów) had become thoroughly German (Germans) in population (amounting to 33,598 as of 1900), mostly of Protestant Christianity (as of 1537, Lutheran until 1817, united (United and uniting churches) since 1817) with sizable minorities of Catholic (1,785 souls) and Jewish Germans (568 souls) in the early 20th century. Cf. ''Meyers Großes Konversationslexikon'': 20 vols., 6th ed., Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut, 1903-1908, vol. 12: L-Lyra (1906), article: Landsberg an der Warthe, p. 120. No ISBN thumb Lubusz Voivodeship Lubusz (File:PL Gorzów Muzeum.JPG) Museum The idea comprised the lands in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belarus and included the creation of a Duchy of Courland (Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1918)) and a Duchy of Estonia and Livonia that would be in personal union with the Crown of Prussia Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS :'''George''': By Gum, this is interesting! I always loved history. The Battle of Hastings (w:Battle of Hastings), Henry VIII (w:Henry VIII of England) and his six knives (w:Wives of Henry VIII) and all that! :'''Blackadder''': You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side (w:Allies of World War I); and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other (w:German Empire). The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent (w:Causes of World War I#Arms Race). That way, there could never be a war. :'''Baldrick''': Except, well, this is sort of a war, isn't it? First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995.
there as '''Erika Hermann'''. Timeline of historical actions * May 11, 1878 – Max Hödel attempts to assassinate Kaiser Wilhelm I (William I, German Emperor) of Germany (German Empire). His two attempts to shoot the monarch both fail, and he is apprehended and executed by beheading (decapitation) on August 15. * August 4, 1878 – Sergey Stepnyak-Kravchinsky stabs General Nikolai Mezentsov, head of the Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery Tsar's
Marxism. The threat of the SPD to the German monarchy and industrialists caused the state both to crack down on the party's supporters and to implement its own programme of social reform to soothe discontent. Germany's large industries provided significant social welfare programmes and good care to their employees, as long as they were not identified as socialists or trade-union members. The larger industrial firms provided pensions, sickness benefits and even housing to their employees. ref
twin prop were among the most successful designs to emerge from the era. The '''Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye''', was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new Republic of Austria (First Austrian Republic) on the other. Like the Treaty of Versailles with German Empire Germany
finish the disagreement over the last block at German Empire? He made two comments on talk, which no one agreed with (they were ignored). I tried to discuss althout User:Sca said that Molobo cannot be reasoned with and Sca vowed to never discuss with Molobo again. What was Molobo's gesture of good faith to my attempt at a discussion there? Today he just reverted to his old version. Period. Please
theologian , organist, philosopher, physician, and medical missionary. He was born in Kaysersberg in the province of Alsace-Lorraine, at that time part of the German Empire. Schweitzer, a Lutheran, challenged both the secular view of Jesus as depicted by historical-critical methodology (historical Jesus) current at his time in certain academic circles, as well as the traditional Christian view. He depicted Jesus as one who literally believed the end of the world
capital Berlin latd 52 latm 31 latNS N longd 13 longm 24 longEW E common_languages '''Official:''' German (German language) government_type Federal monarchy title_leader Emperor (German Emperor) leader1 Wilhelm I (William I, German Emperor) year_leader1 1871–1888 leader2 Frederick III (Frederick III, German Emperor) year_leader2 1888 leader3 Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) year_leader3 1888–1918 title_deputy Chancellor (List of Chancellors of Germany) deputy1 Otto von Bismarck (first) year_deputy1 1871–1890 deputy2 Friedrich Ebert (last) year_deputy2 1918 legislature Reichstag (Reichstag (German Empire)) house1 Bundesrat (Bundesrat (Germany)) type_house1 Federal Council stat_year1 1871 religion Protestant (Protestant Church) ≈ 63% Catholic (Roman Catholic Church) ≈ 35.8% Jewish (Judaism) ≈ 1.2% stat_pop1 40050790 stat_year2 1890 stat_pop2 49428470 stat_year4 1910 stat_pop4 64925993 stat_area4 540857.54 currency Vereinsthaler, South German Gulden, Bremen Thaler, Hamburg Mark, French Franc, (until 1873, together) German Goldmark, (1873–1914) German Papiermark (1914–1918) footnotes Area and population not including colonial possessions Area source: ---- today
The '''German Empire''' ( that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic (Weimar Republic).
The German Empire consisted of 27 constituent territories, with most of them being ruled by royal families (royal family). While the Kingdom of Prussia contained most of the population and most of the territory of the empire, the Prussian leaders were supplanted by leaders from all over Germany, and Prussia itself played a lesser role. As Dwyer (2005) points out, Prussia's "political and cultural influence had diminished considerably" by the 1890s. Philip G. Dwyer, ''Modern Prussian History, 1830–1947'' (2005) p 2 The German Empire's three largest neighbours were all rivals: Imperial Russia (Russian Empire) to the east, France (French Third Republic) to the west, and Austria-Hungary, a rival but also an ally, to the south-east.
After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron (and later steel), chemicals, and railways. In 1871, when the new German Empire was created, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913 this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in 1815, the united Germany became predominantly urban. J. H. Clapham, ''The Economic Development of France and Germany 1815–1914'' (1936) During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological, and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than Britain, France, Russia, and the United States combined.
Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the world's strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base. Paul Kennedy, ''The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000'' (1987) In less than a decade, its navy (Imperial German Navy) went from being a negligible force to one which was second only to the Royal Navy. After the removal of the powerful Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany) Otto von Bismarck in 1890 (following the deaths of two Emperors, Wilhelm I (William I, German Emperor) and Frederick III (Frederick III, German Emperor), in 1888), the young Emperor Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) engaged in increasingly reckless foreign policies that left the Empire isolated. When the great crisis of 1914 (July Crisis) arrived, the German Empire had only two allies (Central Powers), being Austria-Hungary, a great power at the time, and the Ottoman Empire. They were later joined by Bulgaria.
In the First World War (World War I), German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, and the war on the Western Front (Western Front (World War I)), against the forces of the British Empire and France, became a stalemate. The Allied naval blockade made for increasing shortages of food, and Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts. However, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front; as a result of the Communists' determination to end Russian involvement in the war, it carved out large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British; it failed, because of the use of a trans-Atlantic convoy system. But the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war, with its large reserves of money, food, armaments, and soldiers. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution. The high command (Oberste Heeresleitung) under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff increasingly controlled the country, as they gambled on one last offensive in spring 1918 (Spring Offensive) before the Americans could arrive in force, using large numbers of troops and guns withdrawn from the Eastern Front. This failed, and by October the armies had been in retreat since August, the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Austria-Hungary) and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, and the German people had lost faith in their political system. The Empire collapsed overnight in the November 1918 Revolution (German Revolution of 1918–1919), as the Emperor and all the ruling kings and dukes abdicated, and a republic (Weimar Republic) took over.