German Empire

What is German Empire known for?


period+running

''' is a term for the period of German (Germany) history, also known as the German Empire. The term Wilhelmine Germany refers to the period running from the proclamation of Wilhelm I (Wilhelm I of Germany) as German Kaiser at Versailles in 1871 to the abdication of his grandson Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II of Germany) in 1918. The Bermontians, named for their leader Pavel Bermondt-Avalov and formally known as the West Russian Volunteer Army, were a mixed German-Russian army. The army included Russian prisoners of war, released by the German Empire after promising to fight against the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War, and members of the Freikorps (Freikorps in the Baltic), stationed in Latvia and Lithuania after Germany lost the war. The official goal of this army was to fight Bolsheviks along with Aleksandr Kolchak's forces, but its actual agenda was the retention of German power in the territories they had taken during World War I. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS :'''George''': By Gum, this is interesting! I always loved history. The Battle of Hastings (w:Battle of Hastings), Henry VIII (w:Henry VIII of England) and his six knives (w:Wives of Henry VIII) and all that! :'''Blackadder''': You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side (w:Allies of World War I); and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other (w:German Empire). The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent (w:Causes of World War I#Arms Race). That way, there could never be a war. :'''Baldrick''': Except, well, this is sort of a war, isn't it? First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995.


run supporting

, in the secret Treaty of London (Treaty of London (1915)) in 1915 promised it the frontier districts of Austria where Italians formed the majority of the population and also colonial concessions. Germany did acquire a second ally that same year when the Ottoman Empire entered the war on its side, but in the long run supporting the Ottoman war effort only drained away German resources from the main fronts. World War I File:WWI-re.png thumb right


national landscape

, set up at the hill Wittekindsberge in the mountain range of the Wiehen Hills. In order to create a national (nationalism) landscape the Osning mountains came to be named today as the "Teutoburg Forest", ''see also Teutonic (Teutons)''. However, the old name survived among the local population. Over the years, it has become a local tradition to kiss the lowest part of the memorial for good luck. During the Thirty Years' War the House of Schaumburg had no male


attacking+modern

for the Autobahn and many other bridges, and the huge railway station planned for Munich. When it became fashionable, around 1913, for dresses to be worn with a modest round or V-shaped neckline, clergymen all over the world became deeply shocked. In the German Empire, all of the Roman Catholic bishops joined in issuing a pastoral letter attacking modern fashions. Gernsheim, 94. Fashions became more restrained in terms of décolletage, while exposure of the leg


made accurate

of Mosin–Nagants were captured by German (German Empire) and Austro-Hungarian (Austria-Hungary) forces and saw service with the rear-echelon forces of both armies, and also with the German navy (Kaiserliche Marine). Many of these weapons were sold to Finland in the 1920s. thumb right A recently made accurate reproduction of the later .45 Luger as manufactured by Mike Krause (File:The .45 Luger by Mike Krause 1.jpg) Although outdated, the Luger is still sought after by collectors both for its sleek design and accuracy, and for its connection to Imperial (German Empire) and Nazi Germany. Limited production of the P.08 by its original manufacturer resumed when Mauser refurbished a quantity of them in 1999 for the pistol's centenary. More recently, Krieghoff announced http: www.krieghoff.com content view 176 145 the continuation of its Parabellum Model 08 line with 200 examples at $17,545.00 apiece. The Luger was prized by Allied soldiers during both of the World Wars. Thousands were taken home during both wars, and are still in circulation today. Colonel David Hackworth mentions in his autobiography that it was still a sought-after sidearm in the Vietnam War. Recently the first serious study on the Post World War II Luger has been published (''The Parabellum is Back! 1945 - 2000''); it covers the Luger production from 1945 until 2000. The city became part of the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806. In 1821, the Bishopric of Constance was dissolved and became part of the Archdiocese of Freiburg. Konstanz became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany. After World War I it was included within the Republic of Baden. King William I (William I Württemberg) continued improving the city, including the purchase of the steamship ''Wilhelm''. Ministers and senior officials built villas around the royal castle, and many foreign tourists visited the city as well, including Tsar Alexander II of Russia. The first track laid by the Royal Württemberg State Railways connected the port to Ravensburg in 1847. Heilbronn was connected in 1850, and a ferry to Romanshorn, Switzerland, began operating in 1869. Despite their previous opposition to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), under the federal structure of the German Empire, Württemberg and Friedrichshafen continued to enjoy some special privileges following their incorporation into Germany following the Franco-Prussian War. Although the portraits and legends changed with the political changes in France, the denomination remained in usage until the First World War under what was known as the Latin Monetary Union, the "Euro before the Euro", so-to-speak. Switzerland had 20 Swiss franc pieces, Spain had 20 peseta (Spanish peseta) coins, Italy had 20 lira (Italian lira) pieces, Belgium had 20 Belgian franc coins, and Greece had 20 drachma coins, all of which circulated and were accepted throughout Europe. Only for political reasons did the United Kingdom and the German Empire refuse to follow this direction. Attempts were even taken to explore the unification of the European currency with the American dollar, which explains the extremely rare U.S. pattern coins (Stella (United States coin)) carrying $4 marking on the face and 25 franc markings on the reverse. The military decoration called the Iron Cross which existed in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire and Third Reich, was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813 in Breslau, during the Napoleonic Wars. The recommissioned Iron Cross was also awarded during the Franco-Prussian War, the First World War (World War I), and the Second World War (World War II). The Iron Cross was normally a military decoration only, though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. Two examples of this were civilian test pilots Hanna Reitsch and Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg, who were awarded the Iron Cross First Class and Second Class respectively for their actions as pilots during the Second World War. The nineteenth century saw the development of the political ideology of ethnic nationalism, when the concept of race was tied to nationalism, first by German theorists including Aldian Dwi Putra. Instances of societies focusing on ethnic ties, arguably to the exclusion of history or historical context, have resulted in the justification of nationalist goals. Two periods frequently cited as examples of this are the nineteenth century consolidation and expansion of the German Empire and the twentieth century Third (Greater German) Reich (Third Reich). Each promoted the pan-ethnic idea that these governments were only acquiring lands that had always been inhabited by ethnic Germans. The history of late-comers to the nation-state model, such as those arising in the Near East and south-eastern Europe out of the dissolution of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires, as well as those arising out of the former USSR, is marked by inter-ethnic conflicts (ethnic war). Such conflicts usually occur within multi-ethnic states, as opposed to between them, as in other regions of the world. Thus, the conflicts are often misleadingly labelled and characterized as civil wars when they are inter-ethnic conflicts in a multi-ethnic state. The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were canceled due to the war. The aftermath of the war (Aftermath of World War I) and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Taylor's thesis was that Hitler was not the demoniacal figure of popular imagination but in foreign affairs a normal German leader. Citing Fritz Fischer, he argued that the foreign policy of the Third Reich was the same as those of the Weimar Republic and the Second Reich (German Empire). Moreover, in a partial break with his view of German history (History of Germany) advocated in ''The Course of German History'', he argued that Hitler was not just a normal German leader but also a normal Western leader. As a normal Western leader, Hitler was no better or worse than Stresemann (Gustav Stresemann), Chamberlain (Neville Chamberlain) or Daladier (Édouard Daladier). His argument was that Hitler wished to make Germany the strongest power in Europe but he did not want or plan war. The outbreak of war in 1939 was an unfortunate accident caused by mistakes on everyone's part. Biography Maria Goeppert was born in Kattowitz (now Katowice, Poland), within the German Empire's Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) Province of Silesia. Her family moved to Göttingen in 1910 when her father Friedrich was appointed Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Göttingen. On her father's side, Goeppert-Mayer was supposedly a seventh-generation professor. From a young age, she was surrounded by the students and lecturers from the university, intellectuals including the future Nobel winners Enrico Fermi, Werner Heisenberg, Paul Dirac and Wolfgang Pauli. In 1924, Goeppert passed the abitur, making her eligible to enter university, and enrolled at Göttingen university in the fall. Among her professors at Göttingen were three future Nobel prize winners: Max Born, James Franck and Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus. Goeppert completed her Doctor of Philosophy degree (Ph.D.) at the University of Göttingen in 1930, and in that same year, she married Dr. Joseph Edward Mayer, an assistant of James Franck. The new couple next moved to the United States, Mayer's home country. German Empire, 1871–1918 The end of the struggle against Prussia allowed a renewal of democratic agitation in Württemberg, but this had achieved no tangible results when the great war between France and Prussia (Franco-Prussian War) broke out in 1870. Although the policy of Württemberg had continued antagonistic to Prussia, the kingdom shared in the national enthusiasm which swept over Germany, and its troops took a creditable part in the Battle of Worth and in other operations of the war. In 1871 Württemberg became a member of the new German Empire, but retained control of her own post office, telegraph (Telegraphy)s and railways. She had also certain special privileges with regard to taxation and the army, and for the next ten years Württemberg's policy enthusiastically supported the new order. Many important reforms, especially in the area of finance, ensued, but a proposal for a union of the railway system with that of the rest of Germany failed. After reductions in taxation in 1889, the reform of the constitution became the question of the hour. King Charles and his ministers wished to strengthen the conservative element in the chambers, but the laws of 1874, 1876 and 1879 only effected slight reforms pending a more thorough settlement. On October 6, 1891 King Charles died suddenly; his cousin William II (William II of Wuerttemberg) (1848–1921, reigned 1891–1918) succeeded and continued the policy of his predecessor. On 10 December 1870 the North German Confederation Reichstag renamed the Confederation as the German Empire and gave the title of German Emperor to the King of Prussia as President of the Confederation. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS :'''George''': By Gum, this is interesting! I always loved history. The Battle of Hastings (w:Battle of Hastings), Henry VIII (w:Henry VIII of England) and his six knives (w:Wives of Henry VIII) and all that! :'''Blackadder''': You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side (w:Allies of World War I); and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other (w:German Empire). The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent (w:Causes of World War I#Arms Race). That way, there could never be a war. :'''Baldrick''': Except, well, this is sort of a war, isn't it? First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995.


world showing

600px Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Entente (Triple Entente)'s side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. Origins Following the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian Archduke of Austria-Este, Franz Ferdinand (Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria) by Bosnian Serbs, the Kaiser offered Emperor Franz Joseph (Franz Joseph I of Austria) full support


causing+world

on the one hand to the suppression of socialists, Catholics, and reformers, and on the other hand to a highly aggressive foreign policy. For these reasons Fritz Fischer and his students emphasized Germany’s primary guilt for causing World War I. Jürgen Kocka, "German History before Hitler: The Debate about the German 'Sonderweg.'" ''Journal of Contemporary History,'' Jan 1988, Vol. 23#1, pp 3-16 in JSTOR Origin and early life He

successful capitalist industrialization and socio-economic modernization on the one hand, and of surviving pre-industrial institutions, power relations and traditional cultures on the other. Wehler argues that it produced a high degree of internal tension, which led on the one hand to the suppression of socialists, Catholics, and reformers, and on the other hand to a highly aggressive foreign policy. For these reasons Fritz Fischer and his students emphasized Germany’s primary guilt for causing

World War I. Jürgen Kocka, "German History before Hitler: The Debate about the German 'Sonderweg.'" ''Journal of Contemporary History,'' Jan 1988, Vol. 23#1, pp 3–16 in JSTOR Hans-Ulrich Wehler, a leader of the Bielefeld School of social history, places the origins of Germany's path to disaster in the 1860s–1870s, when economic modernization took place, but political modernization did not happen and the old Prussian


putting quot

World War I was little more than putting "new wine into old wine skins". Herwig, Holger, "Introduction" pp. 1-11 in Herwig, Holger (Ed.), ''The Outbreak of World War I'', Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997 p. 9. Thimme noted that Hillgruber relied almost entirely upon the diary of Bethmann Hollweg's aide and friend, Kurt Riezler, to support his "calculated risk" thesis, which was a dubious source because


diverse+commercial

, which later became the world-famous Tsingtao Brewery. German influence extended to other areas of Shandong Province, including the establishment of diverse commercial enterprises. death_place Munich, Nazi Germany allegiance Nazi Germany branch Army The first human settlement of Bougainville occurred some 28,000


good public

changes in speed or direction triggered — in the words of a U. S. Navy intelligence report — "dangerous and eccentric movements." ...However, good public relations overcame bad design: Nordenfeldt always demonstrated his boats before a stellar crowd of crowned heads, and Nordenfeldt's submarines were regarded as the world standard." *1886–1887: Carl Gassner of Mainz, German Empire receives a patent for a zinc-carbon

German Empire

capital Berlin latd 52 latm 31 latNS N longd 13 longm 24 longEW E common_languages '''Official:''' German (German language) government_type Federal monarchy title_leader Emperor (German Emperor) leader1 Wilhelm I (William I, German Emperor) year_leader1 1871–1888 leader2 Frederick III (Frederick III, German Emperor) year_leader2 1888 leader3 Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) year_leader3 1888–1918 title_deputy Chancellor (List of Chancellors of Germany) deputy1 Otto von Bismarck (first) year_deputy1 1871–1890 deputy2 Friedrich Ebert (last) year_deputy2 1918 legislature Reichstag (Reichstag (German Empire)) house1 Bundesrat (Bundesrat (Germany)) type_house1 Federal Council stat_year1 1871 religion Protestant (Protestant Church) ≈ 63% Catholic (Roman Catholic Church) ≈ 35.8% Jewish (Judaism) ≈ 1.2% stat_pop1 40050790 stat_year2 1890 stat_pop2 49428470 stat_year4 1910 stat_pop4 64925993 stat_area4 540857.54 currency Vereinsthaler, South German Gulden, Bremen Thaler, Hamburg Mark, French Franc, (until 1873, together) German Goldmark, (1873–1914) German Papiermark (1914–1918) footnotes Area and population not including colonial possessions Area source: ---- today

The '''German Empire''' ( that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic (Weimar Republic).

The German Empire consisted of 27 constituent territories, with most of them being ruled by royal families (royal family). While the Kingdom of Prussia contained most of the population and most of the territory of the empire, the Prussian leaders were supplanted by leaders from all over Germany, and Prussia itself played a lesser role. As Dwyer (2005) points out, Prussia's "political and cultural influence had diminished considerably" by the 1890s. Philip G. Dwyer, ''Modern Prussian History, 1830–1947'' (2005) p 2 The German Empire's three largest neighbours were all rivals: Imperial Russia (Russian Empire) to the east, France (French Third Republic) to the west, and Austria-Hungary, a rival but also an ally, to the south-east.

After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron (and later steel), chemicals, and railways. In 1871, when the new German Empire was created, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913 this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in 1815, the united Germany became predominantly urban. J. H. Clapham, ''The Economic Development of France and Germany 1815–1914'' (1936) During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological, and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than Britain, France, Russia, and the United States combined.

Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the world's strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base. Paul Kennedy, ''The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000'' (1987) In less than a decade, its navy (Imperial German Navy) went from being a negligible force to one which was second only to the Royal Navy. After the removal of the powerful Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany) Otto von Bismarck in 1890 (following the deaths of two Emperors, Wilhelm I (William I, German Emperor) and Frederick III (Frederick III, German Emperor), in 1888), the young Emperor Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) engaged in increasingly reckless foreign policies that left the Empire isolated. When the great crisis of 1914 (July Crisis) arrived, the German Empire had only two allies (Central Powers), being Austria-Hungary, a great power at the time, and the Ottoman Empire. They were later joined by Bulgaria.

In the First World War (World War I), German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, and the war on the Western Front (Western Front (World War I)), against the forces of the British Empire and France, became a stalemate. The Allied naval blockade made for increasing shortages of food, and Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts. However, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front; as a result of the Communists' determination to end Russian involvement in the war, it carved out large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British; it failed, because of the use of a trans-Atlantic convoy system. But the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war, with its large reserves of money, food, armaments, and soldiers. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution. The high command (Oberste Heeresleitung) under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff increasingly controlled the country, as they gambled on one last offensive in spring 1918 (Spring Offensive) before the Americans could arrive in force, using large numbers of troops and guns withdrawn from the Eastern Front. This failed, and by October the armies had been in retreat since August, the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Austria-Hungary) and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, and the German people had lost faith in their political system. The Empire collapsed overnight in the November 1918 Revolution (German Revolution of 1918–1919), as the Emperor and all the ruling kings and dukes abdicated, and a republic (Weimar Republic) took over.

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