German Empire

What is German Empire known for?


early activism

War I Allies recaptured Bernissart just as the first fossiliferous layer was about to be uncovered. Further attempts to reopen the mine were hindered by financial problems and were stopped altogether in 1921 when the mine flooded. death_date birth_place Heidau (Nysa, Poland), Liegnitz, Province of Silesia, Prussia, German Empire (now Legnica, Poland) death_place Bavaria, Germany Early

activism The son of a school teacher near Malmö, he was orphaned at the age of 10, after which he was trained to be a tailor. At the age of 18, he made an educational trip through Denmark and Germany (German Empire), after which, in 1874, he settled as a tailor in Haderslev in Northern Schleswig. Also in 1874 he married Johanna Larsson. '''Johann Eduard Erdmann''' (June 13, 1805, Wolmar, Russian Empire (now Valmiera, Latvia


manufacturing career

in the Zuffenhausen district of Stuttgart, then capital of the Kingdom of Württemberg within the German Empire, to a wealthy Jewish family. Due to parental pressure, Horkheimer left secondary school at the age of sixteen to work in his father's factory. In 1916, his manufacturing career ended and he was drafted into World War I. Reason, Nostalgia, and Eschatology in the Critical Theory of Max Horkheimer Brian J. Shaw The Journal of Politics, Vol. 47, No. 1 (Feb., 1985), pp. 160-181 After World War I, he enrolled at Munich University, where he studied philosophy and psychology. After university, Horkheimer moved to Frankfurt am Main, where he studied under Hans Cornelius. There, he met Theodor Adorno, several years his junior, with whom he would strike a lasting friendship and a fruitful collaborative relationship. A national song that was particularly popular during the November Uprising was ''Warszawianka (Warszawianka (1831))'', originally written in French as ''La Varsovienne'' by Casimir Delavigne, with melody by Karol Kurpiński. The song praised Polish insurgents taking their ideals from the French July Revolution of 1830. A peasant rebellion against Polish nobles, which took place in western Galicia (Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria) in 1846 and was encouraged by Austrian authorities who wished to thwart a new uprising attempt, moved Kornel Ujejski to write a mournful chorale entitled ''Z dymem pożarów'' ("With the Smoke of Fires"). With the music composed by Józef Nikorowicz, it became one of the most popular national songs of the time, although it declined into obscurity during the 20th century. In 1908, Maria Konopnicka and Feliks Nowowiejski created ''Rota (Rota (poem))'' ("The Oath"), a song protesting against the oppression of the Polish population of the German Empire, who were subject to eviction from their land and forced assimilation. First publicly performed in 1910, during a quincentennial celebration of the Polish-Lithuanian victory over the Teutonic Knights at Grunwald (Battle of Grunwald), it too became one of the most treasured national Polish songs. Exercises in historical revisionism In Germany, numerous individuals and groups—collectively labeled ''Kommissarische Reichsregierungen'' (KRR)—assert that the German Empire continues to exist in its pre-World War II borders (Territorial changes of Germany) and that they are its government. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS :'''George''': By Gum, this is interesting! I always loved history. The Battle of Hastings (w:Battle of Hastings), Henry VIII (w:Henry VIII of England) and his six knives (w:Wives of Henry VIII) and all that! :'''Blackadder''': You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side (w:Allies of World War I); and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other (w:German Empire). The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent (w:Causes of World War I#Arms Race). That way, there could never be a war. :'''Baldrick''': Except, well, this is sort of a war, isn't it? First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995.


quick victory

border and instead adopted the Schlieffen Plan, a military strategy designed to cripple France by invading Belgium (Rape of Belgium) and Luxembourg, sweeping down towards Paris and encircling and crushing the French forces along the Franco-German border in a quick victory. After defeating France, Germany would turn to attack Russia. The plan required the violation of Belgium's and Luxembourg's official neutrality, which Britain (British Empire) had guaranteed by treaty. However


military+culture

See, for example, Roger Chickering, ''Imperial Germany and the Great War, 1914-1918''. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014; Cornelius Torp and Sven Oliver Müller, eds., ''Imperial Germany Revisited: Continuing Debates & New Perspectives''. Oxford: Berghahn, 2011; James Retallack, ed., ''Imperial Germany 1871-1918''. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008; Isabel V. Hull, ''Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany''. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005. was the historical German nation state Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS :'''George''': By Gum, this is interesting! I always loved history. The Battle of Hastings (w:Battle of Hastings), Henry VIII (w:Henry VIII of England) and his six knives (w:Wives of Henry VIII) and all that! :'''Blackadder''': You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side (w:Allies of World War I); and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other (w:German Empire). The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent (w:Causes of World War I#Arms Race). That way, there could never be a war. :'''Baldrick''': Except, well, this is sort of a war, isn't it? First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995.


history+genre

;The Origins of EEG" ''International Society for the History of the Neurosciences'' (ISHN) and the discoverer of the alpha wave rhythm known as "Berger's wave". Grimwood's work tends to be of a quasi-alternate history (alternate history (fiction)) genre that could be dubbed "Alternative future"; whilst set in an alternate universe, they are still set in the future. In the first four novels, set in the 22nd century, the point of divergence


bravery made

planes—most of them over the Belgian front. Berthold had the reputation as a ruthless, fearless and—above all—a very patriotic fighter. His perseverance and bravery made him one of the most famous German pilots of the First World War. History The company was founded during World War I on 24 November 1916, as '' ''. Its founders included different railway companies in German Empire


experimental art

the schools in Imperial Germany had a very high standard and kept abreast with modern developments in knowledge. Geoffrey Cocks and Konrad H. Jarausch, eds. ''German Professions, 1800–1950'' (1990) Artists began experimental art in opposition to Kaiser Wilhelm's support for traditional art, to which Wilhelm responded "art which transgresses the laws and limits laid down by me can no longer be called art ... ." Kurtz, Harold (1970


early research

dissent. Biography Plendl was born in 1900 in Munich, German Empire to parents from Northern Bavaria. His surname is most likely a truncated Bavarian (Austro-Bavarian) dialect form of "Plendlein." Plendl served briefly in the Imperial Kriegsmarine (Navy) during World War I. Shortly thereafter, Plendl began his career as a radio and beam engineer for Telefunken corporation. His early research into meter-wave propagation and radar beams necessitated additional


resistance+defending

with Polish inhabitants, faced severe discrimination from Germanized local administration, in this climate first resistance defending the rights of rural population was formed; according to Jerzy Mazurek usually teachers engaged in publishing Polish-language newspapers. Kraj a emigracja: ruch ludowy wobec wychodźstwa chłopskiego do krajów Ameryki Łacińskiej (do 1939 roku) Jerzy Mazurek, page 281, Biblioteka Iberyjska, 2006 During the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, Mainz


service traditional

rural elite remained in firm control of the army, diplomacy and the civil service. Traditional, aristocratic, premodern society battled an emerging capitalist, bourgeois, modernizing society. Recognizing the importance of modernizing forces in industry and the economy and in the cultural realm, Wehler argues that reactionary traditionalism dominated the political hierarchy of power in Germany, as well as social mentalities and in class relations (''Klassenhabitus''). The catastrophic German politics

German Empire

capital Berlin latd 52 latm 31 latNS N longd 13 longm 24 longEW E common_languages '''Official:''' German (German language) government_type Federal monarchy title_leader Emperor (German Emperor) leader1 Wilhelm I (William I, German Emperor) year_leader1 1871–1888 leader2 Frederick III (Frederick III, German Emperor) year_leader2 1888 leader3 Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) year_leader3 1888–1918 title_deputy Chancellor (List of Chancellors of Germany) deputy1 Otto von Bismarck (first) year_deputy1 1871–1890 deputy2 Friedrich Ebert (last) year_deputy2 1918 legislature Reichstag (Reichstag (German Empire)) house1 Bundesrat (Bundesrat (Germany)) type_house1 Federal Council stat_year1 1871 religion Protestant (Protestant Church) ≈ 63% Catholic (Roman Catholic Church) ≈ 35.8% Jewish (Judaism) ≈ 1.2% stat_pop1 40050790 stat_year2 1890 stat_pop2 49428470 stat_year4 1910 stat_pop4 64925993 stat_area4 540857.54 currency Vereinsthaler, South German Gulden, Bremen Thaler, Hamburg Mark, French Franc, (until 1873, together) German Goldmark, (1873–1914) German Papiermark (1914–1918) footnotes Area and population not including colonial possessions Area source: ---- today

The '''German Empire''' ( that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic (Weimar Republic).

The German Empire consisted of 27 constituent territories, with most of them being ruled by royal families (royal family). While the Kingdom of Prussia contained most of the population and most of the territory of the empire, the Prussian leaders were supplanted by leaders from all over Germany, and Prussia itself played a lesser role. As Dwyer (2005) points out, Prussia's "political and cultural influence had diminished considerably" by the 1890s. Philip G. Dwyer, ''Modern Prussian History, 1830–1947'' (2005) p 2 The German Empire's three largest neighbours were all rivals: Imperial Russia (Russian Empire) to the east, France (French Third Republic) to the west, and Austria-Hungary, a rival but also an ally, to the south-east.

After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron (and later steel), chemicals, and railways. In 1871, when the new German Empire was created, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913 this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in 1815, the united Germany became predominantly urban. J. H. Clapham, ''The Economic Development of France and Germany 1815–1914'' (1936) During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological, and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than Britain, France, Russia, and the United States combined.

Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the world's strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base. Paul Kennedy, ''The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000'' (1987) In less than a decade, its navy (Imperial German Navy) went from being a negligible force to one which was second only to the Royal Navy. After the removal of the powerful Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany) Otto von Bismarck in 1890 (following the deaths of two Emperors, Wilhelm I (William I, German Emperor) and Frederick III (Frederick III, German Emperor), in 1888), the young Emperor Wilhelm II (Wilhelm II, German Emperor) engaged in increasingly reckless foreign policies that left the Empire isolated. When the great crisis of 1914 (July Crisis) arrived, the German Empire had only two allies (Central Powers), being Austria-Hungary, a great power at the time, and the Ottoman Empire. They were later joined by Bulgaria.

In the First World War (World War I), German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, and the war on the Western Front (Western Front (World War I)), against the forces of the British Empire and France, became a stalemate. The Allied naval blockade made for increasing shortages of food, and Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts. However, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front; as a result of the Communists' determination to end Russian involvement in the war, it carved out large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British; it failed, because of the use of a trans-Atlantic convoy system. But the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war, with its large reserves of money, food, armaments, and soldiers. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution. The high command (Oberste Heeresleitung) under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff increasingly controlled the country, as they gambled on one last offensive in spring 1918 (Spring Offensive) before the Americans could arrive in force, using large numbers of troops and guns withdrawn from the Eastern Front. This failed, and by October the armies had been in retreat since August, the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Austria-Hungary) and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, and the German people had lost faith in their political system. The Empire collapsed overnight in the November 1918 Revolution (German Revolution of 1918–1919), as the Emperor and all the ruling kings and dukes abdicated, and a republic (Weimar Republic) took over.

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