franca '' for trade between the different peoples in southeastern Africa. In the Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as the Bushmen (also "San", closely related to, but distinct from "Hottentots (Khoikhoi)") have long been present. The San evince unique physical traits, and are the indigenous people of southern Africa. Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous peoples of central Africa. thumb The awesome natural wonder - Pico Cão Grande (File:São Tomé - Pico Cão Grande.jpg). '''São Tomé and Príncipe''' is a small nation composed of an archipelago located in the Gulf of Guinea of equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The nation's main islands are São Tomé Island and Príncipe Island, for which the country is named. These are located about Commons:Category:Gabon WikiPedia:Gabon Dmoz:Regional Africa Gabon
for the Origin of Epidemic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 journal Journal of Virology volume 79 issue 19 pages 12515–27 year 2005 pmid 16160179 pmc 1211554 doi 10.1128 JVI.79.19.12515-12527.2005 thumb right 300px Detailed map of Annobón (left) (Image:Annobón Bioko.PNG) '''Annobón''' (or '''Annabon''' or '''Anabon'''; from ''Ano bom'' Portuguese (Portuguese language) for ''Good Year''), also known as '''Pagalu''' or '''Pigalu''', is an island of Equatorial Guinea
level is "École Secondaire", which is made up of seven grades. The planned graduation age is 19 years old. Those who graduate can apply for admission at institutions of Higher learning, including engineering schools or business schools. The government has used oil revenue for school construction, paying teachers' salaries, and promoting education, including in rural areas. However, maintenance of school structures, as well as teachers' salaries, has been declining. In 2002 the gross
;The night the team went down" in the ''Times'' South Africa (Apr 20, 2008) . Prior to his death he played briefly in South Africa for Dynamos. The '''Gabonese Confederation of Free Trade Unions''' (CGSL) is a trade union centre in Gabon. It is affiliated with the International Trade Union Confederation. Commons:Category:Gabon WikiPedia:Gabon Dmoz:Regional Africa Gabon
a population of about 20,000 people. Its main sight is the Lac Bleu, a lake known for its bright blue water. '''Oyem''' is the capital of Woleu-Ntem province in northern Gabon, lying on the N2 road (N2 road (Gabon)) and the River Ntem. '''Franceville''' or '''Masuku''' is one of the four largest cities in Gabon, with a population of around 56,000 (2010, approx.) people. It lies on the River Mpassa and at the end of the Trans-Gabon Railway and the N3 road
of 370,000 barrels per day in 1997. Some estimates suggest that Gabonese oil will be expended by 2025. In spite of the decreasing oil revenues, planning is only now beginning for an after-oil scenario. Background note: Gabon. U.S. Department of State (August 4, 2010). Commons:Category:Gabon WikiPedia:Gabon Dmoz:Regional Africa Gabon
that it ceased operation as of August 3, 2010. The collection In 1973 Sir Robert and Lisa, Lady Sainsbury (Sainsbury#Sainsbury_Family) donated to the university their collection of over 300 artworks and objects, which they had been accumulating since the 1930s. The collection has since increased in size to several thousand works spanning over 5000 years of human endeavor, including pieces by Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore (numerous sculptures can be found dotted around the grounds of the university), Alberto Giacometti, and Francis Bacon (Francis Bacon (painter)), alongside art from Africa (including a 'Fang Reliquary Head' from Gabon and the Nigerian 'Head of an Oba (Oba (ruler))'), Asia, North (North America) and South America, the Pacific (Pacific islands) region, medieval Europe and the ancient Mediterranean. The Baltic Fleet took a prominent part in the Russo-Japanese War. In September 1904, a squadron under the command of Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky was sent around Africa - stopping in French, German and Portuguese colonial ports Tangier, Dakar, Gabon, Baía dos Tigres, Angra Pequeña, and Nossi Be (Madagascar), then across the Indian Ocean to Cam Ranh Bay in French Indochina and then northward to its doomed encounter with the Japanese fleet at the Battle of Tsushima. The German Hamburg-Amerika Line provided 60 colliers to supply the Baltic Fleet on its epic journey. During its passage through the North Sea the fleet mistook a fleet of British fishing boats for Japanese torpedo boats and opened fire, killing three sailors in what is known as the Dogger Bank incident. The decision to send the fleet to the Pacific was made after Russia had suffered a string of defeats at the hands of the Japanese Army in Manchuria. This historic naval battle broke Russian strength in East Asia and set the stage for the unsuccessful Russian Revolution of 1905, which began the decline that would see the monarchy brought down in 1917. The '''Bay Duiker''' (''Cephalophus dorsalis'' also known as the '''Black-Backed Duiker''') is a forest dwelling Duiker found in Gabon, southern Cameroon and northern Congo (Republic of the Congo) as well as Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the southern parts of Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Benin. It is believed by some to be a subspecies of Ogilby's Duiker. * G20 – (i) Group of 20 (G8 + Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey + current European Union presiding country) (1999) * G24 (G24 (disambiguation)) – (i) Group of 24 (subset of G77, formed 1971: Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Iran, Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Syria, Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela) * G77 (G77 (disambiguation)) – (i) Group of 77 (issued from the United Nations Conference on Commerce and Development, 1964; currently numbers 133) * Ga (GA (disambiguation)) – (s) Gallium – Gigaannum * GA (GA (disambiguation)) – (s) Gabon (ISO 3166 digram) – The Gambia (FIPS 10-4 country code) – (i) Gamblers Anonymous – Georgia (Georgia (U.S. state)) (postal symbol) – Gigaampere * GAAR – (a) General Anti-Avoidance Rule (tax evasion) GB * GB (GB (disambiguation)) – (s) Gabon (FIPS 10-4 country code) – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (ISO 3166 digram) * GBBC – (i) Great Backyard Bird Count Club career Tchato began his career in France with Caen (Stade Malherbe Caen) in 1995, "Bill Tchato". L'Équipe. Retrieved 9 February 2011. and made 18 league appearances in his debut season (1995–96 French Division 2) which ended with the club being promoted to Division 1 (Ligue 1) as champions. He was transferred to Valence (ASOA Valence) in 1996, where he made 69 league appearances and scored six goals over the next two years. In 1998, he joined Nice (OGC Nice), scoring three goals in 70 league appearances during his time with the club. Tchato was signed by Montpellier (Montpellier HSC) in 2000 and he helped them gain promotion to Division 1 in his first season (2000–01 French Division 2). He made 63 league appearances for the club before moving to Germany in 2003 to play for Bundesliga (Fußball-Bundesliga) side1. FC Kaiserslautern. "Bill Tchato Mbiayi". Ligue de Football Professionnel. Retrieved 9 February 2011. In 2005, he returned to Nice for one season and then moved to the Middle East to play for Qatar SC. Two years later, he joined Al-Khor (Al-Khor Sports Club). Tchato returned to France in 2010 with Championnat National team Strasbourg (RC Strasbourg). "Bill Tchato vers la signature?". Foot National. 1 October 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2011. A year later, having seen Strasbourg relegated due to financial problems, Tchato moved to Gabon to join First Division (Gabon Championnat National D1) club Sapins (Sapins FC). "Arrivée de Bill Tchato au FC Sapins (D1), et contact "très avancé" avec Pierre Womé Lend". Les Pantheres. 13 November 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2011. '''Tchibanga''' is a city in the Nyanga Province of southern Gabon, situated on the Nyanga River. It has an estimated population of 24,000 (2008). The town lies on the N6 road and is home to an airport and a market. It lies near the Ivela Falls. History and economy Bata has one of the deepest seaports in the region. Despite this, Bata has no natural harbor and a jetty was built to facilitate offshore handling of ships' cargoes. The principal exports are timber and coffee. Encyclopædia Britannica, Retrieved on June 18, 2008 The international airport at Bata Airport has flights to several cities, including the capital, Malabo and to Libreville in Gabon. Bata, like Malabo, contains some of the country's best hotels including the Hotel Panafrica, overlooking the beach. Commons:Category:Gabon WikiPedia:Gabon Dmoz:Regional Africa Gabon
imprisoned, despite widespread protests and riots. French soldiers still remain in the Camp de Gaulle on the outskirts of Gabon's capital to this day. When M'Ba died in 1967, Bongo replaced him as president. In March 1968, Bongo declared Gabon a one-party state by dissolving the BDG and establishing a new party — the Parti Democratique Gabonais (PDG). He invited all Gabonese, regardless of previous political affiliation, to participate. Bongo sought to forge a single national movement in support of the government's development policies, using the PDG as a tool to submerge the regional and tribal rivalries that had divided Gabonese politics in the past. Bongo was elected President in February 1975; in April 1975, the position of vice president was abolished and replaced by the position of prime minister, who had no right to automatic succession. Bongo was re-elected President in both December 1979 and November 1986 to 7-year terms. Economic discontent and a desire for political liberalization provoked violent demonstrations and strikes by students and workers in early 1990. In response to grievances by workers, Bongo negotiated with them on a sector-by-sector basis, making significant wage concessions. In addition, he promised to open up the PDG and to organize a national political conference in March–April 1990 to discuss Gabon's future political system. The PDG and 74 political organizations attended the conference. Participants essentially divided into two loose coalitions, the ruling PDG and its allies, and the United Front of Opposition Associations and Parties, consisting of the breakaway Morena Fundamental and the Gabonese Progress Party. The April 1990 conference approved sweeping political reforms, including creation of a national Senate (Senate (Gabon)), decentralization of the budgetary process, freedom of assembly and press, and cancellation of an exit visa requirement. In an attempt to guide the political system's transformation to multiparty democracy, Bongo resigned as PDG chairman and created a transitional government headed by a new Prime Minister, Casimir Oye-Mba. The Gabonese Social Democratic Grouping (RSDG), as the resulting government was called, was smaller than the previous government and included representatives from several opposition parties in its cabinet. The RSDG drafted a provisional constitution in May 1990 that provided a basic bill of rights and an independent judiciary but retained strong executive powers for the president. After further review by a constitutional committee and the National Assembly, this document came into force in March 1991. Opposition to the PDG continued after the April 1990 conference, however, and in September 1990, two coup d'état attempts were uncovered and aborted. Despite anti-government demonstrations after the untimely death of an opposition leader, the first multiparty National Assembly elections in almost 30 years took place in September–October 1990, with the PDG garnering a large majority. Following President Omar Bongo's re-election in December 1993 with 51% of the vote, opposition candidates refused to validate the election results. Serious civil disturbances led to an agreement between the government and opposition factions to work toward a political settlement. These talks led to the Paris Accords in November 1994, under which several opposition figures were included in a government of national unity. This arrangement soon broke down, however, and the 1996 and 1997 legislative and municipal elections provided the background for renewed partisan politics. The PDG won a landslide victory in the legislative election, but several major cities, including Libreville, elected opposition mayors during the 1997 local election. Facing a divided opposition, President Omar Bongo coasted to easy re-election in December 1998, with large majorities of the vote. While Bongo's major opponents rejected the outcome as fraudulent, some international observers characterized the results as representative despite many perceived irregularities, and there were none of the civil disturbances that followed the 1993 election. Peaceful though flawed legislative elections held in 2001–2002, which were boycotted by a number of smaller opposition parties and were widely criticized for their administrative weaknesses, produced a National Assembly almost completely dominated by the PDG and allied independents. In November 2005, President Omar Bongo was elected for his sixth term. He won re-election easily, but opponents claim that the balloting process was marred by irregularities. There were some instances of violence following the announcement of Omar Bongo's win, but Gabon generally remained peaceful. National Assembly elections were held again in December 2006. Several seats contested because of voting irregularities were overturned by the Constitutional Court, but the subsequent run-off elections in early 2007 again yielded a PDG-controlled National Assembly. On June 8, 2009, President Omar Bongo died of cardiac arrest at a Spanish hospital in Barcelona, ushering in a new era in Gabonese politics. In accordance with the amended constitution, Rose Francine Rogombé, the President of the Senate, became Interim President on June 10, 2009. The first contested elections in Gabon's history that did not include Omar Bongo as a candidate were held on August 30, 2009 with 18 candidates for president. The lead-up to the elections saw some isolated protests, but no significant disturbances. Omar Bongo's son, ruling party leader Ali Bongo Ondimba, was formally declared the winner after a 3-week review by the Constitutional Court; his inauguration took place on October 16, 2009. The court's review had been prompted by claims of fraud by the many opposition candidates, with the initial announcement of election results sparking unprecedented violent protests in Port-Gentil, the country's second-largest city and a long-time bastion of opposition to PDG rule. The citizens of Port-Gentil took to the streets, and numerous shops and residences were burned, including the French Consulate and a local prison. Officially, only four deaths occurred during the riots, but opposition and local leaders claim many more. Gendarmes and the military were deployed to Port-Gentil to support the beleaguered police, and a curfew was in effect for more than 3 months. A partial legislative by-election was held in June 2010. A newly created coalition of parties, the Union Nationale (UN), participated for the first time. The UN is composed largely of PDG defectors who left the party after Omar Bongo's death. Of the five hotly contested seats, the PDG won three and the UN won two; both sides claimed victory. Government thumb 250px Ali Bongo Ondimba (File:Ali Bongo Ondimba with Obamas 2014.jpg), President of the Gabonese Republic, his wife Sylvia Bongo Ondimba, US president Barack Obama and his wife Michelle Obama in 2014. Commons:Category:Gabon WikiPedia:Gabon Dmoz:Regional Africa Gabon
12, 1984—following the admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as the government of Western Sahara — Morocco remains involved in developing the regional economy, as the city of Casablanca (Casablanca, Morocco) contains North Africa's busiest port and serves as the country's economic center. There are significant ties with West African and Sahel countries and Morocco entertains good relationships with Senegal, Gabon and Burkina Faso.
-opted in the sole legal party, Habré's National Union for Independence and Revolution (UNIR), of which Djogo became a member of the Central Committee in 1989. Range De Brazza's monkey ranges across the swamps, bamboo and dry mountain forests of Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo (Republic of the Congo), The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, the Cherangani Hills of Kenya,
'''Gabon''' ( and its population is estimated at 1.5 million people. Its capital and largest city is Libreville.
Since its independence from France in 1960, Gabon has had three presidents (List of heads of state of Gabon). In the early 1990s, Gabon introduced a multi-party system and a new democratic constitution that allowed for a more transparent electoral process and reformed many governmental institutions. Gabon was also a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the 2010–2011 term.
Low population density, abundant petroleum, and foreign private investment have helped make Gabon one of the most prosperous countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, with the 4th highest HDI (Human Development Index) and the third highest GDP per capita (PPP) (after Equatorial Guinea and Botswana) in the region.