as, years later, were her two brothers, Fuad and Farid al-Atrash, Classical Arabic Music Website in the Fustat plain (Fustat) in Cairo, which she and brother Farid, along with Egyptian crooner Abdel Halim Hafez, Baraka, Mohamed. Al-Ahram Newspaper Article. Issue No. 943, 16 - 22 April 2009. had restored to some of its former glory. El Kadi, Galila and Alain Bonnamy (2007) Architecture for the dead. American University in Cairo Press. p. 96
Fustat Today, little remains of the grandeur of the old city. The three capitals, Fustat, Al-Askar and Al-Qatta'i were absorbed into the growing city of Cairo. Some of the old buildings remain visible in the region known as "Old Cairo", but much of the rest has fallen into disrepair, overgrown with weeds or used as garbage dumps. as, years later, were her two brothers, Fuad and Farid al-Atrash, Classical Arabic Music Website in the Fustat plain (Fustat) in Cairo, which she and brother Farid, along with Egyptian crooner Abdel Halim Hafez, Baraka, Mohamed. Al-Ahram Newspaper Article. Issue No. 943, 16 - 22 April 2009. had restored to some of its former glory. El Kadi, Galila and Alain Bonnamy (2007) Architecture for the dead. American University in Cairo Press. p. 96
antiquity. The ziggurats of ancient Mesopotamia (4th millennium BC–600 BC) had plantings of trees and shrubs on aboveground terraces. An example in Roman (Roman Empire) times was the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii, which had an elevated terrace where plants were grown. pp. 112–115, chapter 2, "Roof gardens through history", ''Roof gardens: history, design, and construction'', Theodore Osmundson, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, ISBN 0-393-73012-3. A roof
"Behrens-Abouseif 1992 6" The Persian traveler, Nasir Khusraw Nasir
; By the 16th century, Cairo also had high-rise apartment buildings where the two lower floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple storeys above them were rented (Renting) out to tenants (Leasehold estate).
fell in September 641, Amr ibn al-As, the commander of the conquering army, founded a new capital on the eastern bank of the river. Petersen (1999) p. 44 The early population of the city was composed almost entirely of soldiers and their families, and the layout of the city was similar to that of a garrison. Amr intended for Fustat to serve as a base from which to conquer North Africa, as well as to launch further campaigns against Byzantium. It remained the primary base for Arab expansion in Africa until Qayrawan (Kairouan) was founded in Tunisia in 670. Lapidus, p. 41 Fustat developed as a series of tribal areas, ''khittas'', around the central mosque and administrative buildings. Petersen (1999) p. 91 The majority of the settlers came from Yemen, with the next largest grouping from western Arabia, along with some Jews and Roman mercenaries. Arabic was generally the primary spoken dialect in Egypt, and was the language of written communication. Coptic (Coptic language) was still spoken in Fustat in the 8th century. Lapidus, p. 52. "In general, Arabic became the language of written communication in administration, literature, and religion. Arabic also became the primary spoken dialect in the western parts of the Middle East – Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia and Iraq – where languages close to Arabic, such as Aramaic, were already spoken. The spread of Arabic was faster than the diffusion of Islam, but this is not to say that the process was rapid or complete. For example, Coptic was still spoken in Fustat in the 8th century." thumb Lusterware (File:Egyptian - Lusterware Plate with Bird Motif - Walters 482036.jpg) Plate with Bird Motif, 11th century. Archaeological digs have found many kilns and ceramic fragments in Fustat, and it was likely an important production location for Islamic ceramics during the Fatimid period. as, years later, were her two brothers, Fuad and Farid al-Atrash, Classical Arabic Music Website in the Fustat plain (Fustat) in Cairo, which she and brother Farid, along with Egyptian crooner Abdel Halim Hafez, Baraka, Mohamed. Al-Ahram Newspaper Article. Issue No. 943, 16 - 22 April 2009. had restored to some of its former glory. El Kadi, Galila and Alain Bonnamy (2007) Architecture for the dead. American University in Cairo Press. p. 96
and Architecture year 1995 volume XII publisher Brill Academic Publishers isbn 90-04-10314-7 * *
decoration was as painting on glass. While some scholars see this as a purely Islamic invention originating in Fustat, Pinder-Wilson, R. 1991. The Islamic Lands and China. In: H. Tait (ed.), Five Thousand Years of Glass. London: British Museum Press, 112-143; at p. 124. others place the origins of lustre decoration in Roman and Coptic Egypt during the centuries preceding the rise of Islam. Staining glass vessels with copper and silver pigments was known from
. The Invention of Lustre: Iraq 9th and 10th centuries AD. Journal of Archaeological Sciences 35, 1201-1215, at p. 1201. Islamic Cairo was founded in 969 AD as the royal enclosure for the Fatimid (Fatimid Caliphate) caliphs, while the actual economic and administrative capital was in nearby Fustat. Fustat was established by Arab military commander 'Amr ibn al-'As following the conquest of Egypt in 641, and took over as the capital which previously was located in Alexandria
by the Islamic potters. The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century. Another significant contribution was the development of stoneware originating in 9th century Iraq. Mason (1995) p.5 It was a vitreous or semivitreous ceramic ware of fine texture, made primarily from non-refactory fire clay. Standard Terminology Of Ceramic Whiteware and Related Products. ASTM Standard C242. Other
was primarily ceremonial. The true power in Egypt was that of the vizier, Shawar. He had been involved in extensive political intrigue for years, working to repel the advances of both the Christian Crusaders, and the forces of the Nur al-Din (Nur ad-Din Zangi) from Syria. Shawar managed this by constantly shifting alliances between the two, playing them against each other, and in effect keeping them in a stalemate where neither army could successfully attack Egypt without being blocked
around the 3rd century AD, Carboni, S. 2001. Glass from Islamic Lands. London: Thames & Hudson, Ltd., at p. 51. although true lustre (lustre (mineralogy)) technology probably began sometime between the 4th and 8th centuries AD. Caiger-Smith, A. 1985. Lustre Pottery: Technique, Tradition and Innovation in Islam and the Western World. New York: New Amsterdam Books, at p. 24. Pradell, T., Molera, J., Smith, A.D., Tite, M.S. 2008
'''Fustat''' (also '''Fostat''', '''Al Fustat''', '''Misr al-Fustat''' and '''Fustat-Misr''', and in , ''al-Fusţāţ''), was the first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule. It was built by the Muslim general 'Amr ibn al-'As immediately after the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, and featured the Mosque of Amr, the first mosque built in Egypt and in all of Africa.
The city reached its peak in the 12th century, with a population of approximately 200,000. Williams, p. 37 It was the center of administrative power in Egypt, until it was ordered burned in 1168 by its own vizier, Shawar, to keep its wealth out of the hands of the invading Crusaders (Crusades). The remains of the city were eventually absorbed by nearby Cairo, which had been built to the north of Fustat in 969 when the Fatimid (Fatimid Caliphate)s conquered the region and created a new city as a royal enclosure for the Caliph. The area fell into disrepair for hundreds of years and was used as a garbage dump.
Today, Fustat is part of Old Cairo, with few buildings remaining from its days as a capital. Many archaeological digs have revealed the wealth of buried material in the area. Many ancient items recovered from the site are on display in Cairo's Museum of Islamic Art (Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo).