French colonial empire

What is French colonial empire known for?


period competing

: www.historydetroit.com people antoine_cadillac.asp year 2008 title History of Detroit: Antoine de la Mothe, Sieur de Cadillac accessdate June 16, 2009 The river itself became known as the Rivière du Détroit, in which ''détroit'' is French (French language) for "strait". The river was known literally as the "River of the Strait". An English fleet under Francis Drake defeated an invading Spanish Armada during the Elizabethan period

. Competing with Spain (Spanish Empire), the first English colony in the Americas was founded in 1585 by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke (Roanoke Colony). The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony, after it was found abandoned on the return of the late arriving supply ship.


Comores

but without renouncing his Islamic principles. Histoire des Comores; Ali Soilih A man of integrity with a prodigious work ethic and a keen business sense, within a few years Redpath was running his own sizeable construction business. He was involved in major projects such as the construction of the Lachine Canal and locks that proved key to future commercial development of the city of Montreal. Beginning


independent national

" and eleven newly


military commercial

relied heavily on creating friendly contacts with the local First Nations community. Without the appetite of New England for land, and by relying solely on Aboriginals to supply them with fur at the trading posts, the French composed a complex series of military, commercial, and diplomatic connections. These became the most enduring alliances between the French and the First Nation community. The French were, however, under pressure from religious orders to convert them to Catholicism.


distinct people

Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


creating+friendly

relied heavily on creating friendly contacts with the local First Nations community. Without the appetite of New England for land, and by relying solely on Aboriginals to supply them with fur at the trading posts, the French composed a complex series of military, commercial, and diplomatic connections. These became the most enduring alliances between the French and the First Nation community. The French were, however, under pressure from religious orders to convert them to Catholicism. Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


written+de

on the listener) either Free French General Charles de Gaulle or Vichy General Maxime Weygand. The English subtitles on the official DVD read de Gaulle, while the French subtitles specify Weygand. Weygand had been the Vichy Delegate-General for the North African colonies (French colonial empire) until a month before the film is set (and a year after it was written). De Gaulle was the head of the Free French government in exile. A Vichy court martial had convicted de Gaulle of treason ''in absentia'' and sentenced him to life imprisonment on August 2, 1940, so a letter signed by him would have been of no benefit. A classic MacGuffin, the letters were invented by Joan Allison for the original play and never questioned. Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


natural population

thumb right upright The deportation order is read to a group of Acadians (File:Deportation of Acadians order, painting by Jefferys.jpg) in 1755. Unlike elsewhere in Europe, France experienced relatively low levels of emigration to the Americas, with the exception of the Huguenots in British or Dutch colonies. France generally had close to the slowest natural population growth in Europe, and emigration pressures were therefore quite small. A small but significant emigration, numbering only in the tens of thousands, of mainly Roman Catholic French populations led to the settlement of the provinces of Acadia, Canada and Louisiana, both (at the time) French possessions, as well as colonies in the West Indies, Mascarene islands and Africa. In New France, Huguenots were banned from settling in the territory, and Quebec was one of the most staunchly Catholic areas in the world until the Quiet Revolution. The current French Canadian (French Canadians) population, which numbers in the millions, is descended almost entirely from New France's small settler population. On 31 December 1687 a community of French Huguenots (Huguenots in South Africa) settled in South Africa. Most of these originally settled in the Cape Colony, but have since been quickly absorbed into the Afrikaner population. After Champlain's founding of Quebec City in 1608, it became the capital of New France. Encouraging settlement was difficult, and while some immigration did occur, by 1763 New France only had a population of some 65,000. Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


promoting public

around anti-imperialism, with his government eschewing all foreign aid, pushing for odious debt reduction, nationalizing all land and mineral wealth, and averting the power and influence of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank. His domestic policies were focused on preventing famine with agrarian self-sufficiency and land reform, prioritizing education with a nation-wide literacy campaign, and promoting public health by vaccinating 2.5 million children against meningitis, yellow fever and measles. Commemorating Thomas Sankara by Farid Omar, ''Group for Research and Initiative for the Liberation of Africa'' (GRILA), November 28, 2007 Other components of his national agenda included planting over ten million trees to halt the growing desertification of the Sahel, doubling wheat production by redistributing land from feudal landlords (feudalism) to peasants, suspending rural poll taxes and domestic rents, and establishing an ambitious road and rail construction program to "tie the nation together." On the localized level Sankara also called on every village to build a medical dispensary and had over 350 communities construct schools with their own labour. Moreover, his commitment to women's rights led him to outlaw female genital mutilation, forced marriages and polygamy; while appointing females to high governmental positions and encouraging them to work outside the home and stay in school even if pregnant. thumb left Jules Ferry, by Nadar (artist) Nadar (Image:Jules Ferry Nadar.jpg). Two important works are associated with his administration, the non-clerical organization of public education, and the beginning of the colonial expansion of France (French colonial empire). Following the republican programme he proposed to destroy the influence of the clergy in the university and found his own system of republican schooling. He reorganized the committee of public education (law of 27 February 1880), and proposed a regulation for the conferring of university degrees, which, though rejected, aroused violent polemics because the 7th article took away from the unauthorized religious orders the right to teach. He finally succeeded in passing his eponymous laws (Jules Ferry laws) of 16 June 1881 and 28 March 1882, which made primary education in France free (free education), non-clerical (secular education) (laïque (Laïcité)) and mandatory. In higher education, the number of professors, called the "hussards noirs de la République" ''("Republic's black hussars")'' because of their Republican support, doubled under his ministry Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


early quot

to the French colonial administration, while her father, Trần Văn Chương (Tran Van Chuong), studied law in France, before marrying into the ruling imperial dynasty. Her mother, Thân Thị Nam Trân, was a granddaughter of Emperor Đồng Khánh and a cousin of Emperor Bảo Đại. Dreamwater Free Web Space Under the 1946 Constitution (Constitution of France) of the French Fourth Republic Fourth

French colonial empire

The '''French colonial empire''' constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 17th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "First colonial empire", that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost, and the "Second colonial empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in 1830 and came for the most part to an end with the granting of independence to Algeria in 1962 (the last territory to reach independence was Vanuatu in 1980).

In the 19th and 20th centuries, it was the second-largest colonial empire in the world behind the British Empire, extending over 12,347,000 km² (4,767,000 sq. miles) of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s. Including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 12,898,000 km² (4,980,000 sq. miles) between the two world wars, that is nearly 1 10th of the Earth's land area, with a population of 110 million people on the eve of World War II (5% of the world's population at the time).

Competing with Spain (Spanish Empire), Portugal (Portuguese Empire), the United Provinces (Dutch Empire), and later England (English overseas possessions), France began to establish colonies in North America (New France), the Caribbean, and India (French India) in the 17th century. A series of wars with Great Britain during the 18th century and early 19th century resulted in both countries losing most of their colonial empires: France lost New France and most of French India, while Great Britain lost its Thirteen American colonies (Thirteen Colonies) which became the United States.

France took control of Algeria in 1830 but began in earnest to rebuild its worldwide empire after 1850, concentrating chiefly in North and West Africa, as well as South-East Asia, with other conquests in Central and East Africa, as well as the South Pacific. Republicans, at first hostile to empire, only became supportive when Germany started to build her own colonial empire. As it developed the new empire took on roles of trade with France, especially supplying raw materials and purchasing manufactured items, as well as lending prestige to the motherland and spreading French civilization and language, and the Catholic religion. It also provided manpower in the World Wars.

It became a moral mission to lift the world up to French standards by bringing Christianity and French culture. In 1884 the leading exponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry declared; "The higher races have a right over the lower races, they have a duty to civilize the inferior races (Civilizing mission)." Full citizenship rights – ''assimilation'' – were offered, although in reality "assimilation was always receding and the colonial populations treated like subjects not citizens." Julian Jackson, ''The Other Empire'', Radio 3 France sent small numbers of settlers to its empire, contrary to Great Britain, and previously Spain and Portugal, with the only notable exception of Algeria, where the French settlers nonetheless always remained a small minority.

In World War II, Charles de Gaulle and the Free French used the overseas colonies as bases from which they fought to liberate France. However after 1945 anti-colonial movements began to challenge European authority. France fought and lost bitter wars in Vietnam and Algeria in the 1950s and 60s. Its settlers and many local supporters relocated to France. Nearly all of France's colonies gained independence by 1960, but France retained great financial and diplomatic influence. The remnants of the colonial empire (mostly smaller islands) were integrated into France as overseas departments and territories (Overseas departments and territories of France). These now total altogether 119,394 km² (46,098 sq. miles), which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empire's area, with 2.7 million people living in them in 2013. Their locations in all oceans of the world, however, give France the second-largest (Exclusive economic zone#Rankings by area) exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in the world after that of the United States.

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