French colonial empire

What is French colonial empire known for?


french

30 April 1803 event3 Independence of Vanuatu date_event3 30 July 1980 image_flag Flag of France.svg flag Flag of France image_flag_caption Flag (after 1792) image_coat symbol symbol_type image_map_caption French conquests and territories over the centuries image_map French Empire 17th century-20th century.png national_anthem ''La Marseillaise'' File:La Marseillaise.ogg capital Paris

latd 48 latm 12 latNS N longd 16 longm 21 longEW E largest_city Paris currency Franc (French Franc) and various other currencies stat_area1 12347000 house1 Bourbon Bonaparte today br


story track

of the United States, the so-called ''Zoreilles'' and ''Petits-blancs'' of various Indian Ocean islands (List of islands in the Indian Ocean), as well as populations of the former French colonial empire in Africa. There are currently an estimated 400,000 French people in the United Kingdom, most of them in London.


wars

was Vanuatu in 1980). In the 19th and 20th centuries, it was the second-largest colonial empire in the world behind the British Empire, extending over 12,347,000 km² (4,767,000 sq. miles) of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s. Including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 12,898,000 km² (4,980,000 sq. miles) between the two world wars, that is nearly 1 10th of the Earth's land area, with a population of 110 million people

on the eve of World War II (5% of the world's population at the time). Competing with Spain (Spanish Empire), Portugal (Portuguese Empire), the United Provinces (Dutch Empire), and later England (English overseas possessions), France began to establish colonies in North America (New France), the Caribbean, and India (French India) in the 17th century. A series of wars with Great Britain during the 18th century and early 19th century resulted in both countries losing most

supportive when Germany started to build her own colonial empire. As it developed the new empire took on roles of trade with France, especially supplying raw materials and purchasing manufactured items, as well as lending prestige to the motherland and spreading French civilization and language, and the Catholic religion. It also provided manpower in the World Wars.


time influential

;Ferguson 2004 (#refFergusonEmpire2004), p. 7. At the same time, influential writers such as Richard Hakluyt and John Dee (who was the first to use the term "British Empire") Canny (#refOHBEv1), p. 62. were beginning to press for the establishment of England's own empire. By this time, Spain was entrenched in the Americas, Portugal had established trading posts and forts from the coasts of Africa and Brazil to China, and France (French colonial empire) had begun to settle the Saint Lawrence River, later to become New France. Lloyd (British Empire#refLloyd1996), pp. 4–8. Just as modern Khmer was emerging from the transitional period represented by Middle Khmer, Cambodia fell under the influence (French protectorate of Cambodia) of French (France) colonialism (French colonial empire). In 1887 Cambodia was fully integrated into French Indochina which brought in a French (French language)-speaking aristocracy. This led to French becoming the language of higher education and the intellectual class. Many native scholars in the early 20th century, led by a monk named Chuon Nath, resisted the French influence on their language and championed Khmerization, using Khmer roots (and Pali and Sanskrit) to coin new words for modern ideas, instead of French. Nath cultivated modern Khmer-language identity and culture, overseeing the translation of the entire Pali Buddhist canon into Khmer and creating the modern Khmer language dictionary that is still in use today, thereby ensuring that Khmer would survive, and indeed flourish, during the French colonial period. thumb left Map of the Ohio Country between 1775–1794 depicting locations of battles and massacres surrounding the area which would eventually become the location of the city. (File:Ohio Country en.png) The region where modern-day Columbus is found was once called the Ohio Country, "The testing grounds of modern empire: the making of colonial racial order in the American Ohio country and the South African Eastern Cape, 1770s–1850s", Christoph Strobel. Peter Lang, 2008. ISBN 1-4331-0123-8, 9781433101236. p. 22 under the control of the French Empire (French colonial empire) through the Vice-royauté of New France. European traders flocked to the area, in the interests of the fur trade. "Chapter One: The Anglo-French Contest for the Ohio Country", Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Retrieved 10 September 2010. The 17th century saw the creation of the French colonial empire and the Dutch Empire, as well as the English colonial empire (Colonial empire of the Kingdom of England), which later became the British Empire. It also saw the establishment of some Swedish overseas colonies and a Danish colonial empire. Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


growing+music

known as ''Camfranglais'' or ''Frananglais''. Many educational authorities disapprove of Frananglais in Cameroon and have banned it in their schools. Nevertheless, the language has gained in popularity and has a growing music scene. BBC NEWS World Africa New language for divided Cameroon Between 1791 and 1804, the leaders Toussaint L'Ouverture François Dominique Toussaint


documentary series

African Connection (2013)'', 3 part documentary series by Al Jazeera * ''French Colonial History'' an annual volume of refereed, scholarly articles * L'Afrique francophone * French Colonialism, lecture on the colonial period 1871 to 1914, via Open Yale Courses (45-min audio video text) * http


wide cultural

) public school system, among other things. Around 1935, the Japanese began an island-wide assimilation (cultural assimilation) project to bind the island more firmly to the empire. '''Wars of the indigenous peoples of North America''' refers to conflicts between the indigenous peoples of North America and Western (Western world) powers in territory now part of Canada, the United States, and Mexico. At various times indigenous peoples fought against forces from


historic+free

by Edouard Manet. The intervention in Mexico was a disaster for French foreign policy. French–British relations Despite the signing of the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier Treaty, a historic free trade agreement between Britain and France, and the joint operations conducted by France and Britain in the Crimea, China and Mexico, diplomatic relations between Britain and France never became close. Lord Palmerston (Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston), the British foreign


major natural

, once again his plans met a major natural obstacle' in 1866 and 1867, Algeria was struck by an epidemic of cholera, clouds of locusts, draught and famine, and his reforms were hindered by the French colonists, who voted massively against him in the plebiscites of his late reign. Girard, 1986, p. 322-23 French Intervention in Mexico (1862–67) Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.


traditional sense

leaders. The Emperor gradually conceived the idea that Algeria should be governed differently from other colonies. in February 1863, he wrote a public letter to Pelissier, the Military Governor, saying: "Algeria is not a colony in the traditional sense, but an Arab kingdom; the local people have, like the colonists, a legal right to my protection. I am just as much the Emperor of the Arabs of Algeria as I am of the French." He intended to rule Algeria through a government of Arab aristocrats. Toward this end he invited the chiefs of main Algerian tribal groups to his chateau at Compiegne for hunting and festivities. Girard, 1986, p. 321-322 Compared to previous administrations, Napoleon III was far more sympathetic to the native Algerians. Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.

French colonial empire

The '''French colonial empire''' constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 17th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "First colonial empire", that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost, and the "Second colonial empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in 1830 and came for the most part to an end with the granting of independence to Algeria in 1962 (the last territory to reach independence was Vanuatu in 1980).

In the 19th and 20th centuries, it was the second-largest colonial empire in the world behind the British Empire, extending over 12,347,000 km² (4,767,000 sq. miles) of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s. Including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 12,898,000 km² (4,980,000 sq. miles) between the two world wars, that is nearly 1 10th of the Earth's land area, with a population of 110 million people on the eve of World War II (5% of the world's population at the time).

Competing with Spain (Spanish Empire), Portugal (Portuguese Empire), the United Provinces (Dutch Empire), and later England (English overseas possessions), France began to establish colonies in North America (New France), the Caribbean, and India (French India) in the 17th century. A series of wars with Great Britain during the 18th century and early 19th century resulted in both countries losing most of their colonial empires: France lost New France and most of French India, while Great Britain lost its Thirteen American colonies (Thirteen Colonies) which became the United States.

France took control of Algeria in 1830 but began in earnest to rebuild its worldwide empire after 1850, concentrating chiefly in North and West Africa, as well as South-East Asia, with other conquests in Central and East Africa, as well as the South Pacific. Republicans, at first hostile to empire, only became supportive when Germany started to build her own colonial empire. As it developed the new empire took on roles of trade with France, especially supplying raw materials and purchasing manufactured items, as well as lending prestige to the motherland and spreading French civilization and language, and the Catholic religion. It also provided manpower in the World Wars.

It became a moral mission to lift the world up to French standards by bringing Christianity and French culture. In 1884 the leading exponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry declared; "The higher races have a right over the lower races, they have a duty to civilize the inferior races (Civilizing mission)." Full citizenship rights – ''assimilation'' – were offered, although in reality "assimilation was always receding and the colonial populations treated like subjects not citizens." Julian Jackson, ''The Other Empire'', Radio 3 France sent small numbers of settlers to its empire, contrary to Great Britain, and previously Spain and Portugal, with the only notable exception of Algeria, where the French settlers nonetheless always remained a small minority.

In World War II, Charles de Gaulle and the Free French used the overseas colonies as bases from which they fought to liberate France. However after 1945 anti-colonial movements began to challenge European authority. France fought and lost bitter wars in Vietnam and Algeria in the 1950s and 60s. Its settlers and many local supporters relocated to France. Nearly all of France's colonies gained independence by 1960, but France retained great financial and diplomatic influence. The remnants of the colonial empire (mostly smaller islands) were integrated into France as overseas departments and territories (Overseas departments and territories of France). These now total altogether 119,394 km² (46,098 sq. miles), which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empire's area, with 2.7 million people living in them in 2013. Their locations in all oceans of the world, however, give France the second-largest (Exclusive economic zone#Rankings by area) exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in the world after that of the United States.

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