French Somaliland

What is French Somaliland known for?


360

the polls. Kevin Shillington, ''Encyclopedia of African history'', (CRC Press: 2005), p. 360. The majority of those who voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later. Barrington, Lowell, ''After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial

;ref name Barrington2006 There was also widespread vote rigging, with the French expelling thousands of Somalis before the referendum reached the polls. Kevin Shillington, ''Encyclopedia of African history'', (CRC Press: 2005), p. 360. The majority of those who voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed

history'', (CRC Press: 2005), p.360. The majority of those who voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later. Barrington, Lowell, ''After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States'', (University of Michigan Press: 2006), p.115 ref>


year book

the then-ruling Somali (Somali people) and Afar (Afar people) sultans signed the land away in various treaties with the French. Hugh Chisholm (ed.) ''The Encyclopædia Britannica'' 11th ed., Vol. 25, p. 383. 1911. Raph Uwechue, ''Africa year book and who's who'', (Africa Journal Ltd.: 1977), p. 209 ISBN 0903274051. ''A Political Chronology of Africa


title story

for ''Lij'' Iyasu, and that he spent much of his time consorting with Muslim notables in the city and consuming large amounts of qat (khat) as well as completely depleting the funds of the Ethiopian mission in the French colony. . Returning home 8 September, she sailed 18 October for NATO exercises in Northern European waters and returned 21 December. For the next 2 years ''Jonas Ingram


blue top

from Djibouti in French Somaliland, F-OCKU and F-OCKX, (N9985Q and N9986Q) were purchased by Joseph E. Levine. Three Danish Air Force, K-685, K-687, and K-688, and four Finnish Air Force C-47 (C-47 Skytrain)s, DO-4, DO-7, DO-10 and DO-12, were loaned for the duration of the parachute filming. The national '''flag of Djibouti''' (French (French language): ''Drapeau de Djibouti'') features two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and green with a white


688

from Djibouti in French Somaliland, F-OCKU and F-OCKX, (N9985Q and N9986Q) were purchased by Joseph E. Levine. Three Danish Air Force, K-685, K-687, and K-688, and four Finnish Air Force C-47 (C-47 Skytrain)s, DO-4, DO-7, DO-10 and DO-12, were loaned for the duration of the parachute filming. The national '''flag of Djibouti''' (French (French language): ''Drapeau de Djibouti'') features two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and green with a white


representing

isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star (representing the areas Somalis live in the region) in the centre. (These five areas are British Somaliland (Somalia), Italian Somaliland (Somalia), French Somaliland (Djibouti), the Ogaden, and the Northern Frontier District (North Eastern Province (Kenya)).) The colours used can be seen to symbolise the earth (green), the sea and sky (blue) and peace (white), with the red star

representing unity. It was hoisted on the day of the independence of Djibouti on 27 June 1977. There is a red five-pointed star on Djibouti's white triangle. :Etymology unknown, named for its eponymous capital Djibouti (Djibouti (city)), founded in 1888 by the Catalan (Catalan people) Eloi Pino and the capital of the previous French (Third French Republic) colonies (List of French colonies) French Somaliland and French Territory of the Afars


aggressive

to be launched from French Somaliland. General Platt (William Platt), commanding British forces in the Sudan, was also asked to consider launching an operation against Kufra (southern Libya). Playfair p. 53 Following October 1939, as the Italians had made no aggressive moves, the Armoured Division and other units were withdrawn from the frontline area, while training and exercises were conducted in the desert. * French Upper Volta


independent

War , the area became an overseas territory (Overseas departments and territories of France) of France in 1946. In 1967, French Somaliland was renamed the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas and, in 1977, it became the independent country of Djibouti. See also * List of colonial heads of French Somaliland (List of colonial heads of Djibouti (French Somaliland)) * List of French possessions and colonies * French colonial empire References

Somaliland (Djibouti) leaves and begins issuing Djiboutian francs * 1960: Guinea leaves and begins issuing Guinean francs These were all colonies (colony), most of which were renamed after their independence. *Afars and Issas – French territory between 1967 and 1977, called French Somaliland before that. Became independent as Djibouti. *Anglo-Egyptian Sudan - Condominium ruled jointly by the United Kingdom and Egypt. Became independent

as Sudan in 1956 (and South Sudan from Sudan in 2011). *French Indochina – French territory until 1949. Became independent as Cambodia, Laos and Việt Nam in 1954. *French Somaliland – became Afars and Issas then independent Djibouti in 1977, disputed by Somalia. *French Sudan – A French colony, part of the French West African federation since 1904. In 1959 it formed the independent Mali Federation together


french

departments and territories of France Overseas territory (1946-1967) government_type Dependent territory (Overseas departments and territories of France) year_start 1896 year_end 1967 event_start Established date_start May 20 event_end Renamed (Geographical renaming) date_end July 5 event1 East African Campaign (World War II)#French Somaliland Italian invasion

date_event1 June 18, 1940 event2 British occupation (East African Campaign (World War II)#French Somaliland 2) date_event2 December 28, 1942 event3 Status changed to overseas territory date_event3 October 27, 1946 p1 flag_p1 p2 flag_p2 p3 flag_p3 s1 French


support local

officer) Barker was ordered to estimate the minimum requirements for the internal security of the British mandate of Palestine, not to consider an attack on Palestine from the north a serious threat, and be prepared to reinforce the Iraqi Army. The commanding officers in Kenya and the Sudan were given the task of reviewing operations for the purpose of destroying and dispersing Italian forces and support local risings all in support of the main Allied offensive, which was planned

French Somaliland

'''French Somaliland''' ( , ''ʾArḍ Aṣ-Ṣūmāl Al-Fransī'') was a French colony (French colonial empire) in the Horn of Africa. It was established between 1883 and 1887, after the then-ruling Somali (Somali people) and Afar (Afar people) sultans signed the land away in various treaties with the French. Hugh Chisholm (ed.) ''The Encyclopædia Britannica'' 11th ed., Vol. 25, p. 383. 1911. Raph Uwechue, ''Africa year book and who's who'', (Africa Journal Ltd.: 1977), p. 209 ISBN 0903274051. ''A Political Chronology of Africa'', (Taylor & Francis: 2001), p. 132 ISBN 1857431162. The construction of the Imperial Ethiopian Railway west into Ethiopia turned the port of Djibouti (Djibouti (city)) into a boomtown of 15,000 "Jibuti (s:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica Jibuti)" i.e., Djibouti in the ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' 11th ed., Vol. 15. 1911. at a time when Harar was the only city in Ethiopia to exceed that. "Abyssinia (s:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica Abyssinia)" i.e., Ethiopia in the ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' 11th ed, Vol. 1. 1911. Although the population fell after the completion of the line to Dire Dawa and the original company failed and required a government bail-out, the rail link allowed the territory to quickly supersede the caravan-based trade carried on at Zeila "Zaila (s:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica Zaila)" i.e., Zeila in the ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' 11th ed., Vol. 28. 1911. (then in the British (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) area of Somaliland (British Somaliland)) and become the premier port for coffee (Harari coffee) and other goods leaving southern Ethiopia and the Ogaden through Harar.

The railroad continued to operate following the Italian conquest of Ethiopia (Italian East Africa) but, following the tumult of the Second World War (French Somaliland in World War II), the area became an overseas territory (Overseas departments and territories of France) of France in 1946. In 1967, French Somaliland was renamed the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas and, in 1977, it became the independent country of Djibouti.

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