wiped out as a fighting force at Dieppe (Dieppe Raid). '''''L'arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat''''' (translated from French into English as '''''The Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat Station''''', '''''Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat''''' (US) and '''''The Arrival of the Mail Train''''', and in the United Kingdom the film is known as '''''Train Pulling into a Station''''') is an 1895 (1895 in film) French (France) short (Short subject) black-and-white silent film silent
''''' (original title), '''''Employees Leaving the Lumière Factory''''' and '''''Exiting the Factory''''' (US titles) is an 1895 (1895 in film) French (France) short (Short subject) black-and-white silent (silent film) documentary film directed and produced by Louis Lumière. It is often referred to as the first real motion picture ever made
staying awake until midnight and beyond. In Portuguese-speaking countries, it is also a designation for the party preceding the New Year's Day. In the United States, the réveillon tradition is still observed in New Orleans due to the city's strong French (French people) heritage, with a number of the city's restaurants offering special réveillon menus on Christmas Eve. Turkey tried a joint bid with 2004-European Champions Greece for UEFA Euro 2008, which failed
trained first with the ''Nageurs de combat (French commando frogmen)'' in France. France had developed the role of the commando frogmen further in the Indochina war, to the modern single fighter. *Mongibellu (Mount Etna), Sicilian name of the volcano Etna, in Sicily, Italy (Mountain Mountain, from Romance (Romance languages) ''monte'' and Arabic ''žabal''). *Montcuq, Lot (Lot (department)), France: Mont Kukk 'mount mount' *Mount Katahdin, Maine (Mount
, Rebecca's father was generally understood to be "Black Jack" Devlin, an Irish gambler and speculator. He recorded a demo (demo (music)) of some of his own songs, which was heard by music industry entrepreneur Phil Solomon (Phil Solomon (music executive)), who had previously managed The Bachelors and Van Morrison's band Them (Them (band)) and also had close business ties with Ronan O'Rahilly's pirate radio station Radio Caroline. ref name "
The Bachelors and Van Morrison's band Them (Them (band)) and also had close business ties with Ronan O'Rahilly's pirate radio station Radio Caroline. Biography at Allmusic.com. Accessed 15 January 2010 Solomon won McWilliams a contract with CBS Records, which released his first unsuccessful single "God and My Country"
Courbes '' (literal translation: ''Analysis of the Infinitely Small for the Understanding of Curved Lines'') (1696), the first textbook on differential calculus. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
of heavy Frankish involvement in the Crusades and the foundation of the Latin (Roman Catholic Church) Kingdom of Jerusalem and other Latin settlements scattered throughout the area. thumb Medical Center of Pasteur Institute, Paris, Rue de Vaugirard (File:Centre-medical-de-l'institute-pasteur.jpg) The '''Pasteur Institute''' ( ) is a French (France) non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases
Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
as a result of using lighter implements in the men's throwing events. European Junior Championships (Men). GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2010-06-04. French (France) professor of mineralogy '''Charles-Victor Mauguin''' (19 July 1878 – 25 April 1958) was inventor (with Carl Hermann) of an international standard notation for crystallographic groups known as the Hermann–Mauguin notation
, Spain, Germany, India, Italy, Australia, and New Zealand. The '''men's discus throw''' was one of two throwing events on the Athletics at the 1896 Summer Olympics programme. The discus throw was the fourth event held. It was contested on 6 April. 11 athletes competed, including one each from France, Sweden, the United States, and Great Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) as well as three Greeks (Greece) and two Danes (Denmark). - rowspan "2" Lewis Taine (US (United States)), Pierre Leduc (France), James Richards (UK (United Kingdom)), Victor Hassell (UK (United Kingdom)), Arnold Clinton (Australia) ''Prelude to Space'' (1947), novel - rowspan "2" ''Spacelab Dynostar''; Eddie Van Buren, Cmdr., Russ Walters (US (United States)), Bob Townsend, Phillip Lyall, Richard Hart (UK (United Kingdom)), Rene Lasalle, Jean Lucas (France), Theodore Neumann, Otto Sigmund (Germany), Will Patterson (Australia), Mel Freeman. ''Orbiter Four''; John Hayward, Cdr., Eric Fischer, Daniel Sicura Maj. ''The Dynostar Menace (Kit Pedler)'' (1975), novel Etymology The name commemorates Armand Barau, an agricultural engineer and ornithologist (ornithology) from the French (France) territory (Département d'outre-mer) of Réunion in the Indian Ocean. It is one of the most recently discovered species (Bird species new to science described in the 1960s) of seabird and was only described in 1964, although it was known to local people prior to that. 150px thumb right Linse in his workshop (Image:Photo atelier.jpeg) '''Alain-Marcel Linse''' is a French (France) artist born in Paris in 1956. Professional background Ruiz was a student of American medievalist Joseph R. Strayer and received his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1974. He has taught at Brooklyn College, the CUNY Graduate Center, the University of Michigan, Michigan State University, the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales and Princeton University—as 250th Anniversary Visiting Professor for Distinguished Teaching—before going to UCLA in July 1998. In 1994 he was selected by the Carnegie Foundation (Carnegie Corporation of New York) as one of the four Outstanding Teachers of the Year in the United States. He served as chair of the UCLA Department of History from 2002-2005. He has lectured in the USA, Spain, Italy, France, England, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina. *January 5 – Marcello Bacciarelli, Italian (Italy) painter (b. 1731 (1731 in art)) *February 28 – Anne Vallayer-Coster, French (France) painter (b. 1744 (1744 in art)) * March 24 – Humphry Repton, garden designer, artist (b. 1752 (1752 in art)) Constantine I (Constantine I of Greece) was opposed by the Entente powers (England, France, Italy) because of his pro-German stance during World War I (see National Schism) and his enthusiastic return was short-lived as a result of the disastrous military events that followed in the Asia Minor Campaign of 1922. The '''music of the United States''' reflects the country's multicultural population through a diverse array of styles. Rock and roll, hip hop (hip hop music), country (country music), rhythm and blues, and jazz are among the country's most internationally renowned genres. Since the beginning of the 20th century, popular recorded music from the United States has become increasingly known across the world, to the point where some form of American popular music is listened to almost everywhere. The original inhabitants of the United States were the hundreds of Native American (Native Americans in the United States) tribes, who played the first music in the area. Beginning in the 17th century, immigrants from England, Spain, and France began arriving in large numbers, bringing with them new styles and instruments. African slaves brought their own musical traditions, and each subsequent wave of immigrants also contributed to a sonic melting pot. Long a land of immigrants, the United States has also seen documented folk music and recorded popular music produced in the ethnic styles of Ukrainian (music of Ukraine), Irish (music of Ireland), Scottish (music of Scotland), Polish (music of Poland), Mexican (music of Mexico) and Jewish (Jewish music) communities, among others. Many American cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. '''(More...) (music of the United States)''' right thumb 250px (File:Galand velo-dog.jpg) The '''Velo-Dog''' was a pocket (pocket pistol) revolver originally created in France by Charles-François Galand in the late 19th century as a defense for cyclists against dog attacks. Barnes, Frank C. (Ken Warner, Editor) 1989. ''Cartridges of the World, 6th Edition''. DBI Books, Inc. Northbrook, Illinois. p. 218. ISBN 0-87349-033-9. The name is a portmanteau of "velocipede" and "dog". Four athletes entered the race. Rosemeyer of Germany had mechanical problems during the race and left the course without finishing. The French (France) cyclists took 1st and 3rd places, while Nikolopoulos of Greece finished second. The '''Rugby World Cup''' is the premier international rugby union competition in the world. The event is organised by the the sport's governing body, the International Rugby Board, and is contested by the men's national rugby union teams (List of international rugby union teams). The inaugural tournament was held in 1987, hosted by both Australia and New Zealand, and now held every four years. The winners are awarded the Webb Ellis Cup which is named after the pupil of Rugby school credited with the game's invention. The tournament is one of the largest international national sporting competitions in the world with 20 nations competing and a cumulative world television audience - including all of the matches - of 3.5 billion in the most recent tournament. The title of world champions is currently held by England (England national rugby union team), who won the 2003 tournament (2003 Rugby World Cup), held in Australia. Other champions include South Africa (South Africa national rugby union team), New Zealand (All Blacks) and Australia (Australia national rugby union team), with Australia being the most successful with two titles. The next Rugby World Cup (2007 Rugby World Cup) will be hosted in France during September and October of 2007. ('''more... (Rugby World Cup)''') Jefferson had wanted to align with the European powers in an effort to isolate Haïti, but was unsuccessful due to Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland)'s lack of interest in joining the proposed accord. France pressured for the end of American trade with Haïti, which they saw as aiding a rogue element in their colony. Jefferson agreed to cease trade in arms, but would not give up trade for noncontraband goods. Madison (James Madison), commenting on the agreement to discontinue the arms trade, said that "it is probably the interest of all nations that they should be kept out of hands likely to make so bad use of them." Matthewson, ''Jefferson and the Nonrecognition of Haïti'', p. 29 The debate on an embargo on Haïti heated up in Congress and civil society, but it was not all one-sided. Many Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
challenging routine helped her win a gold medal over a tough field with numerous Olympic and Worlds bars champions, including Svetlana Khorkina (who took an infamous fall from the apparatus, which she traditionally dominated) and 2002 World Champion Courtney Kupets. Her medal marked the first ever for a French (France) female gymnast. During the 2008 Summer Olympics, she worked as a consultant for the French (France) TV Canal+.
to the national population is especially low in some south European countries such as France, Spain or Greece, and also in Ireland. No technical drawings of the device survive, and the only evidence for its design come from Oliver Evans' own descriptions, which are contradictory, and most likely exaggerated. He describes the vehicle as a Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
'''France''' ( and has a population of 66.6 million. It is a semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic with its capital (Capital city) in Paris, the nation's largest city and the main cultural and commercial center. The Constitution of France establishes the country as secular (Laïcité) and democratic, with its sovereignty derived from the people.
During the Iron Age, what is now France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic (Celts) people. The Gauls were conquered by the Roman Empire in 51 BC, which held Gaul until 486. The Gallo-Romans faced raids and migration from the Germanic (Germanic peoples) Franks, who dominated the region for hundreds of years, eventually creating the medieval Kingdom of France. France has been a major power in Europe since the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453) strengthening French state-building and paving the way for a future centralized absolute monarchy. During the Renaissance (French Renaissance), France experienced a vast cultural development and established the first steps of a worldwide colonial empire (French colonial empire). The 16th century was dominated by Religious Civil Wars (French Wars of Religion) primarily fought between Catholics (Roman Catholic Church) and Protestants (Protestantism) (Huguenots).
Louis XIV made France the dominant cultural, political and military power in Europe, but by the late 18th century, the monarchy was overthrown in the French Revolution. One legacy of the revolution was the ''Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen'', one of the world's earliest documents on human rights, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. France was governed as one of history's earliest Republics (French First Republic), until the Empire (First French Empire) was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte, who dominated European affairs and had a long-lasting impact on Western culture. Following his defeat, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments: an absolute monarchy was restored (Bourbon Restoration), replaced in 1830 by a constitutional monarchy (July monarchy), then briefly by a Second Republic (French Second Republic), and then by a Second Empire (Second French Empire), until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870.
France's colonial empire reached the height of global prominence during the 19th and early 20th centuries, when it possessed the second-largest colonial empire (French colonial empire) in the world. In World War I, France was one of the Triple Entente powers fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. France was one of the Allied Powers (Allies of World War II) in World War II, but it was occupied (German military administration in occupied France during World War II) by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following liberation (liberation of France) in 1944, a Fourth Republic (French Fourth Republic) was established, but it was dissolved in the course of the Algerian War and replaced by the Charles de Gaulle-led French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent.
Throughout its long history (History of France), France has produced many influential artists, thinkers, and scientists, and remains a prominent global center of culture. It hosts the world's fourth-largest (List of World Heritage Sites in France) number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually – the most of any country in the world. . Centre national de documentation pédagogique, "2011, ANNÉE DES OUTRE-MER"
French citizens enjoy a high standard of living, and the country performs well in international rankings (International rankings of France) of education (Education Index), health care (Health care in France), life expectancy (List of countries by life expectancy), civil liberties, and human development (Human Development Index). France is a founding member of the United Nations, where it serves as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council). It is a member of numerous international institutions, including the Group of 7 (G7), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie (Organisation internationale de la Francophonie). France is a founding and leading member state of the EU (member state of the European Union).