France

What is France known for?


television success

. While their first successes were on stage, they are most famous for their satirical sketch comedy television show ''La Télé des Inconnus'', which premiered in 1990 and remained popular throughout the early 1990s. Following their television success, the group began to make music and movies. After the movie ''Les Trois Frères'' in 1995, the trio encountered contract problems with their manager Paul Lederman, which caused the group to split up, though there have been several films that have


featuring characters

, but the interference by Anthony and his friends meant the suspect got away again. '''''Tintin and the Golden Fleece''''' (in the original French, ''Tintin et le mystère de la Toison d'or'', meaning ''Tintin and the Mystery of the Golden Fleece'') is a film first released in France on December 6, 1961. Featuring characters from the ''The Adventures of Tintin'' comic book series written and drawn by the Belgian (Belgium) writer-artist Hergé, it was a live-action film with actors made-up to look like the characters and featured an original storyline not based on any of the books. Twinning Since 1976, Angmering has been twinned with the French (France) village of Ouistreham, which is in the Calvados region of Normandy. * Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France


artistic+images

inspirations, retaliating against “The Inquisition’s” suppression of creativity, literature, and art (Peters 1988: 189). These artistic images have arguably become some of the most long-lasting and effective perpetuators of “The Inquisition” myth. thumb Charles Buxton Going, 1911. (File:Charles Buxton Going.jpg) '''Charles Buxton Going, Ph.B., M.Sc.''' (born Westchester N.Y. (Westchester, New York), April 4, 1863, died in France 1952


painting work

Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France


called art

Geisteskranken'' and began his own collection of such art, which he called ''art brut'' or ''raw art''. In 1948 he formed the Compagnie de l'Art Brut along with other artists, including André Breton. The collection he established became known as the Collection de l'Art Brut. It contains thousands of works and is now permanently housed in Lausanne, Switzerland. The '''Vespa 400''' is a rear-engined microcar, produced by ACMA (Ateliers de construction de motocycles et d'automobiles) in Fourchambault, France, from 1957 to 1961 to the designs of the Italian Piaggio company. Two different versions were sold, "Lusso" and "Turismo". The "Upper Rhine" is one of four sections (High Rhine, '''Upper Rhine''', Middle Rhine, Lower Rhine) of the river between Lake Constance and the North Sea. Countries and states along the Upper Rhine are Switzerland, France (Alsace) and the German states of Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse. The largest cities along the river are Basel, Mulhouse, Strasbourg, Mannheim, Ludwigshafen and Mainz. In addition to his writing, Unamuno played an important role in the intellectual life of Spain. He served as rector of the University of Salamanca for two periods: from 1900 to 1924 and 1930 to 1936, during a time of great social and political upheaval. Unamuno was removed from his two university chairs by the dictator General Miguel Primo de Rivera in 1924, over the protest of other Spanish intellectuals. He lived in exile until 1930, first banished to Fuerteventura (Canary Islands), from where he escaped to France. After a year in Paris, Unamuno established himself in Hendaye in the French Basque Country, on the border with Spain. Unamuno returned to Spain after the fall of General Primo de Rivera's dictatorship in 1930 and took up his rectorship again. It is said in Salamanca that the day he returned to the University, Unamuno began his lecture by saying "As we were saying yesterday, ...", as Fray Luis de León had done in the same place four centuries before, as though he had not been absent at all. After the fall of Rivera's dictatorship, Spain embarked on its second Republic (Second Spanish Republic). He was a candidate for the small intellectual party ''Agrupación al Servicio de la República.'' After World War II, the M1 and M2 carbines were widely exported to U.S. allies and client states (1,015,568 to South Korea, 793,994 to South Vietnam, 269,644 to France, etc.), http: www.bavarianm1carbines.com carbinesnara.html they were used as a frontline weapon well into the Vietnam War era, and they continue to be used by military, police and security forces around the world to this day. The 11th ''A&A'' board game in the series, ''Axis & Allies: Europe 1940'' was released in August, 2010. The game can be combined with Pacific 1940 to form a Global game of World War II on a combined 175x80 cm (70" x 32") map. All nine major powers of World War II, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and the ANZAC forces, are represented in the combined global game with unique units and colors. To streamline the game and correct balance issues, Global 1940 was revised and a new rule set was released on the Axis & Allies forums in January 2011. '''Automobiles Delaunay-Belleville''' was a French (France) luxury automobile manufacturer from Saint-Denis, France, north of Paris. At the beginning of the 20th century they were among the most prestigious cars produced in the world, and perhaps the most desirable French marque. Early life and education Franz Marc was born in 1880 in Munich, then the capital of the Kingdom of Bavaria. His father, Wilhelm, was a professional landscape painter, and his mother Sophie was a strict Calvinist. In 1900, Marc began to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich, where his teachers would include Gabriel von Hackl and Wilhelm von Diez. In 1903 and 1907 he spent time in France, particularly in Paris, visiting the city's museums and copying many paintings, a traditional way that artists studied and developed technique. In Paris, Marc frequented artistic circles, and was able to meet numerous artists, including the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He discovered a strong affinity for the work of Vincent van Gogh. The Comintern's Popular Front policy 1934–1939 In response to the growing threat of fascism in the 1930s, Communist parties that were members of the Comintern (then largely under the control of Joseph Stalin) adopted a policy of forming broad alliances with almost any political party willing to oppose the fascists. These were called "popular fronts". Some popular fronts won elections and formed governments, as in France (''Front Populaire''), the Second Spanish Republic, and Chile. Others never quite got off the ground. There were attempts in the United Kingdom to found a Popular Front against the National Government (UK National Government)'s appeasement of Nazi Germany, between the Labour Party (Labour Party (UK)), the Liberal Party (Liberal Party (UK)), the Independent Labour Party, the Communist Party (Communist Party of Great Britain), and even rebellious elements of the Conservative Party (Conservative Party (UK)) under Winston Churchill, but they failed mainly due to opposition from within the Labour Party but incompatibility of Liberal and socialist approaches also caused many Liberals to be hostile. http: www.liberalhistory.org.uk uploads 28_joyce_the_liberal_party_and_the_popular_front.pdfPeter Joyce, The Liberal Party and the Popular Front: an assessment of the arguments over progressive unity in the 1930s: Journal of Liberal History, Issue 28, Autumn 2000 News broke out in March 2005 that a second ''Bean'' film, ''Mr. Bean's Holiday'' was in development, with Atkinson returning in the title role. The film had been through several changes of name during its development, including ''Bean 2'' and ''French Bean''. ''Mr. Bean's Holiday'' at IMDb. Retrieved 4 August 2006. Filming began on 15 May 2006 and began post-production in October 2006. It was released in the UK on 30 March 2007. On 17 July 2007, the North American premiere was held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, at the Just For Laughs festival; the launching pad for the Mr. Bean character 20 years earlier. The film was then released nationwide in North America on 24 August 2007. The film follows Bean on an eventful journey across France for a holiday in the French Riviera, which after a number of misfortunes culminates in an unscheduled screening of his video diary at the Cannes Film Festival. It was directed by Steve Bendelack and, according to Atkinson, is the last appearance of Bean. Paramount Comedy. Retrieved 25 February 2007. It grossed nearly US$230 million globally ($33 million in the USA). Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France


style early

the terrifying ''Last Judgment'' (West Tympanum), with its strikingly elongated figures, to the ''Eve'' (North Portal), the first large scale nude in European art since antiquity and a model of sinuous grace. His influence can be traced to other French church sculpture, and his techniques helped pave the way for the Gothic style. Early life Wiaczesław Mężyński, a hereditary dvoryanin (Russian nobility), was born into a Polish family of teachers. He graduated from the Faculty of Law at Saint

. ISBN 3764362987; page 64 La Tourette is considered one of the more important buildings of the late Modernist style. Early political career and exile Ollenhauer was born in Magdeburg and joined the SPD in 1920. When the Nazis took power in 1933 he fled Germany for Prague. After the outbreak of WW2 (World War II) Ollenhauer travelled across Europe in order to avoid Nazi persecution, first going to Denmark, then France, Spain, Portugal


single+cultural

of African, Indian, Amerindian, Chinese (China), British (United Kingdom), French (France) and to a lesser extent Spanish (Spain) and Portuguese (Portugal) cultures. The histories of Trinidad and Tobago are different, and there are contrasts in the cultural influences which have shaped each island. There are also regional differences within each island. The most influential single cultural factor in Trinidad and Tobago is Carnival, brought to Trinidad by French (France) settlers in the later part of the 18th century. Originally the celebration was confined to the elite, but it was imitated and adapted by their slaves and, after the abolition (Abolitionism) of slavery in 1838, the practise spread into the free population. The Canboulay Riots of 1881 were a turning point in the evolution of Trinidad Carnival. Carnival was originally confined to the upper classes, which rode the streets in floats, or watched from the upper stories of residences and businesses. The night was given over to the lower classes. The first few hours of Carnival Monday morning, from about 4 am until sunrise was known as ''J'ouvert'' (a contraction of ''jour ouvert''). Costumed and masked by the darkness, J'ouvert allowed the wealthy to mix with the poor in relative anonymity. Monday night (''night 'mas'') had a similar, but lesser function. During the Great Frost of 1683–84, the worst frost recorded in England, Andrew B. Appleby; '''Epidemics and Famine in the Little Ice Age'''; Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 10, No. 4, History and Climate: Interdisciplinary Explorations (Spring, 1980), pp. 643–63 Gordon Manley '''1684: The Coldest Winter in the English Instrumental Record'''.''Weather'' Journal 1975 *G. Manley, "Central England temperatures: monthly means 1659 to 1973.", Quarterly J. of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 100, pp. 389–405 (1974). the Thames was completely frozen for two months, with the ice reaching a thickness of 11 inches (28 cm) in London. Solid ice was reported extending for miles off the coasts of the southern North Sea (England, France and the Low Countries), causing severe problems for shipping and preventing the use of many harbours. London Gazette, w c 31 Jan 1684: reports from Dover, 1 Feb Near Manchester, the ground was frozen to 27 inches; in Somerset, to more than four feet. In the summer of 1900, following his freshman year at the University of Michigan, Harry Franck set out with only $3.18 in his pocket to see Europe. He worked his way across the Atlantic on a cattle boat, visited England and France, and got back to Ann Arbor two weeks after classes had started. While an undergraduate, he bet a fellow student that he could travel around the world without money, and after a year of teaching, proceeded to do so. He spent sixteen months circling the globe, working to earn money along the way. His book, ''A Vagabond Journey Around the World'' (1910) sold well enough to encourage him to continue his travels, following five years teaching in two private schools and in the Springfield, Massachusetts Technical High School. Kumba is the birthplace of French (France) international (France national rugby union team) rugby union great Serge Betsen. There are seven major nations to play as in ''NiE'': France, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia, Spain, and the Ottoman Empire. When games are played, most of the time each country is given (in relative terms) the amount of troops it had historically. So France and Russia vastly outnumber the forces of second-stringer powers like the Ottomans. After being thought in the public domain for decades, the film's rights were obtained by French (France) media company Canal+ in 2005. The building in which the school is housed was built in 1850 by Alonzo Wright. It was at first used as a manor for parties. Wright died in 1894. After the death of his wife in 1904, the property was bought by Jesuit (Society of Jesus) priests fleeing secularization in France. They sought to turn the building into a private institution where they would teach classical studies, including philosophy, Greek (Greek language), and Latin. Khoury is remembered for his part in drawing up the National Pact, an agreement between Lebanon's Christian and Muslim leaders which forms the basis of the country's constitutional structure today, although it was not codified in the Constitution (Constitution of Lebanon) until the Taif Agreement of 1989. In the Pact, Christians accepted Lebanon's affiliation with the Arab League and agreed not to seek French (France) protection, which Muslims agreed to accept the Lebanese state in its present boundaries and promised not to seek unification with neighbouring Syria. The Pact also distributed seats in the National Assembly (National Assembly of Lebanon) in a ratio of six Christians to five Muslims, based on the 1932 census (this has since been modified to represent followers of the two religions equally). Most significantly, the three main constitutional offices (President, Prime Minister, and National Assembly Speaker) were assigned to a Maronite Christian, Sunni (Sunni Islam) Muslim, and Shi'a (Shi'a Islam) Muslim, Lebanon's three largest confessions, respectively. Definitions Maps using the term ''Northern America'' date back to 1755, when the region was occupied by France, Great Britain (United Kingdom), and Spain. Bellin, Jacques-Nicolas (Jacques-Nicolas Bellin). 1755. ''Carte de l'Amerique septentrionale'' (''Map of Northern America''). Item NMC 21057: Library and Archives Canada. The Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America in 1813 applied to Mexico. Today, Northern America includes the Canada-US dyad (wiktionary:dyad), developed countries (developed country) that exhibit very high human development (Human Development Index) and intense economic integration while sharing many socioeconomic characteristics, including increasingly divergent demographic patterns (demographics) (e.g., fertility levels). Torrey, Barbara Boyle & Eberstadt, Nicholas. 2005 (Aug. Sep.). "The Northern America Fertility Divide." ''Hoover Institution Policy Review.'' No. 132. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France


black guitar

. It was the fourth P-47 unit to join the Eighth Air Force. From Metfield the 353rd flew numerous counter-air missions and provided escort for bombers that attacked targets in western Europe, made counter-air sweeps over France and the Low Countries, and dive-bombed targets in France. Acheron Abramelin was formed in Melbourne (Melbourne, Australia) in 1988 under the name Acheron by guitarist David Abbott. Simon Dower (vocals), Jason Black (guitar), Derek Ackary ( bass guitar bass


number lead

of Neuchâtel Neuchâtel , and Jura (Canton of Jura)), this canton is referred to as a republic within the Swiss confederation. thumb Transports Publics Genevois (File:Tramway de Genève.jpg) tram Most of the main roads in the canton of Geneva radiate from the capital city of Geneva. Of these main roads, a great number lead into France rather than any Swiss canton (Cantons of Switzerland). The canton is served by an international airport at Cointrin ( Geneva International Airport


site running

trading post located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, that was established around 1750 but abandoned in 1759. The fort site is now part of the public lands of Exhibition Place. It is also the name of a street, located approximately "'''Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger'''" is a song by French (France) duo Daft Punk. !-- SEE DISCUSSION ON SAMPLE -->

France

'''France''' ( and has a population of 66.6 million. It is a semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic with its capital (Capital city) in Paris, the nation's largest city and the main cultural and commercial center. The Constitution of France establishes the country as secular (Laïcité) and democratic, with its sovereignty derived from the people.

During the Iron Age, what is now France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic (Celts) people. The Gauls were conquered by the Roman Empire in 51 BC, which held Gaul until 486. The Gallo-Romans faced raids and migration from the Germanic (Germanic peoples) Franks, who dominated the region for hundreds of years, eventually creating the medieval Kingdom of France. France has been a major power in Europe since the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453) strengthening French state-building and paving the way for a future centralized absolute monarchy. During the Renaissance (French Renaissance), France experienced a vast cultural development and established the first steps of a worldwide colonial empire (French colonial empire). The 16th century was dominated by Religious Civil Wars (French Wars of Religion) primarily fought between Catholics (Roman Catholic Church) and Protestants (Protestantism) (Huguenots).

Louis XIV made France the dominant cultural, political and military power in Europe, but by the late 18th century, the monarchy was overthrown in the French Revolution. One legacy of the revolution was the ''Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen'', one of the world's earliest documents on human rights, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. France was governed as one of history's earliest Republics (French First Republic), until the Empire (First French Empire) was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte, who dominated European affairs and had a long-lasting impact on Western culture. Following his defeat, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments: an absolute monarchy was restored (Bourbon Restoration), replaced in 1830 by a constitutional monarchy (July monarchy), then briefly by a Second Republic (French Second Republic), and then by a Second Empire (Second French Empire), until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870.

France's colonial empire reached the height of global prominence during the 19th and early 20th centuries, when it possessed the second-largest colonial empire (French colonial empire) in the world. In World War I, France was one of the Triple Entente powers fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. France was one of the Allied Powers (Allies of World War II) in World War II, but it was occupied (German military administration in occupied France during World War II) by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following liberation (liberation of France) in 1944, a Fourth Republic (French Fourth Republic) was established, but it was dissolved in the course of the Algerian War and replaced by the Charles de Gaulle-led French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent.

Throughout its long history (History of France), France has produced many influential artists, thinkers, and scientists, and remains a prominent global center of culture. It hosts the world's fourth-largest (List of World Heritage Sites in France) number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually – the most of any country in the world. . Centre national de documentation pédagogique, "2011, ANNÉE DES OUTRE-MER"

French citizens enjoy a high standard of living, and the country performs well in international rankings (International rankings of France) of education (Education Index), health care (Health care in France), life expectancy (List of countries by life expectancy), civil liberties, and human development (Human Development Index). France is a founding member of the United Nations, where it serves as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council). It is a member of numerous international institutions, including the Group of 7 (G7), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie (Organisation internationale de la Francophonie). France is a founding and leading member state of the EU (member state of the European Union).

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