majority of their songs were sung in English (English language), except for the first EP and two songs on ''Pousse au crime et Longueurs de temps''. Influenced by the likes of Joe Jackson (Joe Jackson (musician)), The Clash, Stiff Little Fingers, Linton Kwesi Johnson, Reggae, Ska and Rhythm and blues. They released the much delayed ''Pousse au crime et Longueurs de temps'' which were a fusion of reggae, ska, punk, dub, and rap with heavily political based lyrics based
Citations of Achievement, given for most performed songs on radio in a given year; a Grammy Award nomination for "Cupid" "I’ve Loved You for a Long Time", performed by the Spinners; and nomination for producer of the year by the Golden Music Awards, in Nashville (Nashville, Tennessee), Tennessee. Besides composing "I've Loved You For A Long Time", Zager also composed the medley songs for two other Spinners' records, namely, "Forgive Me, Girl
) was one of France's most successful professional golfers. Massy was born in Biarritz, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France. The son of a sheep farmer, he worked on a sardine boat and supplemented his income by caddying at the new Biarritz golf course where a great many of the best professional golfers from Britain (United Kingdom) came to practice during the off-season in the warm climate of southern France. Blessed with natural abilities, he learned from these pro golfers
lost their commercial influence, which passed into the hands of the Florentine (Republic of Florence)s, although they retained their palaces, castles and about twenty fiefs, some of which were in the territory of Amalfi and of great extent. Early life Codman was born to Ogden Codman, Sr. (of Boston and the Codman House) and the former Sarah Bradlee in Lincoln, Massachusetts. He spent his youth from 1875 to 1884 at Dinard, an American resort colony in France
the offer as they were running out of ballast and it would be too risky (to themselves and anyone below) to pass over the suburbs of Paris. They landed in a field of barley, owned by Roger and Rachel Coquerel, in Miserey, 60 miles (96 km) northwest of Paris. Television images showed a highway nearby, its shoulders and outer lanes crowded with stopped cars, people sweeping across the farm field to the landing spot. The gondola was protected, but most of the logs and charts were swiped by souvenir hunters. '''TF1 Group''' is a French (France) media holding company (French (French language): '''Groupe TF1'''), the owner of channel TF1, the largest European private TV channel, and Eurosport, the largest European sports network. The tapestries were owned by the La Rochefoucauld (Duc de La Rochefoucauld) family of France for several centuries. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. bought them in 1922 for about one million United States dollars and donated them to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1937. They now hang in The Cloisters which houses the museum's medieval collection. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
. The stained glass windows in the chapel, original to the building, were cast in the same place and manufacturing technique as the famous stained glass of the Cathedral of Chartres, France. Interestingly, the windows are located at the back of the building, as Catholics in the area were undergoing much persecution at the time of the building's planning, and its founders wished to avoid vandalism and protest. The building also includes the Music Hall, which has details such as trompe-l'œil painting, the Padre Pio library, which contains relics of that saint, computer labs, a spacious art studio, and the Ramona Carrigan Science Center. '''Christofle''' is a manufacturer of fine silver flatware and home accessories based in France since 1830. They are renowned for their sterling, silverplate and stainless flatware. Among Christofle's product lines are silver picture frames, crystal vases and glassware, porcelain dinnerware and silver jewelry. Christofle is also well known for their silver holloware. She then lived for a time in France, and eventually died in Turin, Italy, in 1763 at the age of 80. In January 1944, a Soviet offensive drove the Germans from the southern outskirts of the city, ending the siege. Later, in the summer of 1944, the Finns were pushed back to the other side of the Bay of Vyborg and the Vuoksi River. The bravery of the city's defenders was an important symbol of the Soviet will to resist - in the first few weeks of the war the British had been so disheartened by the collapse of the Soviet armies, they thought a Nazi victory was all but inevitable. The warnings to citizens of the city as to which side of the road to walk on to avoid the German shelling have been restored and can still be seen. The ultimate number of casualties during the siege is disputed. After the war, The Soviet government reported about 670,000 deaths from 1941 to January 1944, mostly from starvation and exposure. Some independent estimates give a much higher death toll of anywhere from 700,000 to 1.5 million, with most estimates around 1.1 million. Most of these victims were buried in the Piskarevskoye Cemetery. On 3 February 1944, the Soviet assault began. A Soviet armoured group quickly penetrated the German line and established a bridgehead on the western bank of Narva. On 14 February 1944, the Red Army Volkhov (Volkhov Front) and Leningrad (Leningrad Front) fronts launched operations aimed at forcing the German Generalfeldmarschall Georg von Küchler's Army Group North back from its positions near Oranienbaum and out of Estonia. In the process, the attack was expected to encircle Generaloberst Georg Lindemann's (Georg Lindemann) 18.Army (18th Army (Wehrmacht)). The huge force fell on the sector of SS-Obergruppenfüher Felix Steiner's (Felix Steiner) III (Germanic) SS Panzer Corps, hitting the area of the 9th (9th Luftwaffe Field Division) and 10th Luftwaffe Field Divisions. The Luftwaffe units crumbled quickly, and soon Army Group North was falling back to new positions around the Narva river on the western border of Ingria. Steiner's SS Corps brought up the rear, fighting many bloody rearguard actions until it finally reached the positions in Ivangorod (Iivananlinna) on the eastern bank of Narva river which provided a natural chokepoint between the Northern end of Lake Peipus and the Baltic Sea. This position, known as the Panther line (Panther-Wotan line), was where von Küchler wanted to set up his defense. Adolf Hitler refused, and replaced von Küchler with Generalfeldmarschall Walter Model as commander of Army Group North. Model agreed with von Küchler, however, being one of Hitler's favourites, he also was allowed more freedom by Hitler. Using this freedom to his advantage, Model managed to fall back and begin establishing a line along the Narwa river with a strong bridgehead on the Eastern Bank. This appeased Hitler, and also followed the German standard operating procedure for defending a river line. The main brunt of the Soviet attack was to fall on Steiner's SS Corps, positioned east of the strategically important town of Narva. Steiner's corps was mostly made up of SS ''Freiwilligen'' or volunteer formations. SS men from Scandinavia, Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Hungary, Romania, Italy, Spain and the Baltic States joined German formations in the defense of the river line. The Dutchmen of the 4.SS-Freiwilligen-Panzergrenadier-Brigade ''Nederland'' (4th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Brigade Nederland) and the various nationalities of the 11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division Nordland began frantically digging in along what had become known as the ''Narva Line''. The defensive line ran for over seven miles, from the village of Lilienbach in the north to the village of Dolgaja Niva in the south, bulging eastwards from the Narva river near Ivangorod. 63,227 Ingrian refugees, including the Votes and the Izhorians, had left for Finland by 31 October 1944. Many of them settled in Finnish families, helping them by working on farms. After the war, the Soviets demanded these people back and Finland had to return them to the Soviet Union after the armistice. The Ingrians were promised by Soviet authorities that they could return to their own region, but instead were deported to different parts of the Soviet Union. 55,773 Ingrians arrived and were scattered to the regions of Novgorod, Kalinin, Vologda, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), and elsewhere. Some years after the war even those children of Ingrian descent that had been adopted by Finnish families were reclaimed by the Soviet Union. Later some Ingrians moved back to Ingria. Others moved to Estonian SSR, partly because of similarities between the Estonian language and Finnish. Europe Tunnel valleys and related glacial impacts have been identified in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, Northern France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Great Britain, Finland, Sweden and Norway. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
of the royal family until the 1979 Vietnamese invasion. In 1981, he moved to France to teach ballet and was later president of the Khmer Dance Association. He lived in France for nearly 20 years, but even then he regularly visited Prague, where he spent his childhood and youth. He is the only ruling monarch who speaks Czech (Czech language). He has spent most of his life outside Cambodia. As a child, Sihamoni was sent to Prague, Czechoslovakia, by his father in 1962
Cambodia. Immediately, the ruling Khmer Rouge government turned against the monarchy, and Sihamoni was put under house arrest by the Khmer Rouge with the rest of the royal family until the 1979 Vietnamese invasion. In 1981, he moved to France to teach ballet and was later president of the Khmer Dance Association. He lived in France for nearly 20 years, but even then he regularly visited Prague, where he spent his childhood and youth. He is the only ruling monarch who speaks
of the Sea ''. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
significant airship to date in that it laid down two vital design innovations that were copied in almost all subsequent rigid airships. The first was the cruciform tail plane, with a single pair of rudders and elevators. The second was the location of the engines in separate streamlined gondolas or cars. A third innovation, for war service, was the mounting of heavy machine guns for defense against attacking aircraft in each of the engine cars. SL2 was built between January and May 1914
succeeded in avoiding the pursuit, although chased by sixteen ships of the line. Before half of the enemy's force had entered the harbour he resumed the blockade, using false signals to disguise the small size of his squadron. He was shortly joined by Nelson who hoped to lure the combined fleet into a major engagement. thumb Alfred Redl (File:Redl Alfred.jpg) '''Alfred Redl''' (March 14, 1864 – May 25, 1913) was an Austrian (Austrians) officer who rose to head the counter-intelligence
efforts of Austria-Hungary. He was one of the leading figures of pre-World War I espionage. His term in office was marked by innovation, and he used very high technology for the time to ensnare foreign intelligence agents. But he was himself a spy for the Russians. Claims that Redl also worked for secret services of France and Italy have appeared much later but they were neither confirmed nor disproved reliably. Club career Taribo moved to France in January 1993
'''France''' ( and has a population of 66.6 million. It is a semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic with its capital (Capital city) in Paris, the nation's largest city and the main cultural and commercial center. The Constitution of France establishes the country as secular (Laïcité) and democratic, with its sovereignty derived from the people.
During the Iron Age, what is now France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic (Celts) people. The Gauls were conquered by the Roman Empire in 51 BC, which held Gaul until 486. The Gallo-Romans faced raids and migration from the Germanic (Germanic peoples) Franks, who dominated the region for hundreds of years, eventually creating the medieval Kingdom of France. France has been a major power in Europe since the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453) strengthening French state-building and paving the way for a future centralized absolute monarchy. During the Renaissance (French Renaissance), France experienced a vast cultural development and established the first steps of a worldwide colonial empire (French colonial empire). The 16th century was dominated by Religious Civil Wars (French Wars of Religion) primarily fought between Catholics (Roman Catholic Church) and Protestants (Protestantism) (Huguenots).
Louis XIV made France the dominant cultural, political and military power in Europe, but by the late 18th century, the monarchy was overthrown in the French Revolution. One legacy of the revolution was the ''Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen'', one of the world's earliest documents on human rights, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. France was governed as one of history's earliest Republics (French First Republic), until the Empire (First French Empire) was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte, who dominated European affairs and had a long-lasting impact on Western culture. Following his defeat, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments: an absolute monarchy was restored (Bourbon Restoration), replaced in 1830 by a constitutional monarchy (July monarchy), then briefly by a Second Republic (French Second Republic), and then by a Second Empire (Second French Empire), until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870.
France's colonial empire reached the height of global prominence during the 19th and early 20th centuries, when it possessed the second-largest colonial empire (French colonial empire) in the world. In World War I, France was one of the Triple Entente powers fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. France was one of the Allied Powers (Allies of World War II) in World War II, but it was occupied (German military administration in occupied France during World War II) by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following liberation (liberation of France) in 1944, a Fourth Republic (French Fourth Republic) was established, but it was dissolved in the course of the Algerian War and replaced by the Charles de Gaulle-led French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent.
Throughout its long history (History of France), France has produced many influential artists, thinkers, and scientists, and remains a prominent global center of culture. It hosts the world's fourth-largest (List of World Heritage Sites in France) number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually – the most of any country in the world. . Centre national de documentation pédagogique, "2011, ANNÉE DES OUTRE-MER"
French citizens enjoy a high standard of living, and the country performs well in international rankings (International rankings of France) of education (Education Index), health care (Health care in France), life expectancy (List of countries by life expectancy), civil liberties, and human development (Human Development Index). France is a founding member of the United Nations, where it serves as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council). It is a member of numerous international institutions, including the Group of 7 (G7), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie (Organisation internationale de la Francophonie). France is a founding and leading member state of the EU (member state of the European Union).