director Nicolaescu's debut as a director was in 1962 with the short film ''Scoicile nu au vorbit niciodată'' (''Shells Have Never Spoken''). His first feature film was the 1966 French (France)-Romanian co-production (Film production) ''Dacii'' (''Les Guerriers''). Nicolaescu continued his film-making career by directing a large number of movies and also starring in many of his own movies. thumb 250px right Trotsky (Image:Trotsky militant.jpg) reading ''the Militant
(2009) observes that in many European countries, the state has, over the centuries, taken over the social roles of the church, leading to a generally secularized public sphere. Princeton University WordNet reads: "separationism: advocacy of a policy of strict separation of church and state." '''Lake Geneva''' or '''Lake Léman''' ( Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
productions, including the 1921 classic ''The Kid (The Kid (1921 film))''. Her last film with him, ''A Woman of Paris'', was also her first lead role. She went on to appear in two more films: ''The Sea Gull'', also known as ''A Woman of the Sea''—which Chaplin never released—and ''Education de Prince'', a French (France) film released in 1927, just before she retired as an actress. She has been credited as an extra in Chaplin's final two American movies, ''Monsieur Verdoux'' and ''Limelight''; Chaplin kept her on his payroll until her death. The United Nations officially came into existence on October 24, 1945, when the Charter was ratified by the Republic of China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States as well as a majority of other signatories. Other countries, led by France, Germany and Russia, maintained that Resolution 1441 did not authorize the use of force without passage of a further Resolution. French President Chirac stated "My position is that, whatever the circumstances, France will vote 'no' because this evening it considers that it is not necessary to make war to achieve the stated goal of the disarmament of Iraq". Radio France Dossiers Conflit USA - Irak Post-presidency In 1992, García went into exile in Colombia and later in France after Fujimori's ''auto-coup'' during which the military raided his house. The new government re-opened charges against him for allegedly taking millions of dollars in bribes. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
'' (court orchestra director, composing and performing music) began the great artistic period in the city's history. In 1809, Eisenstadt was occupied by French (France) troops during the Napoleonic Wars; in 1897, it was joined to the railway network. After traveling through Istanbul, Athens and Lebanon, the researchers went to Damascus. Here they were not welcomed by the French (France) (who ruled over Syria (French Mandate of Syria) as a colony at the time). The newly-sovereign (History of Iraq#The Iraqi Monarchy) Kingdom of Iraq was being courted for an alliance with Germany, and Dr. Fritz Grobba, the German envoy to Baghdad, arranged for Altheim and Trautmann to meet with local researchers and be driven to Parthian and Persian (Persian Empire) ruins in southern Iraq, as well as Babylon. '''Socialism from below''' (''Socialisme par en bas'', SPEB), founded in 1997 and disbanded in 2007, was one of two socialist groups in France based on the International Socialism (International Socialist Tendency) tradition of the Trotskyist movement. It was affiliated to the International Socialist Tendency led by the SWP (Socialist Workers Party (Britain)) in Britain. Project history The project KEO was conceived in 1994 by French (France) artist-scientist Jean-Marc Philippe, a pioneer of space art. Messages began to be collected, and an initial launch date was set for 2001. Technical feasibility demonstration and other various delays have moved the launch date to 2012. thumb alt two men in a machine gun armed jeep An SAS jeep of the type used in Operation Loyton (File:SAS jeep 18 November 1944.jpg) '''Operation Loyton''' was the codename given to an ill-fated Special Air Service (SAS) mission in the Vosges department of France during the Second World War. Background The Vosges is a region in north-eastern France close to the German border. In 1944 it was sparsely populated and consisted of wood covered hills, valley pastures and small isolated villages, an ideal area for a small mobile raiding force to operate. In late 1944 it was also the area that General (General (United States)) George Patton's Third Army (Third Army (United States)) was heading towards, but outrunning their supplies they had stopped at Nancy (Nancy, France). To counter the American advance the Germans had moved reinforcements, including the 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen, into the area. Popular music ''Gbégbé'', a Bété (Bété people) rhythm, has been a part of popular music since Côte d'Ivoire's independence, popularized by Soeurs Comöé and later, Frères Djatys and Sery Simplice. Ernesto Djédjé, however, is considered the father of Ivorian popular music. Using one of the folk rhythms of the Bété, as well as his teacher Amédée Pierre's ''dopé'' style, Djédjé has long been an advocate of Ivorian music, railing against the "Congolization (music of the Democratic Republic of the Congo)" of the Abidjan scene. Outside of Côte d'Ivoire, Djédjé is best known for 1977's ''Gnoantre-Ziboté'', which was a pan-African hit, and found some success in France and Canada. He plays a type of music called ''ziglibithy''. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
, though now without any benefices, remains in contention between the heir male and the heir general of Arran, respectively the Duke of Abercorn and the Duke of Hamilton. (See Chatelherault Country Park, Lanarkshire.) Her most famous characters include Anatole (Anatole (mouse)), a heroic and resourceful French (France) mouse and Basil of Baker Street, a Victorian age mouse private detective who emulates Sherlock Holmes. Both characters have been
Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
19 - thumb right 160px Adrian Pleşca (2008) (File:Adrian Plesca (Timpuri Noi) 1.jpg) In 1997, the band was presented with one of the MCM French (France) music television and Radio France Internationale "Decouvertes de Rock a l'Est" (Eastern European New Acts) Awards, performing in a special gala concert. (The previous year, Timpuri Noi had been interviewed for MTV Europe during the Golden Stag Festival in the Romanian city of Braşov
-Nippon created by what is now Gainax. (Aikoku
; and traditional studies "Traditional studies" is a translation of the French ''Les Etudes Traditionnelles'': the title of the journal in which many of René Guénon's articles were published to symbolism and initiation. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
of the American Museum of Natural History. Number 297. New York. Issued March 15, 2006. is a name for a common European frog, also known as the common water frog or green frog (however, this latter term is also used for the North American species ''Lithobates clamitans (Green Frog)''). It is used for food, particularly in France for the delicacy frog legs. Females are between 5 to 9 cm long, males between 6 to 11 cm. Additionally, between 1616 and 1619
'''France''' ( and has a population of 66.6 million. It is a semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic with its capital (Capital city) in Paris, the nation's largest city and the main cultural and commercial center. The Constitution of France establishes the country as secular (Laïcité) and democratic, with its sovereignty derived from the people.
During the Iron Age, what is now France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic (Celts) people. The Gauls were conquered by the Roman Empire in 51 BC, which held Gaul until 486. The Gallo-Romans faced raids and migration from the Germanic (Germanic peoples) Franks, who dominated the region for hundreds of years, eventually creating the medieval Kingdom of France. France has been a major power in Europe since the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453) strengthening French state-building and paving the way for a future centralized absolute monarchy. During the Renaissance (French Renaissance), France experienced a vast cultural development and established the first steps of a worldwide colonial empire (French colonial empire). The 16th century was dominated by Religious Civil Wars (French Wars of Religion) primarily fought between Catholics (Roman Catholic Church) and Protestants (Protestantism) (Huguenots).
Louis XIV made France the dominant cultural, political and military power in Europe, but by the late 18th century, the monarchy was overthrown in the French Revolution. One legacy of the revolution was the ''Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen'', one of the world's earliest documents on human rights, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. France was governed as one of history's earliest Republics (French First Republic), until the Empire (First French Empire) was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte, who dominated European affairs and had a long-lasting impact on Western culture. Following his defeat, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments: an absolute monarchy was restored (Bourbon Restoration), replaced in 1830 by a constitutional monarchy (July monarchy), then briefly by a Second Republic (French Second Republic), and then by a Second Empire (Second French Empire), until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870.
France's colonial empire reached the height of global prominence during the 19th and early 20th centuries, when it possessed the second-largest colonial empire (French colonial empire) in the world. In World War I, France was one of the Triple Entente powers fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. France was one of the Allied Powers (Allies of World War II) in World War II, but it was occupied (German military administration in occupied France during World War II) by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following liberation (liberation of France) in 1944, a Fourth Republic (French Fourth Republic) was established, but it was dissolved in the course of the Algerian War and replaced by the Charles de Gaulle-led French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent.
Throughout its long history (History of France), France has produced many influential artists, thinkers, and scientists, and remains a prominent global center of culture. It hosts the world's fourth-largest (List of World Heritage Sites in France) number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually – the most of any country in the world. . Centre national de documentation pédagogique, "2011, ANNÉE DES OUTRE-MER"
French citizens enjoy a high standard of living, and the country performs well in international rankings (International rankings of France) of education (Education Index), health care (Health care in France), life expectancy (List of countries by life expectancy), civil liberties, and human development (Human Development Index). France is a founding member of the United Nations, where it serves as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council). It is a member of numerous international institutions, including the Group of 7 (G7), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie (Organisation internationale de la Francophonie). France is a founding and leading member state of the EU (member state of the European Union).