examples of Upper Palaeolithic rock art in France. A painting from the Chauvet Cave depicts a hyena outlined and represented in profile, with two legs, with its head and front part with well distinguishable spotted coloration pattern. Because of the specimen's steeped profile, it is thought that the painting was originally meant to represent a cave bear, but was modified as a hyena. In Lascaux, a red and black rock painting of a hyena is present in the part of the cave known as the Diverticule axial, and is depicted in profile, with four limbs, showing an animal with a steep back. The body and the long neck have spots, including the flanks. An image on a cave in Ariège shows an incompletely outlined and deeply engraved figure, representing a part of an elongated neck, smoothly passing into part of the animal’s forelimb on the proximal side. Its head is in profile, with a possibly re-engraved muzzle. The ear is typical of the spotted hyena, as it is rounded. An image in the Le Gabillou Cave in Dordogne shows a deeply engraved zoomorphic figure with a head in frontal view and an elongated neck with part of the forelimb in profile. It has large round eyes and short, rounded ears which are set far from each other. It has a broad, line-like mouth that evokes a smile. Though originally thought to represent a composite or zoomorphic hybrid, it is probable it is a spotted hyena based on its broad muzzle and long neck. The '''naval operations of the American Revolutionary War''' (also, mostly in British usage, ''American War of Independence''), divide themselves naturally into two periods. The first ranges from 1775 until the summer of 1778, as the Royal Navy was engaged in cooperating with the troops employed against the American revolutionaries (Patriot (American Revolution)), on the coasts, rivers and lakes of North America, or in endeavouring to protect British commerce against the enterprise of American privateers. During the second period, the successive interventions of France, Spain, and the Netherlands extended the naval war until it ranged from the West Indies to the Bay of Bengal. This second period lasted from the summer of 1778 to the middle of 1783, and it included operations already been in progress in America or for the protection of commerce, and naval campaigns on a great scale carried out by the fleets of the maritime powers. '''Grey Goose''' is a Bacardi-owned brand of premium priced vodka produced in France. It is distilled in France from French wheat. In 2004, Sidney Frank sold the brand to Bacardi for $2.2 billion. Among French vodkas, Grey Goose has some competitors, as the French vodkas Nuage, Idol, Marceau and Ice Kube are also now on the market, as well as the German Lumb and Swedish Albertson brands. These vodkas are sold mostly in North America and Eastern Europe, and are marketed as premium brands. Grey Goose vodka is bottled with a replaceable cork (Cork (material)) rather than a screw-top cap. Production and history Grey Goose was designed for the American (United States) market in 1997 by Sidney Frank, a self-made billionaire. After the advent of the premium vodka market by rival Polish vodka brand Belvedere vodka in 1996, his concept was to create a high quality vodka for Americans. He took the idea from the notion of French (France) manufacturing having an inherent link with high perceived quality, quickly dispatching a team to Europe. Grey Goose was created as a result. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
to return to her fortress. Cover versions *French (France) singer Claude François covered the song on his album ''Le Vagabond'' in 1975; his version was entitled "Cette année-là" ("That Year"). Incorporating new lyrics reminiscing François' own beginnings in show business
Atatürk that aimed to train music teachers with respect to the new law of arts. This suggested that previous training standards had to be changed to meet Western musical standards. Musical education adopted Western musical practices as part of this new era in Turkey. * Jacques Ozanam (1640-1717), French (France) mathematician * Blessed Antoine-Frédéric Ozanam (1813-1853), French scholar From Hoveden's name and the internal evidence of his work, he is believed to have been
successful Allied fighter units of the war. The annual Knutepunkt conference, first held in 1997, has been a vital institution in establishing a Nordic live role-playing identity, and in establishing the concept of "Nordic LARP" as a unique approach. A live-roleplaying avant-garde movement, which pursues radical experimentation and the recognition of role-playing as a form of art, has been connected to the Knutepunkt conferences. The scope of the Knutepunkt conference
and a number of other countries of Europe, Africa and Far Eastern Regions and academic, excursion, business, political and parliamentary missions. He gained international experience in urban development, social housing and public finance by consulting on important infrastructure projects in the United States, France, and Venezuela. * Deutsches Intitut für Bautechnik in Germany, or * Efectis in The Netherlands (Netherlands), France, Norway. * FM Global provides testing and certification of firestops, and also certification of firetop contractors http: www.fmglobal.com assets pdf fmapprovals 4991.pdf At Volvo Gyllenhammar became one of the most famous businessmen in Sweden at Volvo. He mixed success with failure. He oversaw a wide-reaching diversification of Volvo's business, buying, among other things pharmaceutical company Pharmacia. What finally forced him to leave Volvo was a failed merger with French (France) company Renault. Prof. Fernández-Pello has experience in dozens of research projects, with more than 400 published papers and book chapters. During his academic career, he has advised many students: more than 19 Ph.D.’s, 45 M.Sc.’s, and numerous undergraduate students and teacher assistants. He has been involved in teaching and research activities since the 1970s in different institutions around the globe, mainly in U.S. (United States), Spain, France and Japan. He was born in Montreal in 1731. He was a trader and Indian agent at Logstown, near the current location of Ambridge, Pennsylvania. After the fall of New France in 1760, he refused to swear allegiance to George III (George III of the United Kingdom). After he learned that his brother François (François Baby (businessman)) was transferring operations from France to London, Baby swore the oath of allegiance and resumed trading in the Detroit area. In 1777, he was appointed a captain and interpreter in the Indian Department. He owned large amounts of land on both the American (United States) and British (Kingdom of Great Britain) sides of the Detroit River. In 1787, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Detroit militia and, in 1788, he was named to the land board of the Hesse District (Western District, Ontario). He died at Detroit in 1789. During his military service, Grevemberg received the Soldier's Medal for Heroism (Soldier's Medal), the Legion of Merit for outstanding performance during the invasion at Anzio, the Croix de Guerre (Croix de guerre 1939–1945) with silver gilt star awarded by the French (France) government for exceptional war services rendered in the liberation of France, the Army Commendation Medal, the Italian Military Valor Cross, the European-African Middle Eastern Medal with nine bronze campaign stars, and a bronze arrowhead signifying participation in five amphibious landings against the Axis powers. Grevemberg said that he could not have carried on under constant threats from the mob without the inspiration of his wife, the former Dorothy Maguire (September 1, 1917–December 9, 2010), a New Orleans native whom he called "the love of my life." The couple had identical twin sons born in 1949 Net Detective, People Search – Francis J. "Pete" Grevemberg, married to the former Melissa Coleman, of Conyers (Conyers, Georgia), Georgia (Georgia (U.S. state)), and Carroll S. Grevemberg, wed to the former Alice Henderson of New Orleans – two grandchildren, David Grevemberg of Bonn, Germany, later Killearn, Scotland, and Elisa Grevemberg of Reims (Reims, France), France, and two great-grandchildren. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
discreetly with PLO officials and warn them against any repetition of the 1973 murders of two American diplomats in the region. (In a much earlier visit to Morocco, he had given a ride on a tank to a young boy who later became King Hassan II.) With his enemies out of the way, Petrucci ruled as absolute tyrant over Siena. Petrucci subsequently stopped selling public offices in order to consolidate his own power. Although a brutal authoritarian and absolutist, Petrucci was careful to pacify the people of Siena by improving the city's economy and encouraging the advancement of art. He also managed to avoid a war with Florence, which had been at odds with Siena for over a century due to a dispute over Siena's control of Montepulciano. When France and Spain invaded the Italian Peninsula, Petrucci became involved in a number of political intrigues. During this time period, Petrucci tried to gain the powerful Cesare Borgia’s trust by diplomatically procuring French-controlled Piombino for Borgia. However, he secretly plotted against Borgia in the hopes of increasing his own power. Borgia, who had never trusted Petrucci, learned of the Sienese tyrant’s plans and invited him to a meeting at Senigallia in 1502, where Petrucci would have been executed along with Cesare’s other enemies. Petrucci suspected his life was in danger and avoided the meeting, but nevertheless fled Siena in January 1503 in order to appease Borgia. He subsequently resided in Lucca. With the assistance of his ally King Louis XII of France, however, Petrucci was returned to power two months later. Chambers's ''Cyclopaedia'' in turn became the inspiration for the landmark ''Encyclopédie'' of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert, which owed its inception to a proposed French (France) translation of Chambers' work begun in 1744 by John Mills (John Mills (encyclopedist)), assisted by Gottfried Sellius. '''Jules Régis Debray''' (born September 2, 1940) is a French (France) intellectual, Debray Growls At A World In Chaos ''The Times of India'', December 19, 2009 journalist, government official and professor. He is known for his theorization of mediology, a critical theory of the long-term transmission of cultural meaning in human society; and for having fought in 1967 with Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara in Bolivia. Saint Norbert had made various efforts to introduce a strict form of canonical life in various communities of canons in Germany; in 1120 he was working in the now-extinct Diocese of Laon, in the Picardy province of northeastern France. There, in a rural place called Prémontré, he and thirteen companions established a monastery to be the cradle of a new order. As they were canons regular, they followed the Rule of St. Augustine, but with supplementary statutes that made their life one of great austerity. Norbert was a friend of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux and so was largely influenced by the Cistercian ideals as to both the manner of life and the government of his order. As the Premonstratensians are not monks but canons regular, their work often involves preaching and the exercising of pastoral ministry; they frequently serve in parishes close to their abbeys or priories. As of 2008, there were Premonstratensian abbeys or priories throughout the world: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom and USA. All these stations carried a program in Luxembourgish, called ''Hei Elei, Kuck Elei''. The main purpose was to show these stations were essentially broadcasters from Luxembourg and not aiming to be commercial stations in Belgium, France and Germany. When the stations were licensed in their intended broadcasting regions, this program was dropped. Dod wanted to be transferred to the war zones in France but was hampered by sciatica and never served as a nurse outside England. She did receive a Service Medal by the Red Cross for serving more than 1,000 hours during the war. In climbing, a '''climbing garden''' is usually an outcrop of rock equipped with bolts (bolt (climbing)) to allow a form of rock climbing known as sport climbing. Usually the routes in a climbing garden are short and are used mainly as introductory climbs by professional climbing schools or instructors, to introduce the novice to rock climbing in a fairly safe environment. Climbing gardens are found in both France and Switzerland, where they are recognized as a way of developing tourism. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
Chantilly , etc., helped to establish a town's place in global commerce — this led to modern trademarks. Phrases from the Address are often used or referenced in other works. The current Constitution of France states that the principle of the Republic of France (France) is ''"gouvernement du peuple, par le peuple et pour le peuple"'' ("government of the people, by the people, and for the people,") a literal translation of Lincoln's words.
Graduate School author accessdate 2010-11-11 Calle's work is distinguished by its use of arbitrary sets of constraints, and evokes the French literary movement of the 1960s known as Oulipo. Her work frequently depicts human vulnerability, and examines identity and intimacy. She is recognized for her detective-like ability to follow strangers and investigate their private lives. Her photographic work often includes panels of text of her own writing. Origin
signing autographes (2006) In February 2006, Nâdia returned with her "Tous ces mots" ("All these words") single, her first song that features Smartzee. The song peaked at number two in the French Singles Chart and at twenty-five in the Swiss Singles Top 200. Following the success of "Tous ces mots", her self-titled third studio album ''Nâdiya (Nâdiya (album))'' was released on June 7 in both France as. Nâdiya stated the album would have more rock music rock
influence than her previous two albums. SNEP recently revealed the best-selling singles during the first quarter of 2006 (from January 1 - March 31, 2006). Despite being released four weeks before the first quarter of 2006 ended, "Tous ces mots" managed to peak at number thirteen in the list. "Tous ces mots" is #13 best-selling first quarter 2006 The second single with the applicable title
: 2.1–2.3, 2.5 Marknadssituationen för spannmål, oljeväxter, proteingrödor, ris,2011-03-10,(Swedish Board of Agriculture, Report from an expert group in the European Union about the market situation for a number of agricultural products. Published only in Swedish) Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
'''France''' ( and has a population of 66.6 million. It is a semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic with its capital (Capital city) in Paris, the nation's largest city and the main cultural and commercial center. The Constitution of France establishes the country as secular (Laïcité) and democratic, with its sovereignty derived from the people.
During the Iron Age, what is now France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic (Celts) people. The Gauls were conquered by the Roman Empire in 51 BC, which held Gaul until 486. The Gallo-Romans faced raids and migration from the Germanic (Germanic peoples) Franks, who dominated the region for hundreds of years, eventually creating the medieval Kingdom of France. France has been a major power in Europe since the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453) strengthening French state-building and paving the way for a future centralized absolute monarchy. During the Renaissance (French Renaissance), France experienced a vast cultural development and established the first steps of a worldwide colonial empire (French colonial empire). The 16th century was dominated by Religious Civil Wars (French Wars of Religion) primarily fought between Catholics (Roman Catholic Church) and Protestants (Protestantism) (Huguenots).
Louis XIV made France the dominant cultural, political and military power in Europe, but by the late 18th century, the monarchy was overthrown in the French Revolution. One legacy of the revolution was the ''Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen'', one of the world's earliest documents on human rights, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. France was governed as one of history's earliest Republics (French First Republic), until the Empire (First French Empire) was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte, who dominated European affairs and had a long-lasting impact on Western culture. Following his defeat, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments: an absolute monarchy was restored (Bourbon Restoration), replaced in 1830 by a constitutional monarchy (July monarchy), then briefly by a Second Republic (French Second Republic), and then by a Second Empire (Second French Empire), until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870.
France's colonial empire reached the height of global prominence during the 19th and early 20th centuries, when it possessed the second-largest colonial empire (French colonial empire) in the world. In World War I, France was one of the Triple Entente powers fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. France was one of the Allied Powers (Allies of World War II) in World War II, but it was occupied (German military administration in occupied France during World War II) by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following liberation (liberation of France) in 1944, a Fourth Republic (French Fourth Republic) was established, but it was dissolved in the course of the Algerian War and replaced by the Charles de Gaulle-led French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent.
Throughout its long history (History of France), France has produced many influential artists, thinkers, and scientists, and remains a prominent global center of culture. It hosts the world's fourth-largest (List of World Heritage Sites in France) number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually – the most of any country in the world. . Centre national de documentation pédagogique, "2011, ANNÉE DES OUTRE-MER"
French citizens enjoy a high standard of living, and the country performs well in international rankings (International rankings of France) of education (Education Index), health care (Health care in France), life expectancy (List of countries by life expectancy), civil liberties, and human development (Human Development Index). France is a founding member of the United Nations, where it serves as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council). It is a member of numerous international institutions, including the Group of 7 (G7), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie (Organisation internationale de la Francophonie). France is a founding and leading member state of the EU (member state of the European Union).