What is Florence known for?

school biography

, Enric Prat de la Riba. After a trip to Italy to study fresco technique, he established himself in Terrassa, to which he had moved the Mont d’Or School. Biography She was born at Château St Leonard, Boulogne (Boulogne-sur-Mer), France to expatriate English parents. She was the half-sister of Eugene Lee-Hamilton, adapting her pseudonym from his surname. Although she primarily wrote for an English audience and made many visits to London, she spent the majority of her life on the continent, particularly in Italy. Her longest residence was on the hillside just outside of Florence, in the Palmerino villa, from 1889 until her death, with a brief interruption during the war. Her library was left to the British Institute of Florence and can still be inspected by visitors. In Florence she knit lasting friendships with the painter Telemaco Signorini and the learned Mario Praz, and she encouraged his love of learning and English literature. An engaged feminist, she always dressed á la garçonne, and was a member of the Union of Democratic Control Mario Praz, Vernon Lee, 1935 . She was also a lesbian, and had long-term passionate friendships with two women, Mary Robinson and Kit Anstruther-Thomson. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence

political poems

, her health faded again, centering around deteriorating lung function. She was moved from Florence to Siena, residing at the ''Villa Alberti''. Deeply engrossed in Italian politics, she issued a small volume of political poems titled ''Poems before Congress'' (1860) “most of which were written to express her sympathy with the Italian cause after the outbreak of fighting in 1859”. They caused a furore in England and she was labelled as a fanatic

important scientific

Area.fi.cnr.it date accessdate 18 March 2014 Science and discovery thumb left A display of proboscidean (File:Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze - paleontology.JPG)s in the Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze, or the Natural History Museum of Florence Florence has been an important scientific centre for centuries, notably during the Renaissance with scientists such as Leonardo da Vinci. Florentines were one of the driving forces behind the Age of Discovery. Florentine bankers financed Henry the Navigator and the Portuguese explorers who pioneered the route around Africa to India and the Far East. It was a map drawn by the Florentine Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli, a student of Brunelleschi, that Columbus used to sell his "enterprise" to the Spanish monarchs, and which he used on his first voyage. Mercator's "Projection" is a refined version of Toscanelli's – taking into account the Americas, of which the Florentine was, obviously, ignorant. Galileo and other scientists pioneered the study of optics, ballistics, astronomy, anatomy, and so on. Pico della Mirandola, Leonardo Bruni, Machiavelli, and many others laid the groundwork for our understanding of political science. Fashion Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence

success composing

a historical work, but he did not live to accomplish it. In 1841, he married Elizabeth Clementine Stedman, the author. Having seen the ''concerto delle donne'' in Ferrara, Caccini created a rival group made up of his family and a pupil. This ensemble was sponsored by the Medici, and traveled as far abroad as Paris to perform for Marie de' Medici. Carter Francesca Caccini had much success composing and singing in the style of the ''concerto delle

study modern

-being. For the first half of the spring semester, students study modern European history in Paris and continue back in time as lessons are conducted in Strasbourg, the Swiss Alps, Heidelberg, Munich, Venice, Florence and Siena. The second half of the semester focuses on ancient civilizations, which begins in Rome and continues through Pompeii, the Peloponnese, Athens and the Greek Islands. The English and Human Dimensions courses run throughout

years location

in contract at the Faculty of Archeology and Antiquities in Ravenna (University of Bologna) teaching History of Islamic Art and Islamic Archeology for two years. location location Basildon, UK, Florence, Italy key_people Allan Cook (Chairman) Fabrizio Giulianini (CEO) In 1501 Coelho was sent on an expedition to follow up on Pedro Álvares Cabral's discovery of Brazil. On 10 May, he sailed from Lisbon as "Captain

singles starting

05265000488 content Small family-run hotel on the 5th floor of a 6-floor building. All the rooms contain private facilities. *

modern opera

, including Halston, Giorgio di Sant'Angelo and Tiffany & Co.. Tiffany & Co. * Giulio Caccini – ''Il Rapimento di Cefalo'', premièred October 8 * Jacopo Peri – ''Euridice (Euridice (opera))'' (believed to be the earliest work of modern opera surviving to the present day), produced by Emilio de' Cavalieri for the wedding of Henry IV of France and Maria de' Medici in Florence, premièred October 6 In 14th and 15th century Italy, a ''villa'' once more connoted a country house, like the first Medici villas, the Villa del Trebbio and that at Cafaggiolo, both strong fortified houses built in the 14th century in the Mugello region near Florence. In 1450 Giovanni de' Medici commenced on a hillside the Villa Medici in Fiesole, Tuscany, probably the first villa created under the instructions of Leon Battista Alberti, who theorized the features of the new idea of villa in his ''De re aedificatoria''. thumb 250px Villa di Pratolino (Image:Pratolino utens.jpg) with lower half of the gardens: by Giusto Utens-1599. Museo Topografico, Florence. These first examples of Renaissance villa predate the age of Lorenzo de' Medici, who added the Villa di Poggio a Caiano (Poggio a Caiano#The Medici villa) by Giuliano da Sangallo, begun in 1470, in Poggio a Caiano, Province of Prato, Tuscany. He hastily quit Vienna, escaping the formal charge of desertion because his new appointment had not been confirmed. The savage independence of his nature rendered subordination intolerable to him; he had been three times disgraced for absenting himself without leave, and his superiors resented his satirical humour. After leaving the army he went to Florence, and was fortunate enough to discover in the Laurentian Library a complete manuscript of Longus's ''Daphnis and Chloe'', an edition of which he published in 1810. In consequence of a misadventure—blotting the manuscript—he was involved in a quarrel with the librarian, and was compelled by the government to leave Tuscany. He retired to his estate at Véretz (Indre-et-Loire), but frequently visited Paris, and divided his attention between literature and his farm. Galuppi took lessons in composition and harpsichord from Antonio Lotti, the chief organist at St Mark's Basilica. Anderson, Keith (2011). "Baldassare Galuppi (1706–1785)", Notes to Naxos CD 8.572263 From 1726 to 1728, he was harpsichordist at the Teatro della Pergola in Florence. On his return to Venice in 1728, he produced a second opera, ''Gl'odi delusi dal sangue'', written in collaboration with another Lotti pupil, Giovanni Battista Pescetti; it was well received when it was presented at the Teatro San Angelo. Anderson, Keith (2011). "Baldassare Galuppi (1706–1785)", Notes to Naxos CD 8.572490 The collaborators followed it with an ''opera seria'', ''Dorinda'', the next year. This, too, was modestly successful, and Galuppi began to receive commissions for operas and oratorios. De Brosse's melding of traditional French elements (e.g. lofty mansard roofs and a complex roof-line) with extensive Italianate quotations (e.g. ubiquitous rustication, derived from Palazzo Pitti in Florence) came to characterize the Louis XIII style. Probably the most accomplished formulator of the new manner was François Mansart, a tireless perfectionist credited with introducing the full Baroque to France. In his design for Château de Maisons (1642), Mansart succeeded in reconciling academic and Baroque approaches, while demonstrating respect for the gothic-inherited idiosyncrasies of the French tradition. After graduating in literature in Florence in 1896, he taught History at the universities of Messina (University of Messina) (during the 1908 Messina earthquake he was the only survivor of his entire family), Pisa (University of Pisa) and Florence (University of Florence). From 1919 to 1921 he served in Italian Parliament. As member of the Italian Socialist Party he fought for Universal Suffrage and for the moral and economic rebirth of Italy's Mezzogiorno (southern Italy), and against corruption in politics. She was the daughter of Thomas James Thompson (1812–1881) and his second wife Christiana Weller (1825–1910). Her sister was the noted essayist and poet Alice Meynell. Elizabeth began receiving art instruction in 1862, while growing up in Italy. In 1866 she went to South Kensington, London and entered the Female School of Art (Royal College of Art). She became a Roman Catholic along with the rest of the family after they moved to Florence in 1869. While in Florence, under the tutelage of the artist Giuseppe Bellucci (1827–1882), Elizabeth attended the Accademia di Belle Arti. She signed her works as E.B.; Elizth. Thompson or Mimi Thompson (she was called "Mimi" from her childhood). thumb upright ''Balance'' by David Ascalon (File:David Ascalon - Balance.jpg) shows how reactive chemicals applied to the metal create a marbleized blue surface thumb upright ''Perseus with the Head of Medusa'' (Benvenuto Cellini (File:PerseusSignoriaStatue.jpg), 1545-54) in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, Italy after the statue's cleaning thumb upright Felter family grave with sculpture by Karol Hukan (File:Cmentarz Rakowicki 1.jpg) at the Rakowicki Cemetery in Poland The next months brought further friction between emperor and minister. The latter, knowing Napoleon's desire for peace at the close of 1809, undertook to make secret overtures to the British cabinet of Spencer Perceval. Napoleon opened negotiations only to find that Fouché had forestalled him. His rage against his minister was extreme, and on 3 June 1810 he dismissed him from his office. However, Napoleon never completely disgraced a man who might again be useful, and Fouché received the governorship of the Rome (Rome (département)) ''département''. At the moment of his departure, Fouché took the risk of not surrendering to Napoleon all of certain important documents of his former ministry (falsely declaring that the some had been destroyed); the emperor's anger was renewed, and Fouché, on learning of this after his arrival to Florence, prepared to sail to the United States. After the war, Balbo completed the studies he had begun in Florence in 1914–15. He obtained a law degree and a degree in Social Sciences. His final thesis was written on 'the economic and social thought of Giuseppe Mazzini' and he researched under the supervision of the patriotic historian Niccolò Rodolico. Balbo was a Republican (Italian Republican Party) but he hated Socialists and the unions and cooperatives associated with them. History The spirit level was invented by Melchisedech Thevenot (born in either 1620 or 1621; died 1692). Thevenot was an amateur scientist and patron of many scientists and mathematicians. He was wealthy and well-connected, later becoming the Royal Librarian to King Louis XIV of France. Thevenot invented the instrument some time before February 2, 1661. This date can be very accurately established from Thevenot's correspondence with scientist Christiaan Huygens. Within a year of this date the inventor circulated details of his invention to others, including Robert Hooke in London and Vincenzo Viviani in Florence. It is occasionally argued that these bubble levels did not come into widespread use until the beginning of the eighteenth century, the earliest surviving examples being from that time, but Adrien Auzout had recommended that the Académie Royale des Sciences take "levels of the Thevenot type" on its expedition to Madagascar in 1666. It is very likely that these levels were in use in France and elsewhere long before the turn of the century. Early career: 1951-1960 In the summer of 1951, Corelli won the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence, earning a debut at Spoleto the following fall. He was originally scheduled to sing Radames in Verdi's ''Aïda'' and spent three months preparing the role with conductor Giuseppe Bertelli. However, Corelli eventually switched to Don José in Bizet's ''Carmen'', feeling that at this point he lacked the technical finesse and legato for the role of Radamès. In November 1951, he made his debut at the Rome Opera (Teatro dell'Opera di Roma) as Manrico in ''Il trovatore'' opposite Maria Caniglia as Leonora. Biography of Franco Corelli at operissimo.com (in German) The next year he appeared in operas with smaller opera houses throughout Italy and on the Italian radio. In 1953 he joined the Rome Opera's roster of principal tenors where he spent much of his time performing through 1958. His first role with the company in 1953 was that of Romeo in Zandonai (Riccardo Zandonai)'s rarely heard opera ''Giulietta e Romeo (Giulietta e Romeo (Zandonai))''. Later that season he sang Pollione in Bellini's ''Norma (Norma (opera))'' opposite Maria Callas in the title role. It was the first time the two sang opposite one another and Callas immediately became a fan of Corelli. The two performed frequently with each other over the next several years in a partnership that lasted to the end of Callas's career. St. Peter’s Basilica gave Frescobaldi permission to leave Rome November 22, 1628. Girolamo moved to Florence,Italy into the service of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, a Medici. During his sojourn there he was the highest paid musician and served as the organist of the Florence baptistery for a year. Hammond, Frederick. ''Girolamo Frescobaldi''. 71-2. He stayed in the city until 1634; the period resulted in, among other things, the publication of two books of arias (1630). The composer returned to Rome in April 1634, having been summoned into the service of the powerful Barberini family, i.e. Pope Urban VIII Barberini (Pope Urban VIII),the highest prize offered to any musician. Hammond, Frederick. ''Girolamo Frescobaldi''. 78. He continued working at St. Peter's, and was also employed by Cardinal Francesco Barberini (Francesco Barberini (seniore)), who also employed the famous lutenist Johannes Hieronymus Kapsberger. Frescobaldi published one of his most influential collections, ''Fiori musicali'', in 1635, and also produced reprints of older collections in 1637. Hammond, Frederick. ''Girolamo Frescobaldi''. 83, 86-7. No other prints followed (although a collection of previously unpublished works appeared in 1645, and in 1664 Domenico Frescobaldi still possessed pieces by his father that were never published). Frescobaldi died on 1 March 1643 after an illness that lasted for 10 days. He was buried in Santi Apostoli, but the tomb disappeared during a rebuilding of the church in late 18th century. A grave bearing his name and honoring him as one of the fathers of Italian music exists in the church today. Hammond, Frederick. ''Girolamo Frescobaldi''. 3. His work shows the influence of Simone Martini, although more naturalistic. The earliest dated work of the Sienese painter is a ''Madonna and Child'' (1319, Museo Diocesano, San Casciano). His presence was documented in Florence up until 1321. He would return there after spending a number of years in Siena. Casu, Franchi, Franci. The Great Masters of European Art. Barnes & Noble, Inc., 2006. Page 34, Retrieved November 25, 2006. At the Palazzo Saracini, he created a sculpture of St. Martin. A bronze tomb statue of Marianus Soccinus the Elder (a noted Sienese jurist) for the church of San Domenico is now shown at the Uffizi in Florence. For the ''Loggia della Mercanzia'', Vecchietta sculpted life-size figures of St. Peter and St. Paul (c.1458-1460), which Vasari praised as "wrought with consummate grace and executed with fine mastery." Vasari, "Vite" Vecchietta also crafted a silver statue of St. Catherine of Siena at the time of the saint's canonization in 1461. This work disappeared after the siege of Siena in 1555. Works elsewhere Outside Siena, Vecchietta's chief work is a painting of the Assumption (1451) at the church in Pienza, created for the Piccolimino Pope Pius II. The Uffizi in Florence, in addition to the bronze statue of Marianus brought from Siena, has a panel depicting the Madonna created by Vecchietta. His illuminations in a manuscript of Dante's Divine Comedy (c. 1440) may be seen at the British Library, London. thumb 350px ''The Three Dead and the Three Living'' (on the left) and ''The Triumph of Death'', c. 1338-39 (File:Buonamico Buffalmacco 001.jpg) '''Buonamico di son of Martino''' or '''Buonamico Buffalmacco''' (active c. 1315–1336) was an Italian painter who worked in Florence, Bologna and Pisa. Although none of his known work has survived, he is widely assumed to be the painter of a most influential fresco cycle in the Camposanto (Piazza_dei_Miracoli#Campo_Santo) in Pisa, featuring the ''The Three Dead and the Three Living'', the ''Triumph of Death'', the ''Last Judgement'', the ''Hell'', and the ''Thebais'' (several episodes from the lives of the Holy Fathers in the Desert). Painted some ten years before the Black Death spread over Europe in 1348, the cycle - a "painted sermon" (L. Bolzoni) - enjoyed an extraordinary success after that date, and was often imitated throughout Italy. The youngsters' party enjoying themselves in a beautiful garden while Death piles mounds of corpses all around is likely to have inspired the setting of Giovanni Boccaccio's ''Decameron'', written a few years after the Black Death. Born in Settignano, now a part of Florence, he was the youngest of five brothers, sculptors and stonecutters. He is said to have studied under Donatello and is remarkable for the sharpness and fineness of his bas-relief. His most important works are the funeral monument of Beato Marcolino (1458) for the Blackfriar Church (today a museum), Forlì, and the monument of Cardinal Jacopo of Portugal in the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte, Florence (1461–1467). Biography Bernardo Rossellino was born into a family of farmers and quarry owners in the mountain village of Settignano, overlooking the Arno river valley and the city of Florence. The following review of Bernardo Rossellino's life and career is largely based upon the Rossellino entries of Charles R. Mack in the ''St. James Press International Dictionary of Art and Artists'', 1990, vol. I, 105, vol. II, 724-25; in the ''St. James Press International Dictionary of Architects and Architecture'', 1993, vol. I, 749-52, vol. II, 549-551; in ''An Encyclopedia of the History of Classical Archaeology'', 1996, 964 His uncle, Jacopo di Domenico di Luca del Borra Gamberelli may have given him his first lessons in stonemasonry. By 1420, Bernardo was certainly down in Florence and apprenticed to one of that city's better-known sculptors, perhaps Nanni di Bartolo, called "il Rosso (the redhead)." Such a relationship might explain the nickname of "Rossellino (the little redhead) given to Bernardo and applied to his brothers, Antonio, Domenico, and Giovanni. Curiously, there is no record of Bernardo's entry into Florence's Guild of Stone and Woodworkers, although matriculation information exists for his brothers. He was a pupil of Antonio Pollaiuolo, and at first worked in the style of 15th-century Florence. His early works are the terra cotta altarpiece in Santa Chiara at Monte San Savino, and the marble reliefs of the ''Annunciation'', the ''Coronation of the Virgin'', a ''Pietà'', the ''Last Supper'', and various statuettes in the Corbinelli chapel of Santo Spirito (Santo Spirito di Firenze) at Florence, all executed between the years 1488 and 1491. thumb left Altar front, Santo Spirito (Image:Santo Spirito, andrea sansovino, altare del sacramento, 1490 circa 01.JPG) The expression '''High Renaissance''', in art history, is a periodizing convention used to denote the apogee of the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. The High Renaissance period is traditionally taken to begin in the 1490s, with Leonardo's (Leonardo da Vinci) fresco of the Last Supper in Milan and the death of Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence, and to have ended in 1527 with the sacking of Rome by the troops of Charles V (Sack of Rome (1527)). This term was first used in German (Hochrenaissance) in the early nineteenth century, and has its origins in the "High Style" of painting and sculpture described by Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Jill Burke, "Inventing the High Renaissance from Winckelmann to Wikipedia", ''Rethinking the High Renaissance: Culture and the Visual Arts in Early Sixteenth-century Rome'', Ashgate, 2012 https: www.wiki.ed.ac.uk display RenCourse 1.+The+Renaissance+and+the+Visual+Arts Over the last twenty years, use of the term has been frequently criticized by academic art historians for over-simplifying artistic developments, ignoring historical context, and focusing only on a few iconic works. Marcia Hall, “Classicism, Mannerism and the Relieflike Style” in ''The Cambridge Companion to Raphael'', Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 224. Biography He was born in Florence and apprenticed with Andrea Sansovino whose name he subsequently adopted, changing his name from Jacopo Tatti. He returned to Florence in 1511 where he received commissions for marble sculptures of St. James (Saint James the Great) for the Duomo (Santa Maria del Fiore) and a Bacchus (Dionysus), now in the Bargello. His proposals for sculpture to adorn the façade of the Church of San Lorenzo (Basilica di San Lorenzo di Firenze), however, were rejected by Michelangelo, who was in charge of the scheme, to whom he wrote a bitter letter of protest in 1518. Early Years Cherubini was born '''Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore Cherubini''' in Florence. There is uncertainty about his exact date of birth. Although 14 September is sometimes stated, evidence from baptismal records and Cherubini himself suggests the 8th is correct. Perhaps the strongest evidence is his first name, Maria, which is traditional for a child born on 8 September, feast-day of the Nativity of the Virgin. Sadie, p. 833 His instruction in music began at the age of six with his father, Bartolomeo, ''maestro al cembalo'' ("Master of the harpsichord"). Considered a child prodigy, Cherubini studied counterpoint and dramatic style at an early age. By the time he was thirteen, he had composed several religious works. Early life Ludwig was born in Munich, the eldest son of Prince Luitpold of Bavaria (Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria) and of his wife, Archduchess Augusta of Austria (Augusta, Archduchess of Austria) (daughter of Grand Duke Leopold II of Tuscany (Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany)). Hailing from Florence, Augusta always spoke in Italian to her four children. Ludwig was named for his grandfather, King Ludwig I of Bavaria. Living in poor conditions (as reported by visiting scholar Teohari Antonescu), Nastasă (2003), p.66-68 the four-year engagement of his scholarship still applicable, Nicolae Iorga decided to spend his remaining time abroad, researching more city archives in Germany (Munich), Austria (Innsbruck) and Italy (Florence, Milan, Naples, Rome, Venice etc.). In this instance, his primordial focus was on historical figures from his Romanian homeland, the defunct Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia: the Moldavian Prince (List of rulers of Moldavia) Peter the Lame, his son Ştefăniţă, and Romania's national hero, the Wallachian Prince (List of rulers of Wallachia) Michael the Brave. He also met, befriended and often collaborated with fellow historians from European countries other than Romania: the editors of ''Revue de l'Orient Latin'', who first published studies Iorga later grouped in the six volumes of ''Notes et extraits'' ("Notices and Excerpts") and Frantz Funck-Brentano, who enlisted his parallel contribution for ''Revue Critique''. Iova, p.xxxiv. See also Setton, p.62 Iorga's articles were also featured in two magazines for ethnic Romanian (Romanians) communities in Austria-Hungary: ''Familia (Familia (literary magazine))'' and ''Vatra (Vatra (Romanian magazine))''. Encyclopedic and philosophical His great encyclopedic work is his ''Hewath Hekhmetha'', "The Cream of Science", which deals with almost every branch of human knowledge, and comprises the whole Aristotelian discipline, after Avicenna and Arabian writers. This work, so far, has not been published, with the exception of one chapter, by Margoliouth, in ''Analecta Orientalia ad poeticam Aristoteleam'' (London, 1887), 114-139. The rest is to be found only in MSS., preserved at Florence, Oxford, London, and elsewhere. (2) ''Teghrath Teghratha'', "Commerce of Commerces", a résumé of the preceding, also unpublished. (3) ''Kethabha dhe-Bhabhatha'', "Book of the Pupils of the Eyes"; compendium of logic and dialectics. (4) ''Kethabha dhe-Sewadh Sophia'', "Book of Speech of Wisdom"; compendium of physics and metaphysics. To these should be added a few translations of Arabic works into Syriac, as well as some treatises written directly in Arabic. In 1898 Vuillard visited Venice (Venice, Italy) and Florence. The following year he made a trip to London. Later he went to Milan, Venice and Spain. Vuillard also traveled in Brittany and Normandy. Early life Meucci was born at Via dei Serragli 44 in the San Frediano borough of Florence,Grand Duchy of Tuscany, (now in the Italian Republic), on 13 April 1808, as the first of nine children to Amatis and Domenica Meucci. Meucci, S., 2010. pp.15–21. Amatis was an officer of the local police and his mother was principally a homemaker. Four of Meucci's siblings did not survive childhood. In 1834 Meucci constructed a kind of acoustic telephone as a way to communicate between the stage and control room at the theatre "Teatro della Pergola" in Florence. This telephone was constructed on the model of pipe-telephones (Speaking tube) on ships and is still functional. He died at Wood House, Upper Norwood, Surrey, on 10 December 1875. In 1845, at Florence, he'd married Maria Katherine Eliza Burton (1823–1894), sister of explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton. Their daughter, Georgiana Martha Stisted (1846–1903), published ''The True Life of Captain Sir Richard Burton''. First ESF The first forum was held in Florence in November 2002. The slogan was "''Against war, racism and neo-liberalism,''" with specific reference to George W. Bush's plan for regime change in Iraq. *#Mabel *#Florence; Ida (Ida (given name)) (tie) *#----- By 1216 Francis was able to offer Clare and her companions a monastery adjoining the chapel of San Damiano (San Damiano, Assisi) where she became abbess. Clare's mother, two of her sisters and some other wealthy women from Florence soon joined her new Order. Clare dedicated her Order to the strict principles of Francis, setting a rule of extreme poverty far more severe than that of any female Order of the time. Farmer, David (ed.) ''Oxford Dictionary of Saints'', Oxford University Press (1997), p. 103 Clare's determination that her Order not be wealthy or own property, and that the nuns live entirely from alms given by local people, was initially protected by the papal bull ''Privilegium paupertatis'', issued by Pope Innocent III. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence

professional years

primarily of veterans from the African campaigns of Charles V. Early Professional Years Originally an amateur entertainer, he took his first steps to professionalism while serving in the Italian army in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) under General Baldissera in 1890. A troupe of theatrical performers the general hired to entertain his soldiers did not materialise. Fregoli offered to fill in and was an immediate success. General Baldissera subsequently had Fregoli posted, not as a soldier but as a performer, to the theatre at Massowah, which he used to entertain soldiers. Fregoli became the director and stage manager of the theatre and casino. After a year he returned to Italy and performed in Rome, Genoa and Florence. In the audience at Florence was a government registry clerk, Ugo Biondi, who was so impressed with Fregoli's performance that he sought him out and asked for some lessons in how to follow in his footsteps. Fregoli generously complied and Biondi went on to be another great quick change artist-first claiming to be a pupil but later set up as the 'original' Fregoli. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence

putting works

). It gets its name from two Carrara marble ''Medici lions'' statues that are copies of those found in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence, Italy. The statues were a gift of Dr. Andrew Anderson (Andrew Anderson (St. Augustine, Florida)) (1839–1924), the builder of the Markland House (Markland (St. Augustine, Florida)), who spent the last decade of his life putting works of art in public places in the Ancient City. The statues were his last gift, and he did not live long enough


'''Florence''' ( , alternative obsolete form: ''Fiorenza''; Latin: ''Florentia'') is the capital city of the Italian region (Regions of Italy) of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 380,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1,520,000 in the metropolitan area. Bilancio demografico anno 2013, dati ISTAT

Florence is famous for its history: a centre of medieval (Middle Ages) European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time, From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy.

The Historic Centre of Florence attracts millions of tourists each year, and Euromonitor International ranked the city as the world's 89th most visited in 2012, with 1.8 million visitors.

Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 50 fashion capitals of the world;

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