Florence

What is Florence known for?


historical characters

also presents a detailed imagining of the life and character of the inventor and painter during this period, and includes his encounters with other historical characters residing in Florence including Machiavelli and Botticelli. fields Anatomy workplaces Institute of Human Anatomy Florence Lyceum University of Florence Istituto di Studi Superiori alma_mater Pistoia thumb The Old Swiss Confederacy on a map included in the "Topographia Helvetiae" by Matthäus Merian 1652 (Image:Schweizkarte.jpg) Humanism and Renaissance led to new advances in science and the arts. Paracelsus taught at the University of Basel. Hans Holbein ''the Younger'' (Hans Holbein the Younger) worked until 1526 in Basel; his high renaissance style had a profound influence on Swiss painters. Conrad Gessner in Zürich did studies in systematic botany, and the geographic maps and city views produced e.g. by Matthäus Merian show the beginning of a scientific cartography. In 1601, an early version of the theodolite was invented in Zürich and promptly used to triangulate the city. Basel and Geneva became important printing centres, with an output equal to that of e.g. Strasbourg or Lyon. Their printing reformatory tracts greatly furthered the dissemination of these ideas. First newspapers appeared towards the end of the 16th century, but disappeared soon again due to the censorship of the absolutist authorities. In architecture, there was a strong Italian and especially florentine (Florence) influence, visible in many a rich magistrate's town house. Famed baroque architect Francesco Borromini was born 1599 in the Ticino. "The blossom of the thistle, improved by the Arabs, passed from Naples to Florence in 1466, carried by Filippo Strozzi. Towards 1480 it is noticed in Venice, as a curiosity. But very soon veers towards the northwest...Artichoke beds are mentioned in Avignon by the notaries from 1532 onward; from the Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


traditional football

. The interest of authorities and educators peaked in Genoa and Lombardy. The organization was also known with other names, including ''Boy Scouts della Pace (Peace Boy Scouts)''. Italy is home to a number of forms of traditional football, some of which have features which are more similar to rugby, than to association football, such as handling the ball. Halpern, J. ''Balls and Blood'', in ''Sports Illustrated''. Vol 109, No. 4: August 4, 2008, p. 42. A prime example of this is ''calcio Fiorentino'' played in Florence. The ''Piazza Santa Croce'' of Florence is the cradle of this sport, that became known as ''giuoco del calcio fiorentino'' ("Florentine kick game") or simply ''calcio'' ("kick"). The first official rules of ''Calcio Fiorentino'' were recorded in 1580, although the game had been developing around Florence for some time before that date. The game involved teams of 27 kicking and carrying a ball in a giant sandpit set up in the Piazza Santa Croce in the centre of Florence, both teams aiming for their designated point on the perimeter of the sandpit. Early life and education He was born August 13, 1943 in San Diego, California, and graduated from Santa Barbara High School. He entered Stanford University on a football scholarship, spent six months based in Florence under the Stanford's auspices, and graduated in history in 1965. He earned an M.A. from Harvard School of Education (Harvard Graduate School of Education) the next year. He naturally went on to play for SFR Yugoslavia in 1968 European Championship final tournament in Italy. First up in the semifinal at Florence's Stadio Artemio Franchi were the World Cup champions England (England national football team). In what was perhaps the greatest ever Yugoslav football victory, Petković played a prominent part with a creative midfield display. * I was obliged to retract, like a good Catholic, this opinion of mine; and as a punishment my dialogue was prohibited; and after five months being dismissed from Rome (at the time that the city of Florence (w:Florence) was infected with plague (w:Plague)), the habitation which with generous pity was assigned to me, was that of the dearest friend I had in Siena (w:Siena), Monsignor the Archbishop Piccolomini (w:Ascanio II Piccolomini), whose most agreeable conversation I enjoyed with such quite and satisfaction of mind, that having there resumed my studies, I discovered and demonstrated a great number on the mechanical conclusions on the resistance of solids … after about five months, the pestilence having ceased, the confinement of that house was changed by His Holiness for the freedom of the country so agreeable to me, whence I returned to the villa of Bellosguardo, and afterwards to Arcetri (w:Arcetri), where I still breathe salubrious air near my dear native-country Florence. Stay sane. ** p. 251-253. thumb The w:Fontana Maggiore Fontana Maggiore (File:IMG 0835 - Perugia - Piazza IV novembre - Foto G. Dall'Orto - 6 ago 2006 - 01.jpg) and Perugia Cathedral (w:Perugia Cathedral) '''Perugia (w:Perugia)''' is the capital city of the region of Umbria (w:Umbria) in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber (w:Tiber). The city is also the capital of the province of Perugia (w:province of Perugia). Perugia is located about 164 kilometres (102 miles) north of Rome, and 148 km (92 miles) south-east of Florence (w:Florence). It covers a high hilltop and part of the valley (w:valley)s around the area. The region of Umbria (w:Umbria) is bordered by Tuscany (w:Tuscany), Lazio (w:Lazio) and Marche (w:Marche). 144px thumb right In the affairs of this world, poverty alone is without envy. (File:Giovanni Boccaccio 05.jpg) '''Giovanni Boccaccio (w:Giovanni Boccaccio)''' (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was a Florentine (w:Florence) poet and story-writer who helped to initiate the humanist (w:Renaissance humanism) movement. His most famous work is ''The Decameron (w:The Decameron)'', a collection of 100 ''novelle'' or tales. right thumb w:Gravitational microlensing Gravitational microlensing (File:A_Horseshoe_Einstein_Ring_from_Hubble.JPG)...Most known extrasolar planet (w:Exoplanet)s (exoplanets) have been discovered using the radial velocity, or transit methods. Both are biased towards planets that are relatively close to their parent stars, and studies find that around 17–30% of solar-like stars host a planet. A. Cassan right thumb Galileo (File:Galileo.arp.300pix.jpg) claimed to have seen mountains on the Moon, to have proved the Milky Way was made up of tiny stars, and to have seen four small bodies orbiting Jupiter. These last, with an eye to getting a position in Florence (w:Florence), he quickly named 'the Medicean stars (w:Galilean moons)'. - J J O'Connor and E F Robertson (w:Edmund F. Robertson) *Galileo claimed to have seen mountains on the Moon, to have proved the Milky Way was made up of tiny stars, and to have seen four small bodies orbiting Jupiter. These last, with an eye to getting a position in Florence (w:Florence), he quickly named 'the Medicean stars (w:Galilean moons)'. **J J O'Connor and E F Robertson (w:Edmund F. Robertson) in: ''Galileo Galilei'', right thumb Altars of Jupiter and Juno. - ...however, he should have nothing in common with them, except this power (File:Neues Museum - Weihrelief für Jupiter Dolichenus und Juno.jpg) of doing good, which communicates unto all, then we ought to acquiesce in the reasoning of the Egyptian priests (w:Priest), who raise altars (w:Altars) to the Sun conjointly with Jupiter ; nay, rather we should assent to Apollo (w:Apollo) himself (long before them), who sits on the same throne with Jove (w:Jove),... - Julian (emperor). right thumb Montage of Jupiter's four Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter. From top to bottom: Io, Europa (File:Jupitermoon.jpg), Ganymede (w:Ganymede), Callisto (w:Callisto). - Galileo (w:Galileo) claimed to have seen mountains (w:Mountains) on the Moon, to have proved the Milky Way was made up of tiny stars, and to have seen four small bodies orbiting Jupiter. These last, with an eye to getting a position in Florence (w:Florence), he quickly named 'the Mediciean Stars (w:Mediciean Stars)... - William Herschel. right thumb Above the round domes of La Silla Observatory, three astronomical objects in the Solar System — Jupiter (top), Venus (File:Three_Planets_Dance_Over_La_Silla.jpg) (lower left), and Mercury (w:Mercury) (lower right) ...First, That all Cœlestial Bodies (w:Astronomical object) whatsoever, have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers,... -Robert Hook (w:Robert Hooke). *Galileo claimed to have seen mountains (w:Mountains) on the Moon, to have proved the Milky Way was made up of tiny stars, and to have seen four small bodies orbiting Jupiter. These last, with an eye to getting a position in Florence (w:Florence), he quickly named 'the Mediciean Stars (w:Mediciean Stars). But when all was finished, no one besides my brother could get a glimpse of Jupiter or Saturn (w:Saturn), for the great length of the tube would not allow it to be kept in a straight line. This difficulty, however, was soon removed by substituting tin tubes. **William Herschel in: Mary Cornwallis Herschel, Caroline Lucretia Herschel ''Memoir and correspondence of Caroline Herschel'', 1879, p. 35 *Galileo claimed to have seen mountains (w:Mountains) on the Moon, to have proved the Milky Way was made up of tiny stars, and to have seen four small bodies orbiting Jupiter. These last, with an eye to getting a position in Florence (w:Florence), he quickly named 'the Mediciean Stars (w:Mediciean Stars). But when all was finished, no one besides my brother could get a glimpse of Jupiter or Saturn (w:Saturn), for the great length of the tube would not allow it to be kept in a straight line. This difficulty, however, was soon removed by substituting tin tubes. **William Herschel in: Mary Cornwallis Herschel, Caroline Lucretia Herschel ''Memoir and correspondence of Caroline Herschel'', 1879, p. 35 goals2 stadium Stadio Artemio Franchi (w:Stadio Artemio Franchi (Florence)), Florence (w:Florence), Italy (w:Italy) attendance 39,130 Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


literary genre

, and Politics in Borges, Puig, and Piglia first Sergio last Waisman journal Comparative Literature Studies volume 40 issue 4 year 2003 pages 351–71 doi 10.1353 cls.2003.0038 from around the 10th century. The novella as a literary genre later began developing in the early Renaissance literary work of the Italians (Italian people) and the French (France). Principally, by Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375), author of ''The Decameron'' (1353)—one hundred novelle told


architecture combining

in the original designs for the shrine at Loreto but had had very little to do with it after that, the job having been taken on by the great medal designer Gian Cristoforo Romano, Andrea Sansovino and Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. It is a good example of High Renaissance Architecture, combining the elegance and simplicity of the classical lines and motifs with rich encrustations of statues and other decoration. The basic design of the Santa Casa resonates in the chiesetta at Macereto. The cornice


time modern

, rather imitating (Latin) grammar as monkeys do men: For they say 'domus nova' and 'dominus meus'.") It is unclear whether this indicates that Sardinian still had a two-case system at the time; modern Sardinian lacks grammatical case. After the Middle Ages, Rome was ruled by popes such as Alexander VI (Pope Alexander VI) and Leo X (Pope Leo X), who transformed the city into one of the major centers of the Italian Renaissance, along with Florence.


international study

received the degree of ''doctor'' from the University of Pisa and was chosen to accompany Cardinal (cardinal (Catholicism)) Neri Corsini (Neri Corsini (cardinal)) to Paris in 1621 where he became acquainted with Marin Mersenne and other literary persons. International Study Centers Richmond students have the opportunity to complement their studies in London with a semester, year or summer at one of Richmond's two international study centers. The centers are in Florence and Rome, Italy. Although each center has a specific academic focus, they both offer intensive study of Italian language and culture and a curriculum that is integrated with the degree requirements in London. Travels He received a two-year travel stipend from the Academy (1857-1858) for a student travel to Italy, which took him also to Dresden, Vienna, Switzerland and Paris, in addition to the Italian cities of Venice, Parma, Florence, Naples and Rome. He occasionally painted depictions of Italy, including his well-known "''En gondol''" ("A Gondola") from 1859, a view looking out from the dark interior of a covered gondola. A young woman at the left-hand side of the canvas peers out from the dark; a gondolier on the right-hand side of the central archway leans in towards the center of the painting, bathed in light. Beyond is a glimpse of the waterway and other boats. Casal also won one top-level singles title at Florence in 1985. He was a singles runner-up at Aix-en-Provence in 1983, and at the Paris Open (Paris Masters) in 1986. His career-high singles ranking was World No. 31. Life He was born in Florence. In 1505, around the time of his 13th birthday, he joined the choir of the church Ss. Annunziata in Florence, where his teacher was the distinguished composer to the Medici family, Bartolomeo degli Organi. Layolle eventually married his teacher's younger sister-in-law, Maddalena Arrighi. D'Accone, Grove online In 1518 he left Florence, settling in Lyon in 1521. While in Florence he also served as music teacher to sculptor Benvenuto Cellini, who referred to him as a superb organist, musician and composer. On August 23, 2008, Chait married former Italian military policeman Francesco Moracci in New Jersey and then on September 13, 2008 they had the second wedding in Florence, Italy. The two met at the 2006 Olympic Games in Torino, Italy, where Moracci was a member of the security detail assigned to protect the Israeli team. They have two daughters, Raffaella, born in 2009, and Gabriella, born in 2011. * Antonio Squarcialupi, Florentine (Florence) organist and composer to Lorenzo de Medici * The Squarcialupi codex, the richest source of Italian 14th century music, owned by Antonio Squarcialupi Career In July 1576 Wade was living in Paris and frequently supplied political information to William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, whose "servant" he is described as being. ''Lansd. MS. 23'', art. 75 He claimed "familiar acquaintance" with the celebrated French publicist Jean Bodin, from whom he seems to have derived some of the news he forwarded to Burghley. In the autumn of 1576 Amias Paulet took Wade to Blois. ''Cal. State Papers'', For. 1575-7 During the winter of 1578–79 he was in Italy, from where he forwarded to Burghley reports on its political condition. From Venice in April 1579 he sent Burghley fifty of the rarest kinds of seeds in Italy. ''Cal. Hatfield MSS.'' ii. 254 In May he was in Florence, and in February 1579 80 he was living in Strasbourg. In the following April he was employed on a delicate mission in Paris by Sir Henry Cobham. Early years Born in Berlin, and named Gerhard, he was the only child of a well-to-do Jewish couple, Hildegard and Ludwig Hoffnung. He was sent to England, where he attended Bunce Court School in 1938. Lesley Bellew, "Anna's children", ''Kent Messenger'' newspapers, ''Blitz Spirit'', special souvenir supplement (February 4, 2011), p. 11 In 1939, his parents left Germany, initially for Florence and then for London, and Hoffnung then attended Highgate School, while his father went to what was then the British Mandate of Palestine to enter the family's banking business. This temporary separation became permanent as a consequence of World War II. Biography Marseus van Schrieck spent the years 1648-1657 in Rome and Florence with the painters Matthias Withoos and Willem van Aelst, after which he settled in Amsterdam. He is best known for his paintings of forest flora (flora (plants)) and fauna (fauna (animals)). In Arnold Houbraken's biography of him, he mentions that he joined the Bentvueghels in Rome and was called the ''snuffelaer'', or "sniffer", because he was always sniffing strange lizards and snakes. He quotes his wife, who apparently survived him by two husbands and was still alive when he wrote the book. He wrote that she said that Otto kept snakes and lizards in a shed at the back of his house, and also on a piece of land outside the city that was walled in for this purpose. While Futurism staunchly rejected the past, other modern movements identified a nostalgia for the now faded Classical grandeur of Italy as a major influence in their art. Giorgio de Chirico first developed the style that he later called Metaphysical Painting while in Milan. It was in the more sedate surroundings of Florence, however, that he subsequently developed his emphasis on strange, eerie spaces, based upon the Italian piazza. Many of de Chirico's works from his Florence period evoke a sense of dislocation between past and present, between the individual subject and the space he or she inhabits. These works soon drew the attention of other artists such as Carlo Carrà and Giorgio Morandi. He conquered Lucca in 1314 with the help of his protege Castruccio Castracani. On 29 August 1315 he delivered the Guelfs of Florence and their associates from Naples their worst defeat since 1260 in the battle of Montecatini in the Val di Nievole. De Koninck was born and died in Amsterdam. Little is known of his history except that he was said to be a pupil of Rembrandt, whose influence is to be seen in much of his work. He painted chiefly broad, sunny landscapes, full of space, light and atmosphere; they are seen from a high perspective, allowing a prominent view of the sky. Portraits by him, somewhat in the manner of Rembrandt, also exist (e.g. see Joost van den Vondel); there are examples of these in the galleries at Copenhagen and Oslo. Of his landscapes, the principal are ''View at the mouth of a river'' at the Hague, with a slightly larger replica in the National Gallery, London; ''Woodland border and countryside'' (with figures by Adriaen van de Velde) at Amsterdam; and landscapes in Brussels, Florence (the Uffizi), Berlin and Cologne. Koninck, a prosperous businessman, appears to have painted few pictures during the last decade of his life. ** Demetrios (Demetrius Chalcondyles) (Athens, 1423 - Milan, 1511), scholar. *** Theophilos (Theophilos Chalkokondyles) (Florence, 1486–1510). Demetrios' son. He taught Greek Literature at the University of Pavia (see Pavia) when he was very young and he translated some works of Cicero. He was murdered by some of his rivals. ** Laonikos (Laonikos Chalkokondyles) (Athens, before 1430 - possibly Italy, 1490), historian. Return to Denmark and an artistic career Wiedewelt left Rome on 1 July 1758, when his financial support was running out, and after he had been ordered home to Denmark by the Academy. He traveled back in the company of friend, neoclassical painter Johan Edvard Mandelberg. They traveled over Caprarola, Siena, Florence, Pisa, Carrara, Lucca, Bologna, Padua, Venice, and Trieste where they studied the local art collections and churches, and on through the Tyrol (county of Tyrol) and Germany. They arrived back to Copenhagen on 6 October 1758. Italy *Calcio Fiorentino — a modern revival of Renaissance football from 16th century Florence. For supplementary information see Football in Italy Outside Europe His work in Vienna includes about twenty tombs of the Habsburg imperial family in the Imperial Crypt, especially his masterpiece, the elaborate double sarcophagus in Rococo style of Empress Maria Theresa (Maria Theresa of Austria) and her husband Emperor Franz I Stephan (Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor) on which Moll worked from 1751 to 1772. The life-size imperial pair lie on the tin lid, awakened from their sleep of death by the Trumps of Doom. The two look at each other while a putto behind them holds a garland of stars above them. The reliefs on the sides of the sarcophagus depict important scenes of their lives : the ceremonial entrance in Florence as archduke of Tuscany, his coronation in Frankfurt am Main, his coronation in Prague as King of Bohemia, and the coronation ceremony in Bratislava of Maria Theresia. Of the four corners of the sarcophagus, grieving statues show the crowns and blasons of their most important titles : Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Bohemia and Jerusalem. thumb left 225px Sarcophagus of emperor Karl VI (detail with the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire (Image:KarlVI.02.jpg)) Return to Paris He traveled back to his home via Naples, Florence and Bologna, and arrived back in Valenciennes in the beginning of March 1749. The works he had sent home had received such positive attention that his hometown commissioned a full standing portrait of King Louis XV (Louis XV of France) from him. The marble statue was erected in 1752, and destroyed in 1792. A plaster bust of Louis XV was also made that same year. On July 1, 1758 he traveled back to Denmark in the company of Wiedelwelt. They traveled over Caprarola, Siena, Florence, Pisa, Carrara, Lucca, Bologna, Padua, Venice, and Trieste where they studied the local art collections and churches, and on through the Tyrol (county of Tyrol) and Germany. They arrived back to Copenhagen on October 6, 1758. right thumb ''Aurora Leigh's Dismissal of Romney ("The Tryst")'' by Arthur Hughes (artist) Arthur Hughes (Image:Arthur Hughes 002.jpg) '''''Aurora Leigh''''' (1856 (1856 in literature)) is an eponymous epic novel poem by Elizabeth Barrett Browning. The poem is written in blank verse and encompasses nine books (the woman's number, the number of the prophetic books of the Sibyl). It is a first person narration, from the point of view of Aurora; its other heroine, Marian Erle, is an abused self-taught child of itinerant parents. The poem is set in Florence, Malvern (Malvern, Worcestershire), London, and Paris. She uses her knowledge of Hebrew and Greek, while also playing off modern novels, such as ''Corinne ou l'Italie'' by Anne Louise Germaine de Staël and the novels by George Sand. Through Book 5, Aurora narrates her past, from her childhood to the age of about 27; in Books 6-9, the narrative has caught up with her, and she reports events in diary form. Elizabeth Barrett Browning styled the poem "a novel in verse", and referred to it as "the most mature of my works, and the one into which my highest convictions upon Life and Art have entered." Biography Born in Civitanova Marche, province of Macerata, he became tutor to the wealthy family of Lodovico Gaddi in Florence, and then secretary to Lodovico's brother Giovanni (Giovanni Gaddi (priest)). At Gaddi's death, he entered the service of the Farnese family, and became confidential secretary to Pier Luigi Farnese (Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma), duke of Parma, and to his sons, Duke Ottavio (Ottavio Farnese) and cardinals Ranuccio (Ranuccio Farnese (Cardinal)) and Alexander (Alessandro Farnese (cardinal)). birth_date Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


show skill

and sour life . ''BBC News Online'', 18 May 2001. Retrieved on 29 September 2007. Her father originally chose not to believe the reports of her disruptive behaviour and thought the school had the wrong person. Lawson reluctantly attended a private school in the Midlands (English Midlands) and later returned to London's Godolphin and Latymer School sixth form where she began to show skill academically. She


radical period

) (Florence, 1200 – Mount Senario, 17 February 1310) is one of the seven founders of the Servite Order and, as such, is commemorated on their common feast days: 12 February in the General Roman Calendar of 1962, and 17 February in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints. '''Superstudio''' was an architecture firm, founded in 1966 in Florence, Italy by Adolfo Natalini and Cristiano Toraldo di Francia. Superstudio was one of major part of the Radical period (design) Radical


poetry+playing

, Tuscany (Grand Duchy of Tuscany) DATE OF DEATH 31 October 1713 Growing up in Blagaj Fort area Katarina was said to have spent her childhood reading poetry, playing the organ, and entertained by buffo performances of actor Mrvac and travelling actors from Florence and Dubrovnik on her father's court. Legend has it that Mrvac was Katarina's first love. *Catania: Via Etnea, Corso Italia *Florence: Via dei Calzaiuoli


unusual light

. Keith Sidwell, introduction to Lucian: ''Chattering Courtesans and Other Sardonic Sketches'' (Penguin Classics, 2005) p.xii Lucian almost certainly did not write all of the more than eighty works attributed to him — declamations, essays both laudatory and sarcastic, satiric epigrams, and comic dialogues and ''symposia (symposium)'' with a satirical cast, studded with quotations in alarming contexts and allusions set in an unusual light, designed to be surprising and provocative. His name added luster to any entertaining and sarcastic essay: over 150 surviving manuscripts attest to his continued popularity. The first printed edition of a selection of his works was issued at Florence in 1499. His best known works are ''A True Story (True History)'' (a romance (romance (heroic literature)), patently not "true" at all, which he admits in his introduction to the story), and ''Dialogues of the Gods'' ( Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence

Florence

'''Florence''' ( , alternative obsolete form: ''Fiorenza''; Latin: ''Florentia'') is the capital city of the Italian region (Regions of Italy) of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 380,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1,520,000 in the metropolitan area. Bilancio demografico anno 2013, dati ISTAT

Florence is famous for its history: a centre of medieval (Middle Ages) European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time, From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy.

The Historic Centre of Florence attracts millions of tourists each year, and Euromonitor International ranked the city as the world's 89th most visited in 2012, with 1.8 million visitors.

Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 50 fashion capitals of the world;

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