Florence

What is Florence known for?


successful life

Career Ilma de Murska was a coloratura soprano (Soprano) with a range of three octaves. Her career as '''Ilma de Murska''' started in 1862 in Florence, Italy as Lady Harriet in Friedrich von Flotow's ''Martha (Martha (opera))''. Some sources claim she debuted as Marguerite de Valois in ''Les Huguenots''. Her tour of Europe followed by performing in Budapest, Spain and Italy. After a string of 42 successful performances she went to Vienna as a guest artist and sang on August 16, 1864 in Verdi (Giuseppe Verdi)'s ''Il Trovatore''. Her period in Vienna closed on August 10, 1873 in a farewell performance, in which she played Ophelia (Ophelia (character)) in the very first performance of Ambroise Thomas' ''Hamlet (Hamlet (opera))'' at the Vienna Court Opera. Her most noted roles included


previous family

of Florence where he had been preceded by a previous family member many years before, Angelo Acciaioli I. He was promoted to the cardinalate on December 17, 1384 by Pope Urban VI. He defended legality of the election of Urban VI and his successors against the claims of the antipopes Clement VII (antipope Clement VII) and Benedict XIII (Antipope Benedict XIII). In the Papal conclave, 1389 he was nearly of being elected to the papacy. Legate of Pope Boniface IX in the Kingdom


film recording

. Winlock . He was loaned by the museum to Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon to record the findings of the British excavation team at the tomb of Tutankhamun. He spent eight years photographing Tutankhamun's tomb (KV62) and its artefacts. Burton experimented with documentary film recording in the 1920s, including several hours documenting the Tutankhamun excavation. :) Diederichs started his publishing company in Florence, Italy, in 1896. He moved on to Leipzig, where he published the early works of Herman Hesse, and from there to Jena in 1904. He started publishing the magazine Die Tat in 1912. He married (marriage) the writer Lulu von Strauß und Torney in 1916. He died in Jena in 1930. Marriage In 1871, against her parents' wishes, she married American journalist and painter William J. Stillman (William James Stillman). She was his second wife, his first having committed suicide two years before. The couple had posed for Rossetti in his famous Dante pictures, though it is not certain if that is how they first met. He first worked for the American Art Magazine, ''The Crayonne''. His later job was a foreign correspondent for ''The Times''. His job as a foreign correspondent resulted in the couple dividing their time between London and Florence from 1878 to 1883, and then Rome from 1889 to 1896. She also travelled to America, and was the only Britain-based Pre-Raphaelite artist to work in the United States. 2009 IBAF World Cup In Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


independent visual

such as Carlo Carrà, Umberto Boccioni, Aldo Palazzeschi, Giovanni Papini and Ardengo Soffici, Payne; Picchione & Smith, p.204-205 as well as with the independent visual artist Amedeo Modigliani. Picchione & Smith, p.204-205 - 91 2006 Florence Italy align right 2209 - Theatre director (incomplete) Jodorowsky has directed more than one hundred plays in Paris, Mexico City


style style

(seated on a step) into one of his series on ''Joseph in Egypt (Joseph (Hebrew Bible))'' now in the National Gallery (National Gallery, London), London. Elizabeth Pilliod, ''Pontormo, Bronzino, and Allori: A Genealogy of Florentine Art'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001). Pontormo exercised a dominant influence on Bronzino's developing style (Painting style), and the two were to remain collaborators for most of the former's life. An early example of Bronzino's hand has often been detected in the Capponi Chapel in the church of Santa Felicita by the Ponte Vecchio in Florence. Pontormo designed the interior and executed the altarpiece, the masterly Deposition from the Cross (The Deposition from the Cross (Pontormo)) and the sidewall fresco ''Annunciation (Annunciation (Pontormo))''. Bronzino apparently was assigned the frescoes on the dome, which however have not survived. Of the four empanelled ''tondi'' or roundels depicting each of the evangelists (Evangelism), two were said by Vasari to have been painted by Bronzino. His style however is so similar to his master's that scholars still debate the specific attributions. Web Gallery of Art, image collection, virtual museum, searchable database of European fine arts (1100-1850) museum National Gallery (National Gallery, London) '''''Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time''''' (also called '''''An Allegory of Venus and Cupid''''' and '''''A Triumph of Venus''''') is an allegorical (allegory) painting by the Florentine (Florence) artist Agnolo Bronzino. It is now in the National Gallery (National Gallery, London), London. In 1796 he began his studies at the Royal Academy winning the Silver Medal that year, also winning the same year the Silver Palette of the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce, he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Academy in 1799 for his design for a ''National Museum''. page 74, J. Mordaunt Crook: the British Museum A Case-study in Architectural Politics, 1972, Pelican Books After leaving Soane he depended on George Dance the Younger and a surveyor (Construction surveying) called Thomas Bush for his training. From 1801 to 1805 he embarked on the Grand Tour, he studied architecture in southern Europe. Accompanied by his elder brother Richard, his itinerary can be followed by the series of letters he wrote, Brussels, as Britain was at war (French Revolutionary Wars), in order to visit Paris they disguised themselves as American (United States)s, Berlin, Potsdam, Prague, Dresden, Vienna. Visiting Italy, including, Florence, Venice, Padua, Genoa, Vicenza, Rome, Naples, and Sicily then on to Greece, visiting Corinth, Athens, Delphi, Thebes (Thebes, Greece) and Olympia (Olympia, Greece).He wrote from Athens to his father: How can I by description give you any idea of the great pleasure I enjoyed in the sight of these ancient buildings of Athens! How strongly were exemplified in them the grandeur and effect of simplicity in architecture! The Temple of Thesus (Temple of Hephaestus)... cannot but arrest the attention of everyone from its appropriate and dignified solemnity of appearance. The temple of Minerva (Parthenon)... strikes one in the same way with its grandeur and majesty. We were a month there. The impression made upon my mind... had not in that time in the least weakened by being frequently repeated and I could with pleasure spend a much longer time there, while those in Rome (with few exceptions) not only soon grow in some degree uninteresting but have now entirely sunk into disregard and contempt in my mind. All that I could do in Athens was to make some views of them...hoping that they will serve as a memorandum to me of what I think should always be a model.' pages 52-53, J. Mordaunt Crook: ''The Greek Revival Neo-Classical Attitudes in British Architecture 1760-1870'', 1972, John Murray He drew most of the ancient buildings in Morea. Enrico Tellini was born in Castelnuovo di Garfagnana in the province of Lucca in Tuscany. After a childhood in Florence and enlistment in the Italian army he enrolled in classes at a local military college in Florence. In 1901 he was promoted to the rank of major. He participated in the Italo-Turkish War and during the First World War took part in the battle of Caporetto. L'eccidio Tellini. Da Gianina all'occupazione di Corfù (agosto-settembre 1923) di Andrea Giannasi :it:Andrea Giannasi, Prospettiva Editrice, 2007, ISBN 88-7418-543-X new Mafia Provenzano proposed a new, less violent Mafia strategy instead of the terrorist bombing campaign in 1993 against the state to get them to back off in their crackdown against the Mafia after the murders of prosecutors Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino. Following the months after Riina's arrest, there were a series of bombings by the Corleonesi against several tourist spots on the Italian mainland – the Via dei Georgofili in Florence, Via Palestro in Milan and the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano and Via San Teodoro in Rome, which left 10 people dead and 93 injured, as well as severe damage to centres of cultural heritage such as the Uffizi Gallery. Giovanni Brusca was one of the most powerful Mafia leaders between Riina’s arrest in January 1993 and his own in May 1996. He was involved in the campaign of terror in 1993 against the state to get them to back off in their crackdown against the Mafia after the murders of Anti-mafia magistrates Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino. Following the months after Riina's arrest, there were a series of bombings by the Corleonesi against several tourist spots on the Italian mainland – the Via dei Georgofili in Florence, Via Palestro in Milan and the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano and Via San Teodoro in Rome, which left 10 people dead and 71 injured as well as severe damage to centres of cultural heritage such as the Uffizi Gallery. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


music based

, Archaeology, Greek and Roman Art History, History of Theatrical Arts, Comparative Literature, Byzantine History, and the History of Europe. * Florence: Open to students at all levels of Italian-language comprehension, the Florence program is noted for its art history program. * Dartington: A highly competitive, music based exchange with Dartington College of the Arts in southern England. The program is open to qualified students with an interest in experimental music and media. thumb left Painting of Robert Sherley visiting Pope Paul V (File:Robert Shirley at the Quirinale.jpg) in 1611, Sala dei Corazzieri, Palazzo del Quirinale, Rome. Painted in 1615-1616. He went first to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he was entertained by Sigismund III Vasa. In June of that year he arrived in Germany, where he received the title of Earl (count palatine) and knight of the Roman Empire from the Emperor Rudolph II (Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor). Pope Paul V also conferred upon him the title of Earl. From Germany Sir Robert went to Florence and then Rome, where he entered on Sunday, 27 September 1609, attended by a suite of eighteen persons. He next visited Milan, and then proceeded to Genoa, whence he embarked to Spain, arriving in Barcelona in December 1609. He sent for his Persian wife and they remained in Spain, principally at Madrid, until the summer of 1611. From the 1230s on, Peter preached against heresy, and especially Catharism, which had many adherents in thirteenth-century Northern Italy. Catharism was a form of dualism, also called Manichaeism, and rejected the authority of the Pope and many Christian teachings. Pope Gregory IX appointed him General Inquisitor for northern Italy in 1234. and Peter evangelized nearly the whole of Italy, preaching in Rome, Florence, Bologna, Genoa, and Como. In literature, Giovanni Verga mirrored the style of the Verismo painters. This famous, Sicilian-born writer of realist fiction lived in Florence during the same period as them—1865–1867—and his best known book, ''Cavalleria rusticana'', contains certain verbal parallels to the effects achieved on canvas by the Tuscan landscape school of this era. "Espousing an approach that later put him in the camp of verismo (verism), his particular sentence structure and rhythm have some of the qualities of the macchia. Like the Macchiaioli, he was fascinated by topographical exactitude set in a nationalist framework"— to quote from Albert Boime's work, ''The Art of the Macchia and the Risorgimento''. Standard Italian (Italian language) derives from the city speech of Florence and the regional speech of Tuscany: the Florentine influence upon early Italian literature (e.g. ''Divine Comedy'') established that dialect as base for the standard language of Italy. Life and work Lebel had his first exhibition in 1955 at Galleria Numero in Florence, Italy. After a brief period of time with Surrealists, Lebel exhibited in Milan and Paris, and then went on to exhibit at various museums and galeries around the world. He has regularly collaborated with artist and writer Arnaud Labelle-Rojoux. In 1602 he was living at Florence, and a plot to murder James VI of Scotland having come to the ears of the grand-duke of Tuscany, Wotton was entrusted with letters to warn the king of the danger, and with Italian antidotes against poison. As "Ottavio Baldi" he travelled to Scotland by way of Norway. He was well received by James, and remained three months at the Scottish court, retaining his Italian incognito. He then returned to Florence, but on receiving the news of James's accession hurried to England. James knighted him, and offered him the embassy at Madrid or Paris; but Wotton, knowing that both these offices involved ruinous expense, desired rather to represent James at Venice. In the spring of 1846, she met Giuseppe Mazzini in England, who had been in exile from Italy since 1837. Gura, 235 Fuller also met the Italian revolutionary Giovanni Angelo Ossoli, a marquis who had been disinherited by his family because of his support for Mazzini. Dickenson, 188 Fuller and Ossoli moved in together in Florence, Italy (Florence), likely before they were married, if they ever were. Cheever, 176–177 Fuller originally did not support marrying him, in part because of their different religions; she was Protestant (Protestantism) and he was Roman Catholic (Roman Catholic Church). Deiss, 97 Emerson speculated that the couple was "married perhaps in Oct. Nov. or Dec" of 1847, though he did not explain his reasoning. Von Mehren, 341 Biographers have speculated that the couple married on April 4, 1848, to celebrate the anniversary of their first meeting. Von Mehren, 300 By the time the couple moved to Florence, they were referred to as husband and wife, though it is unclear if any formal ceremony took place. Blanchard, 328 It seems certain that at the time their child was born, they were not married. By New Year's Day 1848, she suspected that she was pregnant but kept it from Ossoli for several weeks. Von Mehren, 276–277 Their child, Angelo Eugene Philip Ossoli, was born in early September 1848; Gura, 237 they nicknamed him Angelino. The couple was very secretive about their relationship but, after Angelino suffered an unnamed illness, they became closer. Deiss, 281 Fuller finally informed her mother about Ossoli and Angelino in August 1849. The letter explained that she had kept silent so as not to upset her "but it has become necessary, on account of the child, for us to live publicly and permanently together." Her mother's response makes it clear that she was aware that a legal marriage had not taken place. Deiss, 282 Even so, she was happy for her daughter, writing: "I send my first kiss with my fervent blessing to my grandson." Blanchard, 317 Modern biographers are still unclear if Fuller and Ossoli ever married. Slater, 204 Anticonformism of the new poetry Montale moved to Florence in 1927 to work as editor for the publisher Bemporad. Florence was the cradle of the Italian poetry of that age, with works like the ''Canti orfici'' by Dino Campana (1914) and the first lyrics by Ungaretti (Giuseppe Ungaretti) for the review ''Lacerba''. Other poets like Umberto Saba and Vincenzo Cardarelli had been highly praised by the Florentine publishers. In 1929 Montale was asked to be chairman of the Gabinetto Vieusseux Library, a post from which he was expelled in 1938 by the fascist government. In the meantime he collaborated to the magazine ''Solaria (Solaria (literary magazine))'', and (starting in 1927) frequented the literary café Le Giubbe Rosse ("Red Jackets") on the Piazza Vittoria (Piazza della Repubblica) (now Piazza della Repubblica). Visiting often several times a day, he became a central figure among a group of writers there, including Carlo Emilio Gadda, Arturo Loria and Elio Vittorini (all founders of the magazine). Eugenio Montale, ''Collected Poems 1920-1954'', translated and edited by Jonathan Galassi, New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1998, ISBN 0374125546 He wrote for almost all the important literary magazines of the time. * The improvement of oil paint and developments in oil-painting technique by Netherlandish artists such as Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden and Hugo van der Goes led to its adoption in Italy from about 1475 and had ultimately lasting effects on painting practices, worldwide. * The serendipitous (serendipity) presence within the region of Florence in the early 15th century of certain individuals of artistic genius, most notably Masaccio, Brunelleschi (Filippo Brunelleschi), Ghiberti (Lorenzo Ghiberti), Piero della Francesca, Donatello and Michelozzo formed an ethos out of which sprang the great masters of the High Renaissance, as well as supporting and encouraging many lesser artists to achieve work of extraordinary quality. Frederick Hartt, ''A History of Italian Renaissance Art'', (1970) * A similar heritage of artistic achievement occurred in Venice through the talented Bellini (Jacopo Bellini) family, their influential inlaw Mantegna (Andrea Mantegna), Giorgione, Titian and Tintoretto. Michael Baxandall, ''Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy'', (1974) Margaret Aston, ''The Fifteenth Century, the Prospect of Europe'', (1979) In Florence, the Duomo (Florence Cathedral)'s temporary façade erected for the Medici-House of Lorraine nuptials in 1588–1589, was dismantled, and the west end of the cathedral stood bare again until 1864, when a competition was held to design a new facade suitable to Arnolfo di Cambio's structure and the fine campanile next to it. This competition was won by Emilio De Fabris, and work on his polychrome design and panels of mosaic was begun in 1876 and completed in 1887, creating Neo-Gothic facade. In Indonesia, the Jakarta Cathedral was begun in 1891 and completed in 1901 by Dutch architect Antonius Dijkmans; while in the Philippines, the San Sebastian Church, designed by Arch. Genaro Palacios and Gustave Eiffel was consecrated in 1891. *Battle of Maclodio (1427) - Count of Carmagnola (Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola), for Venice, against Carlo I Malatesta, for Milan *Battle of San Romano (1432) - Niccolò da Tolentino, for Florence, against Francesco Piccinino, for Siena *Battle of Anghiari (Battle of Anghiari (1440)) (1440) - Niccolò Piccinino, for Milan, against Florence, Papal States and Venice, under Micheletto Attendolo *Battle of San Romano (1432) - Niccolò da Tolentino, for Florence, against Francesco Piccinino, for Siena *Battle of Anghiari (Battle of Anghiari (1440)) (1440) - Niccolò Piccinino, for Milan, against Florence, Papal States and Venice, under Micheletto Attendolo *Battle of Fornovo (1495) - Italian League against Charles VIII of France - FLR LIRQ Peretola Airport (Amerigo Vespucci Airport) Florence, Italy - Nottingham went on his Grand Tour from 1665 to 1668, visiting Frankfurt, Munich, Venice, Florence, Naples, Rome, and Paris. Horwitz, pp. 4-5. After he returned to England he was appointed a Fellow of the Royal Society and his cousin Sir Roger Twysden wrote to Nottingham's father that "every body speaks him a very gentleman, and one you and your lady are likely to have much comfort in". Horwitz, p. 6. Constructions such as the acclaimed Florentine (Florence) segmental arch bridge Ponte Vecchio (1345) combined sound engineering (span-to-rise ratio of over 5.3 to 1) with aesthetical appeal. The three elegant arches of the Renaissance Ponte Santa Trinita (1569) constitute the oldest elliptic arch bridge worldwide. Such low rising structures required massive abutments, which at the Venetian (Venice) Rialto bridge (Rialto Bridge) and the Fleischbrücke in Nuremberg (span-to-rise ratio 6.4:1) were founded on thousands of wooden piles, partly rammed obliquely into the grounds to counteract more effectively the lateral thrust. Roman period Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa, Siena, and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, and the construction of many buildings, both public and private. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the fifth century and the region was left to the Goths, and others. In the sixth century, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia. From November 1418 to 1420 he was a subdeacon at Cambrai Cathedral. In 1420 he left Cambrai again, this time going to Rimini, and possibly Pesaro, where he worked for the Malatesta (House of Malatesta) family. Although no records survive of his employment there, several compositions of his can be dated to this period; they contain references that make a residence in Italy reasonably certain. It was there that he met the composers Hugo (Hugo de Lantins) and Arnold de Lantins, who were among the musicians of the Malatesta household. In 1424 Dufay again returned to Cambrai, this time because of the illness and subsequent death of the relative with whom his mother was staying. By 1426, however, he had gone back to Italy, this time to Bologna, where he entered the service of Cardinal Louis Aleman (Louis Aleman), the papal legate. While in Bologna he became a deacon, and by 1428 he was a priest. Cardinal Aleman was driven from Bologna by the rival Canedoli family in 1428, and Dufay also left at this time, going to Rome. He became a member of the Papal Choir, serving first Pope Martin V, and then after the death of Pope Martin in 1431, Pope Eugene IV. In 1434 he was appointed ''maistre de chappelle'' in Savoy, where he served Duke Amédée VIII (Antipope Felix V); evidently he left Rome because of a crisis in the finances of the papal choir, and to escape the turbulence and uncertainty during the struggle between the papacy and the Council of Basel (Council of Florence). Yet in 1435 he was again in the service of the papal chapel, but this time it was in Florence — Pope Eugene having been driven from Rome in 1434 by the establishment of an insurrectionary republic there, sympathetic to the Council of Basel and the Conciliar movement (Conciliarism). In 1436 Dufay composed the festive motet ''Nuper rosarum flores'', one of his most famous compositions, which was sung at the consecration of the cathedral in Florence, while Eugene lived in exile in the city at the nearby church of Santa Maria Novella. Era The European Renaissance began in Tuscany (Central Italy), and centered in the cities of Florence and Siena. It later had a great impact in Venice, where the remains of ancient Greek culture (ancient Greece) were brought together, providing humanist (Humanism) scholars with new texts. The Renaissance later had a significant effect on Rome, which was ornamented with some structures in the new ''all'antico'' mode, then was largely rebuilt by humanist sixteenth-century popes. The Italian Renaissance peaked in the mid-16th century as foreign invasions plunged the region into the turmoil of the Italian Wars. However, the ideas and ideals of the Renaissance endured and even spread into the rest of Europe, setting off the Northern Renaissance, and the English Renaissance. Northern Italy and upper Central Italy were divided into a number of warring city-states (Italian city-states), the most powerful being Milan, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire: each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Warfare between the states was common, invasion from outside Italy confined to intermittent sorties of Holy Roman Emperors. Renaissance politics developed from this background. Since the 13th century, as armies became primarily composed of mercenaries, prosperous city-states could field considerable forces, despite their low populations. In the course of the 15th century, the most powerful city-states annexed their smaller neighbors. Florence took Pisa in 1406, Venice captured Padua and Verona, while the Duchy of Milan annexed a number of nearby areas including Pavia and Parma. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


poem based

, after the colour of its aged covers - struck Browning as an excellent basis for a poem, but he was unable to get any further than the basic idea and often offered it as a subject to other writers, notably Alfred Tennyson, upon which to base a poem or novel. Luckily for posterity, there were no takers, and following his wife's death and his return to England, Browning revived his old plan for a long poem based on the Roman murder case almost eight years after the idea had first struck him. thumb right 240px The Bargello. (Image:Il Bargello.jpg) The '''Bargello''', also known as the '''Bargello Palace''' or '''Palazzo del Popolo''' (Palace of the People) is a former barracks and prison, now an art museum, in Florence, Italy. An architectural painter, primarily a watercolourist (Watercolor painting), he also paints in oils (oil painting). He specializes in views of Venice, Cuba, Rome, and Florence as well as London and Dublin. Recent paintings first known blindfold event in Europe took place in Florence in 1266. The great French player André Danican Philidor (François-André Danican Philidor) demonstrated his ability to play up to three blindfold games simultaneously in 1783 with great success, with newspapers highlighting his achievement, having taught himself to visualize the board while in bed at night when he had trouble sleeping. Death He is buried in the Cimitero Evangelico degli Allori in the southern suburb of Florence, Galluzzo (Italy). In the meantime he began to collaborate with the magazine ''Vita nuova'', which published his first poems later collected in ''Myricae''. In 1894 Pascoli was called to Rome to work for the Ministry of Public Instruction, and there he published the first version of ''Poemi conviviali''. Later he moved between cities living in Bologna, Florence and Messina, but remained always psychologically rooted to his original, idealized peasant origins. -- leonardo_annunc.jpg.html AC-Annunc . and housed in the Uffizi Gallery of Florence, Italy. The wings were later extended by another artist. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


paintings quot

a compendium of of the symbolism that had been developed by Early Netherlandish masters up to this point."-- McNamee, Maurice. "Vested Angels: Echaristic Allusions in Early Netherlandish Paintings". Peeters Publishers, 1998. 148. ISBN 9-0429-0007-5 Gould's work One stands prominently in front of Ali iolani Hale (Aliiolani Hale) in Honolulu, Hawaii. The statue had its origins in 1878 when Walter M. Gibson, a member of the Hawaiian


scale performances

; However, a fashion for large-scale performances began in 1784, in a series of commemorative concerts of Handel's music given in Westminster Abbey under the patronage of King George III (George III of the United Kingdom). A plaque on the Abbey wall records that "The Band consisting of DXXV 525 vocal & instrumental performers was conducted by Joah Bates Esqr." Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


large silver

;Cassell's Chronology" Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence

Florence

'''Florence''' ( , alternative obsolete form: ''Fiorenza''; Latin: ''Florentia'') is the capital city of the Italian region (Regions of Italy) of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 380,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1,520,000 in the metropolitan area. Bilancio demografico anno 2013, dati ISTAT

Florence is famous for its history: a centre of medieval (Middle Ages) European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time, From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy.

The Historic Centre of Florence attracts millions of tourists each year, and Euromonitor International ranked the city as the world's 89th most visited in 2012, with 1.8 million visitors.

Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 50 fashion capitals of the world;

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