Florence

What is Florence known for?


connection+lead

at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, where he met Charles Darwin, William Hooker (William Jackson Hooker) and Joseph Hooker (Joseph Dalton Hooker), and James Brooke, the first Rajah of Sarawak. The latter connection lead to him spending 3 years from 1865 to 1868 undertaking research in Sarawak, Brunei and other islands off present-day Malaysia and New Guinea. He discovered many new species of palms (Arecaceae). '''Alexis Falconieri''' (


mastery quot

the Elder (a noted Sienese jurist) for the church of San Domenico is now shown at the Uffizi in Florence. For the ''Loggia della Mercanzia'', Vecchietta sculpted life-size figures of St. Peter and St. Paul (c.1458-1460), which Vasari praised as "wrought with consummate grace and executed with fine mastery." Vasari, "Vite" Vecchietta also crafted a silver statue of St. Catherine of Siena


early professional

primarily of veterans from the African campaigns of Charles V. Early Professional Years Originally an amateur entertainer, he took his first steps to professionalism while serving in the Italian army in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) under General Baldissera in 1890. A troupe of theatrical performers the general hired to entertain his soldiers did not materialise. Fregoli offered to fill in and was an immediate success. General Baldissera subsequently had Fregoli posted


theory published

. Science and technology thumb right 200px A Florence Florentine (Image:Astrology della Robbia OPA Florence.jpg) marble carving of Ptolemy (86–161), who created an Earth-centered universe theory that the scholars Jin Guantao, Fan Hongye, and Liu Qingfeng compare with Zhang Heng's theory published in 125 * 1596: William Barents discovers Spitsbergen. * 1597: Opera in Florence by Jacopo Peri. * May 24


music based

, Archaeology, Greek and Roman Art History, History of Theatrical Arts, Comparative Literature, Byzantine History, and the History of Europe. * Florence: Open to students at all levels of Italian-language comprehension, the Florence program is noted for its art history program. * Dartington: A highly competitive, music based exchange with Dartington College of the Arts in southern England. The program is open to qualified students with an interest in experimental music and media. thumb left Painting of Robert Sherley visiting Pope Paul V (File:Robert Shirley at the Quirinale.jpg) in 1611, Sala dei Corazzieri, Palazzo del Quirinale, Rome. Painted in 1615-1616. He went first to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he was entertained by Sigismund III Vasa. In June of that year he arrived in Germany, where he received the title of Earl (count palatine) and knight of the Roman Empire from the Emperor Rudolph II (Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor). Pope Paul V also conferred upon him the title of Earl. From Germany Sir Robert went to Florence and then Rome, where he entered on Sunday, 27 September 1609, attended by a suite of eighteen persons. He next visited Milan, and then proceeded to Genoa, whence he embarked to Spain, arriving in Barcelona in December 1609. He sent for his Persian wife and they remained in Spain, principally at Madrid, until the summer of 1611. From the 1230s on, Peter preached against heresy, and especially Catharism, which had many adherents in thirteenth-century Northern Italy. Catharism was a form of dualism, also called Manichaeism, and rejected the authority of the Pope and many Christian teachings. Pope Gregory IX appointed him General Inquisitor for northern Italy in 1234. and Peter evangelized nearly the whole of Italy, preaching in Rome, Florence, Bologna, Genoa, and Como. In literature, Giovanni Verga mirrored the style of the Verismo painters. This famous, Sicilian-born writer of realist fiction lived in Florence during the same period as them—1865–1867—and his best known book, ''Cavalleria rusticana'', contains certain verbal parallels to the effects achieved on canvas by the Tuscan landscape school of this era. "Espousing an approach that later put him in the camp of verismo (verism), his particular sentence structure and rhythm have some of the qualities of the macchia. Like the Macchiaioli, he was fascinated by topographical exactitude set in a nationalist framework"— to quote from Albert Boime's work, ''The Art of the Macchia and the Risorgimento''. Standard Italian (Italian language) derives from the city speech of Florence and the regional speech of Tuscany: the Florentine influence upon early Italian literature (e.g. ''Divine Comedy'') established that dialect as base for the standard language of Italy. Life and work Lebel had his first exhibition in 1955 at Galleria Numero in Florence, Italy. After a brief period of time with Surrealists, Lebel exhibited in Milan and Paris, and then went on to exhibit at various museums and galeries around the world. He has regularly collaborated with artist and writer Arnaud Labelle-Rojoux. In 1602 he was living at Florence, and a plot to murder James VI of Scotland having come to the ears of the grand-duke of Tuscany, Wotton was entrusted with letters to warn the king of the danger, and with Italian antidotes against poison. As "Ottavio Baldi" he travelled to Scotland by way of Norway. He was well received by James, and remained three months at the Scottish court, retaining his Italian incognito. He then returned to Florence, but on receiving the news of James's accession hurried to England. James knighted him, and offered him the embassy at Madrid or Paris; but Wotton, knowing that both these offices involved ruinous expense, desired rather to represent James at Venice. In the spring of 1846, she met Giuseppe Mazzini in England, who had been in exile from Italy since 1837. Gura, 235 Fuller also met the Italian revolutionary Giovanni Angelo Ossoli, a marquis who had been disinherited by his family because of his support for Mazzini. Dickenson, 188 Fuller and Ossoli moved in together in Florence, Italy (Florence), likely before they were married, if they ever were. Cheever, 176–177 Fuller originally did not support marrying him, in part because of their different religions; she was Protestant (Protestantism) and he was Roman Catholic (Roman Catholic Church). Deiss, 97 Emerson speculated that the couple was "married perhaps in Oct. Nov. or Dec" of 1847, though he did not explain his reasoning. Von Mehren, 341 Biographers have speculated that the couple married on April 4, 1848, to celebrate the anniversary of their first meeting. Von Mehren, 300 By the time the couple moved to Florence, they were referred to as husband and wife, though it is unclear if any formal ceremony took place. Blanchard, 328 It seems certain that at the time their child was born, they were not married. By New Year's Day 1848, she suspected that she was pregnant but kept it from Ossoli for several weeks. Von Mehren, 276–277 Their child, Angelo Eugene Philip Ossoli, was born in early September 1848; Gura, 237 they nicknamed him Angelino. The couple was very secretive about their relationship but, after Angelino suffered an unnamed illness, they became closer. Deiss, 281 Fuller finally informed her mother about Ossoli and Angelino in August 1849. The letter explained that she had kept silent so as not to upset her "but it has become necessary, on account of the child, for us to live publicly and permanently together." Her mother's response makes it clear that she was aware that a legal marriage had not taken place. Deiss, 282 Even so, she was happy for her daughter, writing: "I send my first kiss with my fervent blessing to my grandson." Blanchard, 317 Modern biographers are still unclear if Fuller and Ossoli ever married. Slater, 204 Anticonformism of the new poetry Montale moved to Florence in 1927 to work as editor for the publisher Bemporad. Florence was the cradle of the Italian poetry of that age, with works like the ''Canti orfici'' by Dino Campana (1914) and the first lyrics by Ungaretti (Giuseppe Ungaretti) for the review ''Lacerba''. Other poets like Umberto Saba and Vincenzo Cardarelli had been highly praised by the Florentine publishers. In 1929 Montale was asked to be chairman of the Gabinetto Vieusseux Library, a post from which he was expelled in 1938 by the fascist government. In the meantime he collaborated to the magazine ''Solaria (Solaria (literary magazine))'', and (starting in 1927) frequented the literary café Le Giubbe Rosse ("Red Jackets") on the Piazza Vittoria (Piazza della Repubblica) (now Piazza della Repubblica). Visiting often several times a day, he became a central figure among a group of writers there, including Carlo Emilio Gadda, Arturo Loria and Elio Vittorini (all founders of the magazine). Eugenio Montale, ''Collected Poems 1920-1954'', translated and edited by Jonathan Galassi, New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1998, ISBN 0374125546 He wrote for almost all the important literary magazines of the time. * The improvement of oil paint and developments in oil-painting technique by Netherlandish artists such as Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden and Hugo van der Goes led to its adoption in Italy from about 1475 and had ultimately lasting effects on painting practices, worldwide. * The serendipitous (serendipity) presence within the region of Florence in the early 15th century of certain individuals of artistic genius, most notably Masaccio, Brunelleschi (Filippo Brunelleschi), Ghiberti (Lorenzo Ghiberti), Piero della Francesca, Donatello and Michelozzo formed an ethos out of which sprang the great masters of the High Renaissance, as well as supporting and encouraging many lesser artists to achieve work of extraordinary quality. Frederick Hartt, ''A History of Italian Renaissance Art'', (1970) * A similar heritage of artistic achievement occurred in Venice through the talented Bellini (Jacopo Bellini) family, their influential inlaw Mantegna (Andrea Mantegna), Giorgione, Titian and Tintoretto. Michael Baxandall, ''Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy'', (1974) Margaret Aston, ''The Fifteenth Century, the Prospect of Europe'', (1979) In Florence, the Duomo (Florence Cathedral)'s temporary façade erected for the Medici-House of Lorraine nuptials in 1588–1589, was dismantled, and the west end of the cathedral stood bare again until 1864, when a competition was held to design a new facade suitable to Arnolfo di Cambio's structure and the fine campanile next to it. This competition was won by Emilio De Fabris, and work on his polychrome design and panels of mosaic was begun in 1876 and completed in 1887, creating Neo-Gothic facade. In Indonesia, the Jakarta Cathedral was begun in 1891 and completed in 1901 by Dutch architect Antonius Dijkmans; while in the Philippines, the San Sebastian Church, designed by Arch. Genaro Palacios and Gustave Eiffel was consecrated in 1891. *Battle of Maclodio (1427) - Count of Carmagnola (Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola), for Venice, against Carlo I Malatesta, for Milan *Battle of San Romano (1432) - Niccolò da Tolentino, for Florence, against Francesco Piccinino, for Siena *Battle of Anghiari (Battle of Anghiari (1440)) (1440) - Niccolò Piccinino, for Milan, against Florence, Papal States and Venice, under Micheletto Attendolo *Battle of San Romano (1432) - Niccolò da Tolentino, for Florence, against Francesco Piccinino, for Siena *Battle of Anghiari (Battle of Anghiari (1440)) (1440) - Niccolò Piccinino, for Milan, against Florence, Papal States and Venice, under Micheletto Attendolo *Battle of Fornovo (1495) - Italian League against Charles VIII of France - FLR LIRQ Peretola Airport (Amerigo Vespucci Airport) Florence, Italy - Nottingham went on his Grand Tour from 1665 to 1668, visiting Frankfurt, Munich, Venice, Florence, Naples, Rome, and Paris. Horwitz, pp. 4-5. After he returned to England he was appointed a Fellow of the Royal Society and his cousin Sir Roger Twysden wrote to Nottingham's father that "every body speaks him a very gentleman, and one you and your lady are likely to have much comfort in". Horwitz, p. 6. Constructions such as the acclaimed Florentine (Florence) segmental arch bridge Ponte Vecchio (1345) combined sound engineering (span-to-rise ratio of over 5.3 to 1) with aesthetical appeal. The three elegant arches of the Renaissance Ponte Santa Trinita (1569) constitute the oldest elliptic arch bridge worldwide. Such low rising structures required massive abutments, which at the Venetian (Venice) Rialto bridge (Rialto Bridge) and the Fleischbrücke in Nuremberg (span-to-rise ratio 6.4:1) were founded on thousands of wooden piles, partly rammed obliquely into the grounds to counteract more effectively the lateral thrust. Roman period Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa, Siena, and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, and the construction of many buildings, both public and private. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the fifth century and the region was left to the Goths, and others. In the sixth century, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia. From November 1418 to 1420 he was a subdeacon at Cambrai Cathedral. In 1420 he left Cambrai again, this time going to Rimini, and possibly Pesaro, where he worked for the Malatesta (House of Malatesta) family. Although no records survive of his employment there, several compositions of his can be dated to this period; they contain references that make a residence in Italy reasonably certain. It was there that he met the composers Hugo (Hugo de Lantins) and Arnold de Lantins, who were among the musicians of the Malatesta household. In 1424 Dufay again returned to Cambrai, this time because of the illness and subsequent death of the relative with whom his mother was staying. By 1426, however, he had gone back to Italy, this time to Bologna, where he entered the service of Cardinal Louis Aleman (Louis Aleman), the papal legate. While in Bologna he became a deacon, and by 1428 he was a priest. Cardinal Aleman was driven from Bologna by the rival Canedoli family in 1428, and Dufay also left at this time, going to Rome. He became a member of the Papal Choir, serving first Pope Martin V, and then after the death of Pope Martin in 1431, Pope Eugene IV. In 1434 he was appointed ''maistre de chappelle'' in Savoy, where he served Duke Amédée VIII (Antipope Felix V); evidently he left Rome because of a crisis in the finances of the papal choir, and to escape the turbulence and uncertainty during the struggle between the papacy and the Council of Basel (Council of Florence). Yet in 1435 he was again in the service of the papal chapel, but this time it was in Florence — Pope Eugene having been driven from Rome in 1434 by the establishment of an insurrectionary republic there, sympathetic to the Council of Basel and the Conciliar movement (Conciliarism). In 1436 Dufay composed the festive motet ''Nuper rosarum flores'', one of his most famous compositions, which was sung at the consecration of the cathedral in Florence, while Eugene lived in exile in the city at the nearby church of Santa Maria Novella. Era The European Renaissance began in Tuscany (Central Italy), and centered in the cities of Florence and Siena. It later had a great impact in Venice, where the remains of ancient Greek culture (ancient Greece) were brought together, providing humanist (Humanism) scholars with new texts. The Renaissance later had a significant effect on Rome, which was ornamented with some structures in the new ''all'antico'' mode, then was largely rebuilt by humanist sixteenth-century popes. The Italian Renaissance peaked in the mid-16th century as foreign invasions plunged the region into the turmoil of the Italian Wars. However, the ideas and ideals of the Renaissance endured and even spread into the rest of Europe, setting off the Northern Renaissance, and the English Renaissance. Northern Italy and upper Central Italy were divided into a number of warring city-states (Italian city-states), the most powerful being Milan, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire: each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Warfare between the states was common, invasion from outside Italy confined to intermittent sorties of Holy Roman Emperors. Renaissance politics developed from this background. Since the 13th century, as armies became primarily composed of mercenaries, prosperous city-states could field considerable forces, despite their low populations. In the course of the 15th century, the most powerful city-states annexed their smaller neighbors. Florence took Pisa in 1406, Venice captured Padua and Verona, while the Duchy of Milan annexed a number of nearby areas including Pavia and Parma. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


writings made

, and became secretary of Luigi Carlo Farini during the latters lieutenancy, but in 1865 assumed contemporaneously the editorship of the ''Perseveranza'' of Milan and the chair of Latin literature at Florence. Elected deputy in 1860 he became celebrated by the biting wit of his speeches, while, as journalist, the acrimony of his polemical writings made him a redoubtable adversary. Though an ardent supporter of the historic Right, and, as such, entrusted by the Lanza (Giovanni Lanza) cabinet with the defence of the Law of Guarantees in 1870, he was no respecter of persons, his caustic tongue sparing neither friend nor foe. He was born at Pisa, of a wealthy Jewish family, and educated in Florence; at the age of eighteen he published his essay on the life and work of the philosopher Tommaso Campanella. By the Revolution of July 1830 he lost at once his royal pension and his office as librarian at Meudon; and he was chiefly employed during the next ten years in writing vaudevilles and light dramas and comedies. A tragedy, ''Maria Padilla'' (1838), gained him admission to the Académie française in 1841. Ancelot was sent by the French government in 1849 to Turin, Florence, Brussels and other capitals, to negotiate on the subject of international copyright; and the treaties which were concluded soon after were the result, in a great measure, of his tact and intelligence. He was born at Florence, and educated at Pisa and Bologna. In 1887 he became professor of Italian (Italian language) at Padua, and in 1894 at Florence (University of Florence), where he remained until retirement in 1934. He was much influenced by Carducci (Giosuè Carducci), and became prominent both as prolific and well-read critic and as a poet of individual distinction. Nowhere can his work be seen to better advantage than at the Dresden Gallery, which contains fifteen of his paintings, twelve of which are signed. Six of his pictures are at the Louvre, four at the Hermitage (Hermitage Museum), and other examples are to be found at the museums of Amsterdam, The Hague, Rotterdam, Brussels, Munich, Karlsruhe, Brunswick (Braunschweig), Kassel, Schwerin, Copenhagen, Warsaw, Lyon, Florence and Turin. thumb 250px Mademoiselle Lange as Venus (Image:Girodet-Trioson - Mademoiselle Lange as Venus, 1798.jpg) '''Anne Françoise Elisabeth Lange''' (17 September 1772 – 25 May 1816, Florence) was a French (France) actress of the Comédie-Française and a 'Merveilleuse' of the French Directory. Her stage name was '''Mademoiselle Lange'''. Hoe was a Freemason, and died in Florence, Italy. His nephew, Robert Hoe (Robert Hoe III) (1839–1909), wrote a notable ''Short History of the Printing Press'' in 1902 and made further improvements in printing. The Leonards—a couple who never appear in the novella—offer her their 16th century villa on a hill above Florence, Italy, to stay there for some time, and she gladly takes them up on it. The old villa is staffed by two people—Nina, the maid, and Ciro, her husband, a manservant—but otherwise empty. Mary, whose parents are both dead, enjoys the solitary life up at the villa. Occasionally, she joins other highbrow residents of, and visitors to, Florence for a party or luncheon. Also, she likes driving round the countryside in her car. So far it has never occurred to her to take a lover—whether this is because she considers it immoral, because it may cause a scandal or because she does not feel the need remains obscure; what she does say is that it has been easy for her to do without one because she has never been tempted (temptation). Joly relates in his 1870 autobiography that one evening by the Seine he was inspired to write a dialogue between Montesquieu and Machiavelli. The noble baron Montesquieu would make the case for liberalism; the Florentine (Florence) power broker Machiavelli would present the case for despotism. In this manner, Joly would communicate the secret ways in which liberalism might spawn a despot like Napoleon III. He was born of a patrician family of Florence, and was secretary to the republic of Florence. He was among the defenders of the city during the siege of 1530, but subsequently joined the Medici party and was appointed professor of rhetoric at the university. The city or ''comune'' of Florence is the capital both of the Province and the Region of Tuscany; particular places of beauty or interest in the province include Barberino Val d'Elsa, Fiesole, Greve in Chianti and Tavarnelle Val di Pesa. birth_date Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


cultural program

as main books concerning his philosophical and cultural program: ''Idee. Wstęp do filozofii dojrzałości dziejowej.'' (''Ideas. An introduction to the Historical Maturity'') and ''Legenda Młodej Polski'' (''The Legend of Young Poland''). DATE OF DEATH 1911-04-31 PLACE OF DEATH Florence, Italy Life An orphan from Florence, Beccari studied at a school in Lucca and the universities in Pisa and Bologna. After graduating, he spent a few months


famous compositions

by the establishment of an insurrectionary republic there, sympathetic to the Council of Basel and the Conciliar movement (Conciliarism). In 1436 Dufay composed the festive motet ''Nuper rosarum flores'', one of his most famous compositions, which was sung at the consecration of the cathedral in Florence, while Eugene lived in exile in the city at the nearby church of Santa Maria Novella. Era The European Renaissance began in Tuscany (Central Italy), and centered in the cities of Florence and Siena. It later had a great impact in Venice, where the remains of ancient Greek culture (ancient Greece) were brought together, providing humanist (Humanism) scholars with new texts. The Renaissance later had a significant effect on Rome, which was ornamented with some structures in the new ''all'antico'' mode, then was largely rebuilt by humanist sixteenth-century popes. The Italian Renaissance peaked in the mid-16th century as foreign invasions plunged the region into the turmoil of the Italian Wars. However, the ideas and ideals of the Renaissance endured and even spread into the rest of Europe, setting off the Northern Renaissance, and the English Renaissance. Northern Italy and upper Central Italy were divided into a number of warring city-states (Italian city-states), the most powerful being Milan, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire: each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Warfare between the states was common, invasion from outside Italy confined to intermittent sorties of Holy Roman Emperors. Renaissance politics developed from this background. Since the 13th century, as armies became primarily composed of mercenaries, prosperous city-states could field considerable forces, despite their low populations. In the course of the 15th century, the most powerful city-states annexed their smaller neighbors. Florence took Pisa in 1406, Venice captured Padua and Verona, while the Duchy of Milan annexed a number of nearby areas including Pavia and Parma. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


religious work

in sharp contrast to Ingres's poverty, quickly became strained, and Ingres found new quarters. Cohn and Siegfried 1980, pp. 23, 114 In 1821 he finished a painting commissioned by a childhood friend, Monsieur de Pastoret, the ''Entry of Charles V into Paris''; de Pastoret also ordered a portrait of himself and a religious work (''Virgin with the Blue Veil''). The major undertaking of this period, however, was a commission obtained in August 1820 with the help of de Pastoret, to paint the ''Vow of Louis XIII (Louis XIII of France)'' for the Cathedral of Montauban. Recognizing this as an opportunity to establish himself as a painter of history, he spent four diligent years bringing the large canvas to completion, and he travelled to Paris with it in October 1824. right thumb 200px Portrait of Monsieur Bertin ''Louis-François Bertin'' (Image:Louis-Francois Bertin.jpg), 1832, oil on canvas, 116 x 96 cm, Louvre Although her mother was a grandchild of King George III (George III of the United Kingdom), May was only a minor member of the British Royal Family. Her father, the Duke of Teck, had no inheritance or wealth, and carried the lower royal style of ''Serene Highness'' because his parents' marriage was morganatic. Pope-Hennessy, pp. 36–37 However, the Duchess of Teck was granted a Parliamentary (Parliament of the United Kingdom) Annuity (Annuity (financial contracts)) of £ (pound sterling)5000, and received about £4000 a year from her mother, the Duchess of Cambridge. Pope-Hennessy, p. 114 Despite this, the family was deeply in debt and lived abroad from 1883, in order to economise. Pope-Hennessy, p. 112 The Tecks travelled throughout Europe, visiting their various relations. They stayed in Florence, Italy, for a time, where May enjoyed visiting the art galleries (art gallery), churches and museums. Pope-Hennessy, p. 133 Upon Gian Gastone's death on 9 July 1737, Francis Stephen ceded Lorraine and became Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1738, Charles VI sent the young couple to make their formal entry into Tuscany. A triumphal arch was erected at the Porta Galla in celebration, where it remains today. Their stay in Florence was brief. Charles VI soon recalled them, as he feared he might die while his heiress was miles away in Tuscany. In the summer of 1738, Austria suffered defeats during the ongoing Russo-Turkish War (Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739)). The Turks reversed Austrian gains in Serbia, Wallachia and Bosnia (Bosnia Eyalet). The Viennese rioted at the cost of the war. Francis Stephen was popularly despised, as he was thought to be a cowardly French spy. Crankshaw, 26. The war was concluded the next year with the Treaty of Belgrade. * Lü Guang, founding emperor of the Di state Later Liang (d. 400) * Zenobius (Zenobius of Florence), bishop of Florence (d. 417) * 25px (File:Coat of Arms of Bratislava.svg) Bratislava in Slovakia (at the time Czechoslovakia) (since 1976) Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


important stage

; ref This was the last of several major commissions by the young Raphael for Perugia, the home city of his master Perugino. He had already painted for the same church the Oddi Altarpiece (now in the Vatican) for the Baglioni's great rival family (with whom they were also intermarried), and other large works. The new commission marked an important stage in his development as an artist, and the formation of his mature style. Jones and Penny 14-17, 40-47 ref>

Florence

'''Florence''' ( , alternative obsolete form: ''Fiorenza''; Latin: ''Florentia'') is the capital city of the Italian region (Regions of Italy) of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 380,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1,520,000 in the metropolitan area. Bilancio demografico anno 2013, dati ISTAT

Florence is famous for its history: a centre of medieval (Middle Ages) European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time, From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy.

The Historic Centre of Florence attracts millions of tourists each year, and Euromonitor International ranked the city as the world's 89th most visited in 2012, with 1.8 million visitors.

Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 50 fashion capitals of the world;

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