Florence

What is Florence known for?


frequent portrayals

by Sherill Milnes, she made her European performance debut in 1982 in the title role of Rossini (Gioacchino Rossini)'s ''Semiramide'' in Rome. In 1983, Anderson debuted in Florence and Geneva in the title role of ''Lucia di Lammermoor'' by Donizetti, a part which became one of her most frequent portrayals. She also sang Die Feen by Wagner in Munich, and appeared in North America


painting portrait

''. '''Lisa del Giocondo''' (née '''Gherardini'''; 15 June 1479 – 15 July 1542 or ca. 1551), also known as '''Lisa Gherardini''', '''Lisa di Antonio Maria''' (or '''Antonmaria''') '''Gherardini''' and '''Mona Lisa''', was a member of the Gherardini family of Florence and Tuscany in Italy. Her name was given to ''Mona Lisa'', her portrait (portrait painting) commissioned by her husband and painted by Leonardo da Vinci during the Italian Renaissance. thumb alt Map of Florence with colored dots near the Ponte Vechhio Central Florence (Image:Del Giocondo-Gherardini-Firenze-map.jpg). Francesco and Lisa lived on Via della Stufa (red), about Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


period biography

as the Goldsmiths' Portico, built in the first decade of the 17th century, and the monumental fountain whose bronzes date to the same period. Biography Luti was born in Florence. He moved to Rome in 1691 where he was patronized by Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, an enthusiast for the pastel portrait. Luti was one of the first artists to work in pastels as the final composition as opposed to initial studies for paintings or frescoes. He also worked in oils (oil painting) and painted frescoes for the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano. museum Uffizi '''''The Adoration of the Magi''''' is an early painting by Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo was given the commission by the Augustinian (Augustinians) monks of San Donato (San Donato Milanese) a Scopeto in Florence, but departed for Milan the following year, leaving the painting unfinished (Unfinished work). It has been in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence since 1670. The view of the Virgin Mary as a "miracle worker" has existed for centuries and is still held by many Catholics in the 21st century. '' Miracles of Our Lady (The Miracles of the Virgin Mary) '' by Gonzalo de Berceo, Richard Terry Mount, Annette Grant Cash 1997 ISBN 0813120195 page 6–7 ''Miracles of the Blessed Virgin Mary'' by Johannes Herolt, C. C. Swinton Blandpages 2004 ISBN 1419173081 pages 4–6 The legends of the miracles of the ''Maddona of Orsanmichele'' in Florence, Italy go back to the Renaissance. ''Piety and charity in late medieval Florence'' by John Henderson 1997 ISBN 0226326888 page 196 The legends of miracles performed by the image of the Black Madonna of Częstochowa also go back for centuries, and it continues to be venerated today as the Patron of Poland. ''Pilgrimage to images in the fifteenth century'' by Robert Maniura 2004 ISBN 1843830558 page 104 ''Maximilian Kolbe: Saint of Auschwitz'' by Elaine Murray Stone 1997 ISBN 0809166372 pages 7–8 Every year, millions of Catholic pilgrims visit the Basilica at Our Lady of Lourdes in search of miraculous cures. ''Lourdes: A History of Its Apparitions and Cures'' by Georges Bertrin 2004 ISBN 1417981237 page 181 ''The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3'' by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 9004126546 page 339 Although millions of Catholics hope for miracles on their pilgrimages, the Vatican has generally been reluctant to approve of modern miracles, unless they have been subject to extensive analysis. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


stone support

alternatives such as building a provisional stone support column in the center of the crossing or filling the space with earth. The octagonal brick domical vault was built between 1420 and 1436, with Ghiberti resigning in 1433. The lantern surmounting the dome, also designed by Brunelleschi, was not begun until 1446, after his death. It was completed in 1467. He had also planned for a two-story external gallery and cornice to be built at the top of the drum where a strip of unclad masonry can be seen today. Although a portion of it was constructed on the southeast side beginning in 1508, work stopped after the visual effect was criticized by Michelangelo. The dome is 42 meters wide and made of two shells. A stairway winds between them. Eight white stone external ribs mark the edges of the eight sides, next to the red tile roofing, and extend from the base of the dome to the base of the cupola. Each of the eight sides of the dome also conceal a pair of intermediate stone ribs which are connected to the main ribs by means of a series of masonry rings. A temporary wooden tension ring still exists near the bottom of the dome. Three horizontal chains of sandstone blocks notched together and reinforced with lead-coated iron cramps also extend the entire circumference of the dome: one at the base (where radial struts from this chain protrude to the exterior), one a third of the way up the dome, and one two thirds of the way up the dome. It was the largest dome built in Western Europe since the Pantheon, and remains the largest masonry dome ever built. File:Dom Florenz Kuppelfresko.jpg The interior dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence designed by Brunelleschi (Filippo Brunelleschi) it was completed in 1436. Following ''The Boxer'', Day-Lewis took a leave of absence from acting by going into "semi-retirement" and returning to his old passion of woodworking. He moved to Florence, Italy, where he became intrigued by the craft of shoemaking, eventually apprenticing as a shoemaker. For a time his exact whereabouts and actions were not made publicly known. New York Times Biography ''New York Times'', Retrieved 27 February 2006 Day-Lewis has declined to discuss this period of his life, stating that "it was a period of my life that I had a right to without any intervention of that kind." *''Hôtel Transylvania'' (1978) is coincident with the historical Count Saint-Germain, set in the France of Louis XV (Louis XV of France), and involves his interaction with a cult of Satan-worshippers (Theistic Satanism) who threaten various men and women of his acquaintance. His principal romantic interest is a young lady, Madeline de Montalia, whom he changes at the end of the novel and who is a frequent companion in books with later settings. *''The Palace'' (1978) is set in Florence in the time of Lorenzo de Medici and Botticelli, who appear as characters. *''Blood Games'' (1980) is set in Nero's Rome. His romantic interest in Olivia Clemens, a battered wife whom he changes and who survives (and is featured in her own series of novels) until a fire in the 16th century. *c.1657: ''Old Woman Teaching a Child'' - Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia *c.1658: ''Boy with a Recorder'' - Galleria Palatina, Florence, Italy; *c.1659 ''L'écaillère'' - Louvre, Paris; '''''Lady Chatterley's Lover''''' is a novel by D. H. Lawrence, first published in 1928. The first edition was printed privately in Florence, Italy with assistance from Pino Orioli; it could not be published openly in the United Kingdom until 1960. (A private edition was issued by Inky Stephensen (P. R. Stephensen)'s Mandrake Press in 1929.) Barbara Winter, ''The Australia-First Movement and the Publicist, 1936-1942'' (Carindale, Queensland: Glass House, 2005). ISBN 1-876819-91-X. The book soon became notorious for its story of the physical relationship between a working-class (Working class) man and an aristocratic (Aristocracy) woman, its explicit descriptions of sex, and its use of then-unprintable word (four-letter word)s. Early career Annibale Carracci was born in Bologna, and in all likelihood first apprenticed within his family. In 1582, Annibale, his brother Agostino (Agostino Carracci), and his cousin Ludovico Carracci opened a painters' studio, initially called by some the ''Academy of the Desiderosi'' (desirous of fame and learning) and subsequently the ''Incamminati'' (Accademia degli Incamminati) (progressives; literally "of those opening a new way"). While the Carraccis laid emphasis on the typically Florentine (Florence) linear draftsmanship, as exemplified by Raphael and Andrea del Sarto, their interest in the glimmering colours and mistier edges of objects derived from the Venetian (Venice) painters, notably the works of Venetian Oil Painter Titian, which Annibale and Agostino (Agostino Caracci) studied during their travels around Italy in 1580-81 (1581) at the behest of the elder Caracci Lodovico (Lodovico Caracci). This eclecticism was to become the defining trait of the artists of the Baroque Emilian or Bolognese School (Bolognese School (painting)). King Manuel I (Manuel I of Portugal) authorized a trade mission in 1517 when Andrade set sail with 7 cannon-armed merchant vessels with a Muslim interpreter on June 17, 1517. Andrade had been chosen for this mission in Lisbon back in 1515, so that—as a pharmacist—he could investigate the types of pharmaceutical drugs used in East Asia (Traditional Chinese medicine) for the benefit of the Portuguese and Europe. Florentine (Florence) merchant Giovanni da Empoli, who had written a report about trade with China while stationed in India, was also chosen for the mission as the chief commercial agent between the Portuguese and Chinese. However, Giovanni would die in China during the early mission on October 15, 1517 when the ship he was on accidentally caught on fire. Dames, 211–212. Tomé Pires, a royal apothecary who had also traveled to India and written a landmark work in 1515 on Asian trade, was chosen as the chief ambassador for the mission. In the autumn of 1857 Burne-Jones joined Morris, Valentine Prinsep, J. R. Spencer Stanhope (John Roddam Spencer Stanhope) Marsh, ''Letters and Diaries'', p. 110 and others in Rossetti's ill-fated scheme to decorate the walls of the Oxford Union. None of the painters had mastered the technique of fresco, and their pictures had begun to peel from the walls before they were completed. In 1859 Burne-Jones made his first journey to Italy. He saw Florence, Pisa, Siena, Venice and other places, and appears to have found the gentle and romantic Sienese (Sienese School) more attractive than any other school. Rossetti's influence still persisted, and is visible, more strongly perhaps than ever before, in the two watercolours (Watercolor painting) of 1860, ''Sidonia von Bork'' and ''Clara von Bork.'' Both paintings illustrate the 1849 gothic novel ''Sidonia the Sorceress'' by Lady Wilde (Jane Wilde), a translation of ''Sidonia Von Bork: Die Klosterhexe'' (1847) by Johann Wilhelm Meinhold. Wildman, ''Edward Burne-Jones'', p. 66. * ''Kista'' — Assyrian (Assyrian cuisine) Cooked traditionlly in a stew and stuffed with soft rice. This dish is part of a major dish known as 'Pacha' in Assyrian. 'Pacha' is also the Persian word for the feet of hooved animals but not the hoof itself. 'Pa' is Persian for 'leg' or 'foot'. The suffix 'cha' or 'cheh' refers to something small. * ''Lampredotto'' — Florentine (Florence) abomasum-tripe dish, often eaten in sandwiches with green sauce and hot sauce. * ''Mala Mogodu'' — South African Cuisine - popular tripe dish, often eaten at dinner time as a stew with hot pap (pap (food)). In the early 15th century a competition was held in Florence for a plan to roof the central crossing of the huge, unfinished Gothic Cathedral. It was won by the artist Brunelleschi (Filippo Brunelleschi) who, inspired by domes that he had seen on his travels, such as that of San Vitale (Basilica of San Vitale) in Ravenna and the enormous dome of the Roman period which roofed the Pantheon (Pantheon, Rome), he designed a huge dome which is regarded as the first building of the Renaissance period. Its style, visually however, is ribbed and pointed and purely Gothic. It was Renaissance (a rebirth) in its audacity and the fact that it looked back to Roman structural techniques. Brunelleschi (Filippo Brunelleschi), and others like him, developed a passion for the highly refined style of Roman architecture, in which the forms and decorations followed rules of placement and proportion that had long been neglected. They sought to rediscover and apply these rules. It was a time of architectural theorising and experimentation. Brunelleschi built two large churches in Florence demonstrating how the new style could be applied, San Lorenzo (Basilica di San Lorenzo di Firenze)'s and Santo Spirito. They are essays in the Classical, with rows of cylindrical columns, Corinthian capitals, entablatures, semi-circular arches and apsidal chapels. Giovanni Fanelli, ''Brunelleschi''. thumb left Queen Mary with her son, James Francis Edward Stuart James Francis Edward (Image:James III and Mary of Modena.JPG), by Benedetto Gennari the Younger (Benedetto Gennari II). alt An informal portrait of Mary with her infant son. She is seated, wearing a regal velvet cloak edged with ermine. The boy, aged about one year, stands on a table and is held by his mother. He wears a cream satin dress with lace bonnet, sleeves and apron. Queen Mary's health had still not recovered after the death of Lady Isabella. So much so, in fact, that the Tuscan envoy reported to Florence that "general opinion opinion turns for Mary's successor in the direction of the Princess (Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici), Your Highness's daughter". Waller, p 40. France, too, was preparing for the Queen's imminent demise, putting forward as its candidate for James's new wife the Duke of Enghien's daughter. Haile, p 124. The Queen was then trying to make her brother, the Duke of Modena (Francesco II d'Este, Duke of Modena), marry the former, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici. Oman, p 96. Reuchlin soon left Basel to seek further Greek training with George Hieronymus at Paris, and to learn to write a fair Greek hand that he might support himself by copying manuscripts. And now he felt that he must choose a profession. His choice fell on law, and he was thus led to the great school of Orléans (University of Orléans) (1478), and finally to Poitiers, where he became licentiate in July 1481. From Poitiers Reuchlin went in December 1481 to Tübingen with the intention of becoming a teacher in the university, but his friends recommended him to Count Eberhard of Württemberg (Eberhard I, Duke of Württemberg), who was about to journey to Italy and required an interpreter. Reuchlin was selected for this post, and in February 1482 left Stuttgart for Florence and Rome. The journey lasted but a few months, but it brought the German scholar into contact with several learned Italians, especially at the Medicean Academy in Florence; his connection with the count became permanent, and after his return to Stuttgart he received important posts at Eberhard's court. In May 1254 Conrad died of malaria. Manfred, after refusing to surrender Sicily to Innocent IV, accepted the regency (Regent) on behalf of Conradin, the infant son of Conrad. The pope however, having been named tutor of Conradin, excommunicated (excommunication) Manfred in July 1254. The regent decided to open negotiations with Innocent. By a treaty made in September 1254, Apulia passed under the authority of the pope, who was personally conducted by Manfred into his new possession. But Manfred’s suspicions being aroused by the demeanour of the papal retinue, and also annoyed by the occupation of Campania by papal troops, he fled to the Saracens at Lucera. Aided by Saracen allies, he defeated the papal army at Foggia on 2 December 1254, and soon established his authority over Sicily and the Sicilian possessions on the mainland. In that year Manfred supported the Ghibelline communes in Tuscany, in particular Siena, to which he provided a corps of German knights that was later instrumental in the defeat of Florence at the Battle of Montaperti. He thus reached the status of patron of the Ghibelline League. Also in that year Innocent died, succeeded by Alexander IV (Pope Alexander IV), who immediately excommunicated Manfred. In 1257, however, Manfred crushed the papal army and settled all the rebellions, imposing his firm rule of southern Italy and receiving the title of vicar from Conradin. The cool neoclassical surface finish of his sculptures is charged with an eroticism that their mythological themes can barely disguise. At the Salon (Paris Salon) of 1834, Pradier's ''Satyr and Bacchante'' created a scandalous sensation. Some claimed to recognize the features of the sculptor and his mistress, Juliette Drouet. When the prudish government of Louis-Philippe (Louis-Philippe of France) refused to purchase it, Count Anatole Demidoff bought it and took it to his palazzo (Villa Demidoff) in Florence. (It has since come back to the Louvre). thumb left Memorial bust of the duc d'Orléans, 1842 (Louvre Museum) (Image:Duke Orleans Pradier Louvre RF1721.jpg) At the time of its publication, Galileo was a mathematician at the university of Padua, and had recently received a lifetime contract for his work in building more powerful telescopes. He desired to return to Florence, and in hopes of gaining patronage there, he dedicated ''Sidereus Nuncius'' to Cosimo II de' Medici, fourth Grand Duke of Tuscany, and he named the four moons of Jupiter he had discovered the "Medicean stars". Since then, his effort at naming the moons has failed, for they are now referred to as the "Galilean moons". '''Pistoia''' Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


including paintings

including paintings by Francesco Botticini, a terracotta by Luca della Robbia, an altarpiece (1785) by Zanobi del Rosso and a triptych by Lorenzo di Bicci portraying the ''Madonna in Throne with Saints''. *The ''Palazzo Ghibellino'' is the former palace of the Guidi counts. It was probably erected in the 11th century. In 1260 it was the seat of the Ghibelline parliament where the fate of the Florence's Guelph (Guelphs and Ghibellines)s was decided. In the 16th century

earthquake . Inside, the 70,000-volume royal library as well as hundreds of works of art, including paintings by Titian, Rubens, and Correggio, were lost. The royal archives disappeared together with detailed historical records of explorations by Vasco da Gama and other early navigators. Royal Alcazar of Madrid destroyed by fire on the Christmas Eve of 1734 with its gallery (Velazquez, Titian, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, etc.) Image:Counte Nicholas Demidoff.jpg thumb 250px Nikolai


poem starting

the following year. He died in London, aged 55, nearly a year before Oscar Wilde's death. Although he wrote a poem starting with the words "When I am dead cremate me," he was buried in Scotland. Representation in art He was famously depicted by several painters on the occasion of his visit to Italy. Drawings of John VIII Palaiologos by Pisanello, Florence 1439 Perhaps the most famous of his portraits is the one by Benozzo Gozzoli, on the southern wall of the Magi Chapel, at the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, in Florence. According to some interpretations, John VIII would be also portrayed in Piero della Francesca's ''Flagellation'' (Flagellation of Christ (Piero della Francesca)). A portrait (:Commons:File:John VIII Palaiologos, Sinai.jpg) of John appears in a manuscript at the Monastery of St. Catherine at Sinai. All this time Berio had been steadily composing and building a reputation, winning the Italian Prize in 1966 for ''Laborintus II''. His reputation was cemented when his ''Sinfonia'' was premiered in 1968. In 1972, Berio returned to Italy. From 1974–80 he acted as director of the electro-acoustic division of IRCAM in Paris, and in 1977 he married for the third time with musicologist Talia Pecker. In 1987 he opened Tempo Reale, a centre for musical research and production based in Florence. In 1988 he was made an Honorary Member of the Royal Academy of Music, London. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


biography+including

after its persecution by the Florentine dukes. He migrated to Italy in 1447


science opera

the Americas, of which the Florentine was obviously ignorant. The western hemisphere itself is named after a Florentine writer who claimed to be an explorer and mapmaker, Amerigo Vespucci. 350px thumb Bridges over the Arno (Image:Florence bridges.jpg) Gallileo and other scientists pioneered the study of optics, ballistics, astronomy, anatomy, and so on. Pico della Mirandola, Leonardo Bruni, Machiavelli, and many others laid the groundwork for our understanding of political science. Opera


title putting

Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


cover design

1927, he was invited to become a regular reviewer and joined the staff of the ''New Statesman''. His first review in September was of ''The Hotel'' by Elizabeth Bowen. Also in September, Connolly moved into a flat at Yeoman's Row with Patrick Balfour. He was working on various works that never saw the light of day – a novel ''Green Endings'', a travel book on Spain, his diary and ''A Partial Guide to the Balkans''. He approached Cecil Beaton to draw the cover design for the last and he received an advance for the work although it was eventually lost. However, he did start contributing pieces to various publications that appeared under his own name and various pen-names. At this time he developed a fascination with low-life and prostitution and spent time in the poorer parts of London seeking them out (while other contemporaries were seeking out tramps). At the same time he had developed an infatuation with Alix Kilroy whom he had met on a train back from the continent and used to wait outside her office for a sight of her. He then made a more positive romantic approach to Racy Fisher, one of a pair of nieces of Desmond MacCarthy's wife Molly (Mary (Molly) MacCarthy). However, their father Admiral Fisher (William Wordsworth Fisher) wanted them to have nothing to do with a penniless writer and in February 1928 forbade further contact. He represented the Vauxhall (Vauxhall (UK Parliament constituency)) constituency in Lambeth, London from 1979 until 1989, when he applied for the Chiltern Hundreds to take up a post at the European University Institute, Florence. He held the post of the Chiltern Hundreds for 5 years and 247 days the longest period the post has been held for since its creation in 1850. He currently teaches at the Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal. Born to a wealthy family in London, Wilton trained in Flanders, Paris, Rome and Florence. Like many other artists of the day, he studied antiquities, and made numerous plaster casts and marble copies of classic works – many of these later formed the collection of Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond at Richmond (Richmond, London) House in west London. speakers 200 Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence

Florence

'''Florence''' ( , alternative obsolete form: ''Fiorenza''; Latin: ''Florentia'') is the capital city of the Italian region (Regions of Italy) of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 380,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1,520,000 in the metropolitan area. Bilancio demografico anno 2013, dati ISTAT

Florence is famous for its history: a centre of medieval (Middle Ages) European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time, From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy.

The Historic Centre of Florence attracts millions of tourists each year, and Euromonitor International ranked the city as the world's 89th most visited in 2012, with 1.8 million visitors.

Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 50 fashion capitals of the world;

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