Florence

What is Florence known for?


long traditional

Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


amp life

towns of both Germany and Italy. *Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences *Nonlinear Dynamics Research Group at CSDC, Florence Italy *Interactive live chaotic pendulum experiment, allows users to interact and sample data from a real working damped driven chaotic pendulum He perhaps trained in Florence under unknown masters


poems published

number of satirical poems, published under the title of "Pansies" and "Nettles", as well as a tract on ''Pornography and Obscenity''. 150px thumb Site #114: Persepolis (File:Persepolis 06.jpg), Iran 150px thumb Site #174: Historic centre of Florence Historic centre (File:Uffizi Gallery, Florence.jpg) of Florence in Tuscany (Italy) 150px thumb Site #307: The Statue of Liberty (File:Liberty-statue-from-below.jpg) ( United States) Biography He was born at Sarzana, Liguria, where his father was a physician. Gregorovius, Ferdinand and Annie Hamilton, ''History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages'', (Cambridge University Press, 1900), 106. His father died while he was young. Parentucelli later became a tutor, in Florence, to the families of the Strozzi and Albizzi, where he met the leading humanist (Humanism) scholars. He studied at Bologna and Florence, gaining a degree in theology in 1422. Hay, Denys, ''The Italian Renaissance in its historical background'', (Cambridge University Press, 1995), 164. Bishop Niccolò Albergati was so awe-struck with his capabilities that he took him into his service and gave him the chance to pursue his studies further by sending him on a tour through Germany, France and England. He was able to collect books, for which he had an intellectual's passion, wherever he went. Some of them survive with his marginal annotations. In 1824, the bookstore owner Stella called him to Milan, asking him to write several works, among which was a ''Crestomazia della prosa e della poesia italiane''. During this period, the poet had lived at various points in Milan, Bologna, Florence and Pisa. Colonial era The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Indians (Native Americans in the United States). In 1524, Florentine (Florence) explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano - sailing in service of the French king Francis I (Francis I of France) - was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship ''La Dauphine'' and named the land around Upper New York Harbor ''"Angouleme"'', the family name of Francis I; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "Very Big River"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita - after Marguerite de Navarre - the elder sister of the king. R. J. Knecht: Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I; p. 372. Cambridge University Press (1996) ISBN 0-521-57885-X Seymour I. Schwartz: The Mismapping of America. p.42; The University of Rochester Press (2008) ISBN 978-1-58046-302-7 His son Alfonso II (Alfonso II d'Este) married Lucrezia, daughter of grand-duke Cosimo I of Tuscany, then Barbara, sister of the emperor Maximilian II (Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor) and finally Margherita Gonzaga (Margherita Gonzaga d'Este), daughter of the duke of Mantua (Duchy of Mantua). He raised the glory of Ferrara to its highest point, and was the patron of Tasso (Torquato Tasso), Guarini (Giovanni Battista Guarini), and Cremonini (Cesare Cremonini (philosopher)) – favouring, as the princes of his house had always done, the arts and sciences. During the reign of Alfonso II, Ferrara once again developed an opulent court with an impressive musical establishment, rivaled in Italy only by the adjacent city of Venice, and the traditional musical centers such as Rome, Florence and Milan. Composers such as Luzzasco Luzzaschi, Lodovico Agostini, and later Carlo Gesualdo, represented the avant-garde tendency of the composers there, writing for gifted virtuoso performers, including the famous ''concerto di donne'' — the three virtuoso female singers Laura Peverara, Anna Guarini, and Livia d'Arco. Vincenzo Galilei praised the work of Luzzaschi, and Girolamo Frescobaldi studied with him. Religion Ferrara gave birth to Girolamo Savonarola, the famous medieval Dominican (Dominican Order) priest and leader of Florence from 1494 until his execution in 1498. He was known for his book burning, destruction of what he considered immoral art, and hostility to the Renaissance. He vehemently preached against the moral corruption of much of the clergy at the time, and his main opponent was Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia). thumb 300 px The Racah Institute of Physics (File:Kaplun building Racah Institute Givat Ram 2010.JPG) at the Hebrew University (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) Givat Ram campus in Jerusalem '''Giulio''' ('''Yoel''') '''Racah''' ( Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


great+quick

went on to be another great quick change artist-first claiming to be a pupil but later set up as the 'original' Fregoli. He taught at the Conservatory in Florence (director from 1917 to 1923), directed the Milan Conservatory from 1923, and was Respighi's successor at the Academy of St. Cecilia in Rome from 1936 to 1958


life school

in the National Gallery (National Gallery, London) and was a constant student in the Life School of the Academy, even after he had become an Academician. He paid a brief visit to Paris and Florence in 1816, and in 1822 he took a longer journey to Italy, spending most of his time in Venice. From his studies of the Venetian masters he acquired that excellence in colour for which his works are chiefly known. Robinson, pp. 76-80, 95-112. The first academy of art was founded in Florence in Italy by Cosimo I de' Medici, on 13 January 1563, under the influence of the architect Giorgio Vasari who called it the ''Accademia e Compagnia delle Arti del Disegno'' (Accademia delle Arti del Disegno) (Academy and Company for the Arts of Drawing) as it was divided in two different operative branches. While the Company was a kind of corporation which every working artist in Tuscany could join, the Academy comprised only the most eminent artistic personalities of Cosimo’s court, and had the task of supervising the whole artistic production of the medicean state. In this medicean institution students learned the "arti del disegno" (a term coined by Vasari) and heard lectures on anatomy and geometry. Another academy, the Accademia di San Luca (named after the patron saint of painters, St. Luke), was founded about a decade later in Rome. The Accademia di San Luca served an educational function and was more concerned with art theory than the Florentine one. In 1582 Annibale Carracci opened his very influential ''Academy of Desiderosi'' in Bologna without official support; in some ways this was more like a traditional artist's workshop, but that he felt the need to label it as an "academy" demonstrates the attraction of the idea at the time. In Florence, he wrote his first sketches dealing with his frontline experience, collected as ''La vita militare'' ("Military Life", 1868), and first published by the journal of the Ministry of Defense (Italian Minister of Defense), ''L'Italia Militare''. In 1870, he joined the staff of the journal ''La Nazione'' in Rome, and his correspondence at the time later served as base for his travel writings: ''Spagna'' (1873), ''Olanda'' (1874), ''Ricordi di Londra'' (1874), ''Marocco'' (1876), ''Costantinopoli'' (1878), ''Ricordi di Parigi'' (1879). A new edition of ''Costantinopoli'', considered by many his masterpiece and the best description of the city in the 19th century, was published in 2005, with a foreword by Umberto Eco. thumb upright Georg Ludwig, Elector of Hanover and later George I of Great Britain, appointed Handel to the Hanover court in 1710. (File:George I Elector of Hanover.jpg) In autumn 1706 Handel went to Italy. He stayed for long periods in Florence, Rome, Naples and Venice, making frequent visits to the opera houses and concert halls. He obtained introductions to leading musicians, among them Arcangelo Corelli, Alessandro (Alessandro Scarlatti) and Domenico Scarlatti, and Agostino Steffani, Boyden et al., p. 56 and met numerous singers and performers. From these acquaintances Handel learned the essential characteristics of Italian music, in particular (according to Dean and Knapp (J. Merrill Knapp)) "fluency in the treatment of Italian verse, accurate declamation and flexible harmonic rhythm in recitative, ... drawing the necessary distinction between vocal and instrumental material and, above all, the release of his wonderful melodic gift". Dean and Knapp, p. 84 Handel's first Italian opera, ''Rodrigo'', showed an incomplete grasp of Italian style, with much of Keiser's Hamburg influence still evident; it was not a success when premiered in Florence, in late November or early December 1707. He followed this by a lengthy visit to Rome, where opera performances were then forbidden by papal decree, Dean, p. 86 and honed his skills through the composition of cantatas and oratorios. In Rome, Handel met Cardinal Vincenzo Grimani, a diplomat and spare-time librettist; Lang, p. 91 the result of this meeting was a collaboration which produced Handel's second Italian opera, ''Agrippina (Agrippina (opera))''. After this work's triumphant premiere at the Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo in Venice, on 26 December 1709, Handel became, says biographer P. H. Lang (Paul Henry Lang), "world famous and the idol of a spoiled and knowledgeable audience". Lang, p. 106 In 1824 he was appointed physician to the London Fever Hospital, and in 1830 published ''A Treatise on Fever'', which was at once accepted as a standard authority on the subject. In this book he established the direct connection between the impoverishment of the poor and epidemic fever. He was frequently consulted in fever epidemics and on sanitary matters by public authorities, and his reports on quarantine (1845), cholera (1850), yellow fever (1852), and on the results of sanitary improvement (1854) were of international importance. He died in Florence and is interred there in the English Cemetery of Florence, his tombstone sculpted by Joel Tanner Hart. In 1537, in Florence, Cosimo I de' Medici, who had become ruler of the city at the age of only 17, also decided to launch a program of aqueduct and fountain building. The city had previously gotten all its drinking water from wells and reservoirs of rain water, which meant that there was little water or water pressure to run fountains. Cosimo built an aqueduct large enough for the first continually-running fountain in Florence, the Fountain of Neptune in the Piazza della Signoria (1560–1567). This fountain featured an enormous white marble statue of Neptune, resembling Cosimo, by sculptor Bartolomeo Ammannati. Marilyn Symmes, ''Fountains- Splash and Spectacle- Water and Design from the Renaissance to the Present''. pg. 78 Landor and his wife finally settled at Como where they stayed for three years. Even here he had troubles for at the time Caroline of Brunswick, wife of the Prince Regent (George IV of the United Kingdom) was living there and Landor was suspected of being an agent involved in watching her in case of divorce proceedings. In 1818 he insulted the authorities in a Latin poem directed against an Italian poet who had denounced England, not realising that the libel laws in Italy (unlike in England) applied to Latin writings as well as Italian. After threatening the regio delegato with a beating he was ordered to leave Como. In September he went to Genoa and Pisa. He finally settled at Florence in 1821. After two years in apartments in the Medici Palace (Palazzo Medici Riccardi), he settled with his wife and children at the Villa Castiglione. In this, the most important period in his literary career, he produced some of his best known works - the Imaginary Conversations.Kref name DNB It was at this time that Lady Blessington (Marguerite, Countess of Blessington) and her husband were living at Florence and became firm friends. In 1938, Assagioli was arrested and imprisoned by Benito Mussolini’s Fascist government (Italian Fascism), due to his Jewish heritage, and his humanistic (Humanism) writing. He was placed in solitary confinement for over a month, until he was released and returned to his family. During World War II, his family’s farm in Florence, Italy was destroyed, and both he and his family fled underground. His son died at the age of 28 from lung disease, which was accredited to severe stress from the harsh living conditions during the war. Once the war had ended, he returned to his work, and began his legacy, known as Psychosynthesis. Diplomatic career In 1849 he entered the Diplomatic Service, aged 18, when he was appointed as attaché (private secretary) to his uncle, Sir Henry Bulwer (Henry Bulwer, 1st Baron Dalling and Bulwer), who was Minister at Washington, DC (Washington, D.C.). New York Times, 25 November 1891, Wednesday, Death of Lord Lytton—A Sudden Attack of Heart Disease in Paris—No Time for Assistance—His Long Career as a Diplomat in England's Service—His Literary Work as Owen Meredith It was at this time he met Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. He began his salaried diplomatic career in 1852 as an attaché to Florence, followed by Paris in 1854 and The Hague in 1856 . In 1858 he was transferred to St Petersburg, Constantinople and Vienna. In 1860 he was appointed British Consul General at Belgrade. He was born in Florence and became a Benedictine monk. He studied singing with Giulio Caccini. He served as organist in Forlì from 1613 and held a number of other posts before returning to Florence in 1640 where he was maestro di cappella and organist at Santa Trinita until his death. He died in Florence. Biography Born in Florence and member of the Servite Order, he was employed from 1521 to 1534 as one of Michelangelo Buonarroti's assistants at the Medici Chapel (''Sacrestia Nuova'') in San Lorenzo in Florence. He is known to have sculpted ''St. Cosmas'' with another of Michelangelo's assistants, Raffaello da Montelupo, after a model by the master. In 1532-1533 he produced his ''Drunken Satyr''. This sculpture was probably intended for a wall fountain, possibly situated in a niche where the water would have flown from the open neck of the satyr's wineskin. This would have been in a style very popular at the time in Rome. Due to the large number of ancient sculptures in Rome, these tended to be utilised rather than commissioning a new figure. However, in Florence ancient statuary was far less available. Montorsoli's Satyr, with its classical theme and distinctly classical style, was intended to fill the void. thumb left The Orion Fountain (detail) (Image:Fontana di Orione in Messina(Giovan Angelo Montorsoli)0.jpg) Time spent travelling He spent the next few years travelling to various parts of the world. Holmes says that initially, he travelled to Florence. From there, Holmes travelled to Tibet and wandered for two years, even attaining entry to Lhassa and met the "head lama (Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama)". Afterward, Holmes travelled incognito (Anonymity) as a Norwegian explorer named Sigerson. Then, he went to Persia, with Holmes entering Mecca and then to a brief stopover with the Khalifa (Abdallahi ibn Muhammad) in Khartoum. Finally, before returning, Holmes spent time doing chemical research on coal tar derivatives in Montpellier, France. However, Holmes was finally brought back to London by news of this Adair murder. Reduced demand has been demonstrated in a number of studies associated with bridge closings (to be repaired) or major roads rehabilitation projects. These studies have demonstrated that the total volume of traffic, considering the road or bridge closed and alternative roads which this traffic is diverted through, is lower than that in the previous situation. In fact, this is an argument to convert roads previously open to vehicle traffic into pedestrian areas, with a positive impact on the environment and congestion, as in the example of the central area of Florence, Italy. Middle Ages For at least seven hundred years, entire villages have competed with each other in rough, and sometimes violent, ballgames in England (Shrovetide football) and Ireland (caid (caid (sport))). In contrast, the game of calcio Fiorentino, in Florence, Italy, was originally reserved for the aristocracy. The aristocracy throughout Europe favoured sports as patrons as well as player. Horse racing, in particular, was a favourite of the upper class in Great Britain, with Queen Anne (Anne of Great Britain) founding the Ascot Racecourse. After that they settled for the most part in Naples, where she met the Irish writer Richard Robert Madden, who was to become her biographer. They also spent time in Florence with their friend Walter Savage Landor, author of the ''Imaginary Conversations'' which she greatly admired. It was in Italy, on 1 December 1827, that Count D'Orsay married Harriet Gardiner, Lord Blessington's only daughter by his former wife. The Blessingtons and the newlywed couple moved to Paris towards the end of 1828, taking up residence in the Hôtel Maréchal Ney, where the Earl suddenly died at 46 of an apopleptic (apoplexy) stroke in 1829. D'Orsay and Harriet then accompanied Lady Blessington to England, but the couple separated soon afterwards amidst much acrimony. D'Orsay continued to live with Marguerite until her death. Their home, first at Seymour Place, and afterwards Gore House, Kensington, now the site of The Albert Hall, became a center of attraction for all that was distinguished in literature, learning, art, science and fashion. Benjamin Disraeli wrote ''Venetia (Venetia (Disraeli novel))'' whilst staying there. In 1739 she left her husband and went abroad, and although they continued to write to each other in affectionate and respectful terms, they never met again. Edward worked away from home, leaving Mary to raise their children, and she eventually divorced him. She exchanged many love letters with Francesco Algarottim, Count Algarotti, but never remarried. At Florence in 1740 she visited Horace Walpole, who cherished a great spite against her, and exaggerated her eccentricities into a revolting slovenliness (see ''Letters'', ed. Cunningham, i. 59). As Lady Mary was then in her sixty-third year, the scandalous interpretation put on the matter by Horace Walpole may safely be discarded. She lived at Avignon, at Brescia, at Gottolengo and at Lovere on the Lago d'Iseo (Lake Iseo). She was disfigured by a painful skin disease, (smallpox), and her sufferings were so acute that she hints at the possibility of madness. She was struck with a terrible fit of sickness while visiting the countess Palazzo and her son, and perhaps her mental condition made restraint necessary. thumb Luisa Tetrazzini (1911) (File:Luisa Tetrazzini 1911.jpg) Tetrazzini was born in Florence, the daughter of a military tailor. Reportedly, she began singing at the age of three. Her first voice teacher was her elder sister, Eva Tetrazzini (1862–1938), who also was a successful singer. Tetrazzini later studied at the Istituto Musicale in Florence. According to ''The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera'' (second edition, 1980), she made her operatic debut in Florence in 1890. The role was Inez in Meyerbeer (Giacomo Meyerbeer)'s ''L'Africaine'', taken when the scheduled soprano canceled on short notice. The first part of her career was spent mainly in the Italian provincial theaters and touring in Russia (she performed to considerable acclaim in Saint Petersburg), Spain and South America. Her 1890s' repertory consisted primarily of lyric-coloratura parts such as Violetta, Philine, Oscar, Gilda and Lucia. Tetrazzini made her American debut in San Francisco in 1905. The Metropolitan Opera's general manager, Heinrich Conried, took an option on her services at that time but unaccountably failed to engage her. After great success, she went on to New York where she was a sensation, eventually working under contract to Oscar Hammerstein (Oscar Hammerstein I). Tetrazzini, Luisa at operissimo.com Defence of Arras, Djebel el Rhorab, Boulogne (Boulogne-sur-Mer) 1940, Tunis, St Omer-La-Bassee, Hammam Lif, Bourguebus Ridge, North Africa 1943, Cagny (Cagny, Calvados), Monte Ornito, Mont Pincon, Liri Valley, Brussels, Monte Piccolo, Hechtel, Capture of Perugia, Nederrijn, Arezzo, Lingen, Advance to Florence, Rhineland, Gothic Line, North West Europe 1940 and 1944–1945, Battaglia (Battaglia Terme), Fondouk, Italy 1944–1945 The family's history and fame, as well as it's putative Albanian origins, are mostly known to the Western readers from Princess Elena Ghica's memories, ''Gli Albanesi in Rumenia. Storia dei principi Ghika'' ("The Albanians in Romania. The history of the Ghica Princes"). For Dora d'Istria (Elena Ghica's ''nom de plume''), the crumbly theory of an Albanian origin of the family's founder, resurrected after several centuries of latent existence, proved to be very lucrative: it gave a new sense for her Romantic involvement in the Balkan people's emancipation struggle (Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire) (having previously adopted - and later abandon - a Hellenophile attitude, by courtesy of her Greek maternal ancestry and under the influence of her Greek tutor Gregorios Pappadopoulos), as well as in her anti-establishment attitude generated by the entrenching of the Hohenzollern (House of Hohenzollern) in the Romanian Principality to the detriment of her family who had high hopes for a return on the throne. She started learning Albanian history (History of Albania), and eventually became - since 1866 - the main advocate in Western Europe of the Albanian cause (Albanian National Awakening), despite the fact that she never knew or learned the Albanian language. Her book, ''Gli Albanesi in Rumenia. Storia dei principi Ghika'', which upon its publication in 1873 in Florence caused the wrath of her family, repudiating (Disownment) her, Liviu Bordaș, ''Operele incomplete ale Dorei d’Istria. Istoria unei ediţii la 1870'', in Caiete Critice, Bucureşti, nr. 10-11, 2008, pp. 51-56. Online at: Ghyka.net managed to forever shift the public perception towards the Albanian theory for the origin the family, at the expense of the Aromanian one. The book was preceded by a series of articles on the nationalities from South-Eastern Europe and their struggle for independence. After articles on the Romanian (1859), Greek (Greeks) (1860) and Serbian (Serbs) (1865) ethnic identity, Dora d'Istria published in 1866 the article entitled ''The Albanian nationality according to folksongs''. The study was translated into Albanian in 1867 by the Italo-Albanian patriot Dhimitër Kamarda, Paul Cernovodeanu et al., ''Elena Ghica - Dora d'Istria''. Online at Ghyka.net and was prefaced by a poem with a revolutionary content, written by an Albanian author and addressed to his countrymen, urging them to rise up against the Ottomans. Nathalie Clayer, ''Origins of Albanian nationalism'', Karthala, Paris, 2007, p.209, apud Paul Cernovodeanu et al., ''Elena Ghica - Dora d'Istria''. Online at Ghyka.net Henceforth, Dora d'Istria became popular in Albanian nationalists circles, whose members did not hesitate to use her name for gaining support for their cause. This development was accepted and nurtured by the Romanian author, and she cultivated correspondences with several notable Albanian patriots, including Kamarda and Jeronim de Rada. After the publication of ''Gli Albanesi in Romania...'', the Albanian nationalists in Italy proceeded to declare Elena Ghica as the uncrowned queen (Queen regnant) of Albania. These speculations were tacitly entertained by Elena Ghica; similarly, other members of the family were drawn into this Albanian nationalistic tradition: at the end of the century, another member of the family, Romanian writer and socialite Albert Ghica would likewise key up vocal demands for the Albanian throne. 1981 started off in February with an indoor world record over 800 m at Cosford, time 1:46.0. His world record in the 800 metre race in Florence on June 10: his 1:41.73 in the 800 metres remained unbeaten until August 1997. As of 2010, this still stands as the UK record (UK records in athletics) and makes him the third fastest man ever. A month afterwards he set another record with 2:12.18 for 1000 m, which was to last 19 years and to this day has only been bettered once. Coe was more than 1.7 seconds (about 14 m in distance) faster than anyone on record at both distances. Between these two record breaking runs he won the Europa Cup 800 m semi-final, running the last 100 m in 11.3 (the fastest ever recorded in a major international race), and achieved a personal best of 3:31.95 in the 1500 metres, despite dreadful pace making in the initial stages. In August he won the gold medal at the European Cup final, before going on to better the standard for the mile twice; first with a 3:48.53 in Zürich (Letzigrund) and then with a 3:47.33 in Brussels (Heysel Stadium), either side of Ovett's world record in Koblenz (3:48.40). He ended a remarkable season with gold over 800m at the World Cup in Rome in September, and remained undefeated in both the 1500 metres mile and the 800 metres for the entire season, as in 1979. Track & Field News and Athletics Weekly magazines voted Coe Athlete of the Year, an honour he had also won in 1979. Sandro Pertini was against Italy's participation in World War I, but served as a lieutenant and was awarded several medals as for bravery. In 1918 he joined the United Socialist Party (United Socialist Party (Italy, 1922–1930)), PSU, then he settled in Florence where he also graduated in political science with a thesis entitled ''La Cooperazione'' ("Cooperation"; 1924). While in the city, Pertini also came into contact with people such as Gaetano Salvemini, the brothers Carlo (Carlo Rosselli) and Nello Rosselli, and Ernesto Rossi. Pertini was physically beaten by Fascist (Fascism) squads (Blackshirts) on several occasions, but never lost faith in his ideals. When Quinten is 16, he decides to look for his father. Except for his mother and grandmother he has very little that binds him to Westerbork. He goes to Italy. He visits Venice and Florence but through meetings with strange people, he is forced to flee both cities. He eventually arrives in Rome. In the Pantheon (Pantheon, Rome), he is approached by a strange man with a long beard and a raven on his shoulder. He realizes that it is his father. Onno has fled to Rome and has filled his life with his original quest to decipher the Diskos of Phaistos. thumb 250px right ''Florence. View from the Boboli Gardens'', Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (File:Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot 004.jpg), after 1834. The '''Boboli Gardens''' (Italian: ''Giardini di Boboli'') are a park in Florence, Italy, that is home to a collection of sculptures dating from the 16th through the 18th centuries, with some Roman antiquities. In 1953, Pabst directed four opera productions in Italy: ''La forza del destino'' for the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence (conducted by Dimitri Mitropoulos, the cast included Renata Tebaldi, Fedora Barbieri, Mario del Monaco, Aldo Protti, Cesare Siepi), and a few weeks later, for the Arena di Verona Festival, a spectacular ''Aïda'', with Maria Callas in the title role (conducted by Tullio Serafin, with del Monaco), ''Il trovatore'' and again ''La forza del destino''. http: www.time.com time magazine article 0,9171,818661,00.html Time Magazin Article about Pabst's ''Aida'' for the Arena di Verona, August 10, 1953 Serving Italian factions In the following years, the White Company fought under many banners and switched sides many times. In 1364, it fought for Pisa against Florence. In 1369, Hawkwood fought for Perugia against the Papal forces. In 1370, he joined Bernabò Visconti in his war against an alliance of cities including Pisa and Florence. In 1372, he fought for Visconti against his former master, the Marquis of Monferrato. After that, he resigned his command and the White Company moved to the service of the Pope for a time. '''Gandalf Airlines''' was a regional airline based at Orio al Serio Airport near Milan, Italy. It operated a fleet of Dornier 328 aircraft in both jet and turboprop versions to a number of European destinations: Barcelona, Bari, Brescia, Brussels, Catania, Florence, Madrid, Milan, Paris (Charles de Gaulle), Paris (Orly), Pisa, Rome, Stuttgart, Trieste and Verona. Gandalf also had an agreement with Air France to feed the French carrier's international flights at de Gaulle. thumb left Gandalf Airlines Dornier 328 (Image:D-BGAS-Dornier 328JET-Gandalf Airlines.jpg) The English French name for Florence in Italy is closer to the original name in Latin (''Florentia'') than is the modern Italian name (''Firenze''). Much later, after his adventures in England, (until August 9, 1785), Miranda went to Venice, Padua, Verona, Mantua, Parma, Modena, Bologna, Florence, Pisa, Lucca, Livorno, Rome and Naples, (from November 12, 1785 to around March 16, 1786). He traveled on April 2, 1786, to the modern-day Dubrovnik (a vassal city of the Ottoman Empire, then better known with other, Italian name Ragusa), and then to Constantinople in Turkey (until September 23, 1786), Russia, (from September 26, 1786 until September 7, 1787, slightly under one year), Sweden, (in Stockholm as from September 10, 1787 until November 2, 1787), Norway, from November 10, 1787 until departing from Karlskrona in Sweden from December 17, 1787), Denmark (from September 23, 1787 until March 10, 1788 after being received in Denmark orders of capture from Spain no later than January 22, 1788), the Free Hanseatic Town (Hanseatic League) of Hamburg, (from (April 1, 1788 until the April 27, 1788), the Free Town of Bremen, (leaving on April 27), Holland, (from around the May 2, 1788 until around June 16, 1788), some actual Belgian towns and German cities along the Rhine river, Swiss Basel, (arrival July 30, 1788, and then again after touring German-speaking Switzerland on October 12, 1788), Swiss Geneva (arrival September 25, 1788), and France, (entry around the 3rd and 4th weeks of September 1788, two stays in Marseilles, the second departing there towards Bordeaux on February 26, 1789 via inland waterways), travels to Rouen, Le Havre and Paris around May 5, 1789, getting papers as "Mr. Meeroff from Livonia" to arrive in Dover, (England) and then London on June 19, 1789, taking lodgings at the house of his British friend, "A Barlow", at 47 Jermyn Street ). Ill-health striking O’Brien, he departed for Florence, Italy to recuperate, returning for the January 1910 general election (United Kingdom general election, January 1910), in which the Cork electorate returned eight "O'Brienite" MPs. Throughout 1910 his AFIL movement was opposed an Irish Party supported by the Catholic clergy. It returned eight independent AFIL MPs in the December 1910 general election (United Kingdom general election, December 1910) to be O'Brien's new political party. From July 1910 until late 1916 O’Brien published the League’s newspaper, the ''Cork Free Press''. Election results published by it showed Independents throughout Ireland had won 30% of votes cast. While working on ''Peasant War'', Kollwitz twice visited Paris, and enrolled in classes at the Académie Julian in order to learn how to sculpt. Bittner, pages 6-7. During this time she also visited Rodin twice. The etching ''Outbreak'' was awarded the Villa Romana prize, which provided for a year's stay, in 1907, in a studio in Florence. Although Kollwitz did no work, she later recalled the impact of early Renaissance art. ''"But there, for the first time, I began to understand Florentine art."'' Kollwitz, Kaethe: ''The Diaries and Letters of Kaethe Kollwitz'', page 45. Henry Regnery Company, 1955. thumb left 250px ''The Grieving Parents'', a memorial to Kollwitz' son Peter, now in Vladslo German war cemetery (File:Het treurende ouderpaar - Käthe Kolwitz.JPG). '''Cisalpino AG (Aktiengesellschaft)''' was a railway company operating international trains between Switzerland and Italy connecting Basel, Schaffhausen, Zürich, Geneva, Milan, Venice, Trieste, Livorno, and Florence. The company had its legal headquarters in Muri bei Bern, Switzerland, and was jointly owned by the Swiss Federal Railways and Trenitalia. Graduate campuses The Graziadio School of Business and Management, School of Public Policy, and the Graduate School of Education and Psychology are headquartered in West Los Angeles (West Los Angeles (region)) at the Howard Hughes Center next to Interstate 405 (Interstate 405 (California)). These two schools also offer programs at graduate campuses in Encino (Encino, Los Angeles, California), Irvine (Irvine, California), Santa Clara (Santa Clara, California), and Westlake Village (Westlake Village, California). International programs of the University's various schools have taken place in London, Heidelberg, Florence, Buenos Aires, Paris, Madrid, Lausanne, Johannesburg, Tegucigalpa, Brisbane, Chiang Mai (Chiang Mai, Thailand), Hong Kong and Tokyo. Gifts poured in from outside the royal court. From the Medici in Florence in 1601 came an over-lifesize marble of Samson and a Philistine by Giovanni da Bologna (Giambologna), presented as a diplomatic gift. It had been made for a Medici garden, and though it had recently been in storage, it was a princely gift (now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London). Lerma assembled a vast collection of paintings. Duke Mario Farnese (House of Farnese) sent over a Fra Angelico ''Annunciation'' (it was a little old-fashioned), which Lerma passed on to the Dominicans of Valladolid and is now at the Prado, Madrid. thumb 250px left Lerma Ducal Palace Ducal palace (Image:Lermapal lou02.JPG) at Lerma (Lerma, Burgos). Seeking solitude and the right atmosphere for composition, he went to live in Florence, where he composed his suite ''May in Tuscany'' (Op. 21). After a year in Venice Nevin made Paris his home for a year, then returned to America, where he remained until his death. Here he became an acquaintance of Austrian adventurer Christoph Rogendorf, then at odds with Vienna court. After a brief sojourn in Vienna, Držić came back to his native city. Other vagabond exploits followed: a connection with a group of Dubrovnik outlaws, a journey to Constantinople and a brief trip to Venice. After a career as an interpreter, scrivener and church musician, he even became a conspirator. Convinced that Dubrovnik was governed by a small circle of elitist aristocracy bent to tyranny, he tried to persuade in five letters (four of which survive) the powerful Medici family in Florence to help him overthrow the government in his home town; they did not respond. Marin died suddenly in Venice on May 2, 1567. He was buried in the Church of St. John and Paul. thumb left Theodore Parker's tomb in Florence (Image:Cimitero degli inglesi, tomba Theodore Parker.JPG) Parker's ill health forced his retirement in 1859. He developed tuberculosis, then without treatment, and departed for Florence, Italy where he died on May 10, 1860. He sought refuge in Florence because of his friendship with Elizabeth Barrett (Elizabeth Barrett Browning) and Robert Browning, Isa Blagden and Frances Power Cobbe, but died scarcely a month following his arrival. It was less than a year before the outbreak of the American Civil War. DATE OF DEATH May 10, 1860 PLACE OF DEATH Florence, Italy Internationally, the IS has taken part in the first two European Social Forums held in Florence and Paris, and is often active in international protests. Francesco Maria Veracini led a turbulent life. Born in Florence, the son of a pharmacist and undertaker, he was taught the violin by his uncle, Antonio Veracini, with whom he often appeared in concert. Veracini wrote a concerto grosso for eight instruments which was performed in 1711 at the coronation festivities for the Emperor Charles VI (Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor). The Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial (Roman Empire) Roman architecture between Augustus and the Severan emperors (Severan dynasty), Italian Renaissance, and French and Italian Baroque (Baroque architecture) models especially, but the training could then be applied to a broader range of models: Quattrocento Florentine (Florence) palace fronts or French late Gothic (French Gothic architecture). American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation often returned to Greek (Ancient Greece) models, which had a strong local history in the American Greek Revival of the early 19th century. For the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site renderings of details. In mid July the division joined XIII Corps at the Trasimene Line as reinforcements ahead of a set piece offensive planned to carry an advance to Arrezzo. The New Zealand division acted as guard to the right flank of the corps. Kay, p. 102 Arezzo was captured on 16 July Kay, p. 113 and the advance was continued towards the River Arno and Florence. The New Zealand Division's capture of the eastern crests of the Pian dei Cerri hills at the start of August was the turning point of the battle for Florence. Kay, p. 179 Florence was declared an open city and Allied troops entered on 4 August. Oliver Leese, Eighth Army commander wrote: Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


legendary+artistic

- edited.jpg thumb left Botticelli's Venus (The Birth of Venus (Botticelli)), stored in the Uffizi thumb Sculptures in the Loggia dei Lanzi (File:Loggia dei Lanzi 1.JPG) Florence has a legendary artistic heritage. Cimabue and Giotto (Giotto di Bondone), the fathers of Italian painting, lived in Florence as well as Arnolfo and Andrea Pisano, renewers of architecture and sculpture; Brunelleschi, Donatello and Masaccio, forefathers of the Renaissance, Ghiberti and the Della


professional years

primarily of veterans from the African campaigns of Charles V. Early Professional Years Originally an amateur entertainer, he took his first steps to professionalism while serving in the Italian army in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) under General Baldissera in 1890. A troupe of theatrical performers the general hired to entertain his soldiers did not materialise. Fregoli offered to fill in and was an immediate success. General Baldissera subsequently had Fregoli posted, not as a soldier but as a performer, to the theatre at Massowah, which he used to entertain soldiers. Fregoli became the director and stage manager of the theatre and casino. After a year he returned to Italy and performed in Rome, Genoa and Florence. In the audience at Florence was a government registry clerk, Ugo Biondi, who was so impressed with Fregoli's performance that he sought him out and asked for some lessons in how to follow in his footsteps. Fregoli generously complied and Biondi went on to be another great quick change artist-first claiming to be a pupil but later set up as the 'original' Fregoli. Commons:Category:Florence Wikipedia:Florence Dmoz:Regional Europe Italy Regions Tuscany Localities Florence


hot red

"honeycomb" kind, dark brown in color; the name comes from its wrinkled appearance, which apparently reminds locals of a lamprey fish). The ''trippaio'' set their carts in the public squares in the center, dishing out the delicacy straight from the cauldron in which it is being boiled with herbs and tomatoes, chopping it and slapping the portions between halves of a Tuscan roll; the top is dipped in the broth. A mild green parsley- or basil-based sauce or a hot red one goes


school art

, there are Louis Vuitton and Ermenegildo Zegna flagship stores operating in the city. thumb An 18th century view of Venice by Venetian artist Canaletto (File:Canaletto (II) 002.jpg). Venice, especially during the Middle-Ages, Renaissance and Baroque, was a major centre of art and developed a unique style known as the Venetian School (Venetian School (art)). In the Middle-Ages and the Renaissance, Venice, along with Florence and Rome, became one of the most


architecture combining

in the original designs for the shrine at Loreto but had had very little to do with it after that, the job having been taken on by the great medal designer Gian Cristoforo Romano, Andrea Sansovino and Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. It is a good example of High Renaissance Architecture, combining the elegance and simplicity of the classical lines and motifs with rich encrustations of statues and other decoration. The basic design of the Santa Casa resonates in the chiesetta at Macereto. The cornice

Florence

'''Florence''' ( , alternative obsolete form: ''Fiorenza''; Latin: ''Florentia'') is the capital city of the Italian region (Regions of Italy) of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 380,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1,520,000 in the metropolitan area. Bilancio demografico anno 2013, dati ISTAT

Florence is famous for its history: a centre of medieval (Middle Ages) European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time, From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy.

The Historic Centre of Florence attracts millions of tourists each year, and Euromonitor International ranked the city as the world's 89th most visited in 2012, with 1.8 million visitors.

Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 50 fashion capitals of the world;

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