First Czechoslovak Republic

What is First Czechoslovak Republic known for?


important political

date March 2008 '''Antonín Švehla''' (15 April 1873, Prague – 12 December 1933, Prague) was a Czechoslovakian politician. He served three terms as the prime minister of Czechoslovakia (Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia). He is regarded as one of the most important political figures of the First Czechoslovak Republic; he was the leader of the Agrarian Party (Agrarian Party of Czechoslovakia), which was dominant within the Pětka, which was largely his own invention. Švehla is also credited with the slogan of the Pětka: "We have agreed that we will agree." ) is a town in the Semily District, Liberec Region, of northern Bohemia in the Czech Republic. It has about 9,000 inhabitants. One important landmark is the St Peter and Paul Church, from the beginning of the previous century. The town has two notable museums: the Museum and Regional Gallery and the newly opened Museum of Raspers. The important politician Fratišek Ladislav Rieger was born in Semily in 1818. Also born here was Ivan Olbracht, a popular Czech writer during the time of the First Czechoslovak Republic. Jizara River and its left-hand tributary the Oleska River flows through Semily . Background The so-called Sudetenland was a region comprising border areas of Bohemia with mostly German speaking inhabitants, named after the Sudeten (Sudeten mountains) Mountains. Following World War I the treaty of St. Germain incorporated the area together with the rest of Bohemia into the Czechoslovak Republic (First Czechoslovak Republic). This had caused deep resentment among many Sudeten Germans who wanted to be, together with the new republic of German Austria, united with Germany. Throughout the 1930s, economic troubles and unemployment drove many to the pro-German stance of Konrad Henlein and his cohorts, who founded the Sudeten German Party. In the summer of 1938, Hitler voiced support for the demands of the German population of the Sudetenland to be incorporated into the Reich. This grew to outright demand from Hitler to annex the area, and threatened war against the advice of his Generals who were sure Germany was not ready to stand up in a new widespread European conflict. Czechoslovakia mobilized, realizing that most of their fortifications and their natural barriers were on their borders and losing these would leave them defenceless. It was under these circumstances that the Munich Conference was held. After the setting-up of the independent Czechoslovak Republic (First Czechoslovak Republic), mainly in the 20s and 30s, the importance of the Luhačovice spa increased together with an increasing number of inhabitants, which was also formally expressed by giving to Luhačovice the statute of the municipality in the year 1936. Further buildings of architectural importance appeared: the building of the present Municipal National Committee, the Palace-Sanatorium, the Alexandria Hotel, the "Fučik" and "Morava" hydropathics, and in the year 1935 the building of the Social Club. After the occupation of Bohemia and Moravia by the Nazi (Nazism) organizations the spa was closed to the Czech public almost completely and taken possession of by the Nazi organizations. After the liberation of the town on May, 1945, another chapter in the history of the spa began.


political social

developed separately in Bohemia in 1918 and in the more strongly Catholic Moravia in 1919. In 1922 a common executive committee was formed, headed by Jan Šrámek. The Czechoslovak People's Party espoused Christian moral principles and the social encyclicals of Pope Leo XIII. *The Czechoslovak National Democratic Party (National Democratic Party (Czechoslovakia)) developed from a post–World War I merger of the Young Czech Party with other right wing (Right-wing politics) and center parties. Ideologically, it was characterized by national radicalism (Extremism) and economic liberalism. Led by Kramář and Alois Rašín, the Czechoslovak National Democratic Party became the party of big business, banking, and industry. The party declined in influence after 1920, however. Foreign policy Edvard Beneš, Czechoslovak foreign minister from 1918 to 1935, created the system of alliances that determined the republic's international stance until 1938. A democratic statesman of Western orientation, Beneš relied heavily on the League of Nations as guarantor of the post war status quo and the security of newly formed states. He negotiated the Little Entente (an alliance with Yugoslavia and Romania) in 1921 to counter Hungarian (Hungary) revanchism and Habsburg restoration. He attempted further to negotiate treaties with Britain (United Kingdom) and France, seeking their promises of assistance in the event of aggression against the small, democratic Czechoslovak Republic. Britain remained intransigent in its isolationist policy and, in 1924, Beneš concluded a separate alliance with France. Beneš's Western policy received a serious blow as early as 1925. The Locarno Pact, which paved the way for Germany's admission to the League of Nations, guaranteed Germany's western border. French troops were thus left immobilized on the Rhine, making French assistance to Czechoslovakia difficult. In addition, the treaty stipulated that Germany's eastern frontier would remain subject to negotiation. When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, fear of German aggression became widespread in eastern Central Europe. Beneš ignored the possibility of a stronger Central European alliance system, remaining faithful to his Western policy. He did, however, seek the participation of the Soviet Union in an alliance to include France. (Beneš's earlier attitude towards the Soviet regime had been one of caution.) In 1935, the Soviet Union signed treaties with France and Czechoslovakia. In essence, the treaties provided that the Soviet Union would come to Czechoslovakia's aid only if French assistance came first. In 1935, when Beneš succeeded Masaryk as president, the prime minister Milan Hodža took over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Hodža's efforts to strengthen alliances in Central Europe came too late. In February 1936, the foreign ministry came under the direction of Kamil Krofta, an adherent of Beneš's line. Economy The new nation had a population of over 13.5 million. It had inherited 70 to 80% of all the industry of the Austro-Hungarian


historical political

the First Czechoslovak Republic. It was replaced by Second Czechoslovak Republic, which lasted less than half a year before Germany occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia. History The independence of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed on October 28, 1918, by the Czechoslovak National Council in Prague. Several ethnic groups and territories with different historical, political, and economic traditions had to be blended into a new state structure


592

2 013 792 139 900 637 183 85 644 70 529 42 313 '''2 989 361''' - align "left" Carpathian Ruthenia 19 737 10 460 102 144 372 884 80 059 6 760 '''592 044''' - align "left" '''Czechoslovak Republic''' '''8 760 937''' '''3 123 568''' '''745 431''' '''461 849''' '''180 855''' '''238 080''' '''13 410 750''' National disputes arose due to the fact that the more numerous Czech people Czechs


extremely small

dominated the central government and other national institutions, all of which had their seats in the Bohemian capital Prague. The Slovak middle class had been extremely small in 1919 because Hungarians, Germans and Jews had previously filled most administrative, professional and commercial positions in, and as a result, the Czechs had to be posted to the more backward Slovakia to take up the administrative and professional posts. The position of the Jewish community, especially in Slovakia


population representing

of Agricultural and Smallholder People was formed in 1922 from a merger of the Czech Agrarian Party and the Slovak Agrarian Party. Led by Svehla, the new party became the principal voice for the agrarian population, representing mainly peasants with small and medium-sized farms. Svehla combined support for progressive social legislation with a democratic outlook. His party was the core of all government coalitions between 1922 and 1938. *The Czech Social Democratic Party Czechoslovak Social


bizarre

2002 Those who speak about his fundamental conservatism or his humorist's talent have also likened Urmuz and the ''Bizarre Pages'' to Gustave Flaubert and his sarcastic ''Dictionary of Received Ideas''. Marian Victor Buciu, "N. Manolescu despre proza românească. Interbelicii", in ''Contemporanul'', Nr. 9 2010, p.17; Cernat, ''Avangarda'', p

.364–365, 384 At the other end, those who focus on Urmuz's bizarre and sad metamorphoses have paralleled his work to Tim Burton's ''Oyster Boy (The Melancholy Death of Oyster Boy & Other Stories)'' stories. Elisabeta Lăsconi, "Gotic târziu şi absurd timpuriu", in ''Viaţa Românească'', Nr. 6-7 2009 ref>


884

2 013 792 139 900 637 183 85 644 70 529 42 313 '''2 989 361''' - align "left" Carpathian Ruthenia 19 737 10 460 102 144 372 884 80 059 6 760 '''592 044''' - align "left" '''Czechoslovak Republic''' '''8 760 937''' '''3 123 568''' '''745 431''' '''461 849''' '''180 855''' '''238 080''' '''13 410 750''' National disputes arose due to the fact that the more numerous Czech people Czechs


democracy

functioning democracy in central (Central Europe) and eastern Europe. Under pressure from its Sudeten German minority (Germans in Czechoslovakia), supported by neighbouring Nazi Germany, Czechoslovakia was forced to cede its Sudetenland region to Germany on 1 October 1938 as part of the Munich Agreement. It also ceded southern parts of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia to Hungary and the Zaolzie region in Silesia to Poland. This, in effect, ended

, Czechoslovak democracy was held together by the country's first president, Tomáš Masaryk. As the principal founding father of the republic, Masaryk was regarded similar to the way George Washington is regarded in the United States. Such universal respect enabled Masaryk to overcome seemingly irresolvable political problems. Masaryk is still regarded as the symbol of Czechoslovak democracy. The Constitution of 1920 approved the provisional constitution of 1918 in its basic features

. The Czechoslovak state was conceived as a parliamentary democracy, guided primarily by the National Assembly, consisting of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, whose members were to be elected on the basis of universal suffrage. The National Assembly was responsible for legislative initiative and was given supervisory control over the executive (executive (government)) and judiciary as well. Every seven years it elected the president and confirmed the cabinet appointed


progressive social

of Agricultural and Smallholder People was formed in 1922 from a merger of the Czech Agrarian Party and the Slovak Agrarian Party. Led by Svehla, the new party became the principal voice for the agrarian population, representing mainly peasants with small and medium-sized farms. Svehla combined support for progressive social legislation with a democratic outlook. His party was the core of all government coalitions between 1922 and 1938. *The Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party (Czech Social Democratic Party) was considerably weakened when the communists seceded in 1921 to form the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, but by 1929 it had begun to regain its strength. A party of moderation, the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party declared in favor of parliamentary democracy in 1930. Antonín Hampl was chairman of the party, and Ivan Dérer was the leader of its Slovak branch. *The Czechoslovak National Socialist Party (called the Czech Socialist Party until 1926) was created before World War I when the socialists split from the Social Democratic Party (Czech Social Democratic Party). It rejected class struggle and promoted nationalism. Led by Václav Klofáč, its membership derived primarily from the lower middle class, civil servants, and the intelligentsia (including Beneš). *The Czechoslovak People's Party (Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party#Czechoslovak People's Party) ) is a town in the Semily District, Liberec Region, of northern Bohemia in the Czech Republic. It has about 9,000 inhabitants. One important landmark is the St Peter and Paul Church, from the beginning of the previous century. The town has two notable museums: the Museum and Regional Gallery and the newly opened Museum of Raspers. The important politician Fratišek Ladislav Rieger was born in Semily in 1818. Also born here was Ivan Olbracht, a popular Czech writer during the time of the First Czechoslovak Republic. Jizara River and its left-hand tributary the Oleska River flows through Semily . Background The so-called Sudetenland was a region comprising border areas of Bohemia with mostly German speaking inhabitants, named after the Sudeten (Sudeten mountains) Mountains. Following World War I the treaty of St. Germain incorporated the area together with the rest of Bohemia into the Czechoslovak Republic (First Czechoslovak Republic). This had caused deep resentment among many Sudeten Germans who wanted to be, together with the new republic of German Austria, united with Germany. Throughout the 1930s, economic troubles and unemployment drove many to the pro-German stance of Konrad Henlein and his cohorts, who founded the Sudeten German Party. In the summer of 1938, Hitler voiced support for the demands of the German population of the Sudetenland to be incorporated into the Reich. This grew to outright demand from Hitler to annex the area, and threatened war against the advice of his Generals who were sure Germany was not ready to stand up in a new widespread European conflict. Czechoslovakia mobilized, realizing that most of their fortifications and their natural barriers were on their borders and losing these would leave them defenceless. It was under these circumstances that the Munich Conference was held. After the setting-up of the independent Czechoslovak Republic (First Czechoslovak Republic), mainly in the 20s and 30s, the importance of the Luhačovice spa increased together with an increasing number of inhabitants, which was also formally expressed by giving to Luhačovice the statute of the municipality in the year 1936. Further buildings of architectural importance appeared: the building of the present Municipal National Committee, the Palace-Sanatorium, the Alexandria Hotel, the "Fučik" and "Morava" hydropathics, and in the year 1935 the building of the Social Club. After the occupation of Bohemia and Moravia by the Nazi (Nazism) organizations the spa was closed to the Czech public almost completely and taken possession of by the Nazi organizations. After the liberation of the town on May, 1945, another chapter in the history of the spa began.

First Czechoslovak Republic

The '''Czechoslovak Republic''' (Czech (Czech language) ) refers to the Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938. The state was commonly called Czechoslovakia (''Československo''). It was composed of Bohemia, Moravia, Czech Silesia, Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia.

After 1933, Czechoslovakia remained the only functioning democracy in central (Central Europe) and eastern Europe. Under pressure from its Sudeten German minority (Germans in Czechoslovakia), supported by neighbouring Nazi Germany, Czechoslovakia was forced to cede its Sudetenland region to Germany on 1 October 1938 as part of the Munich Agreement. It also ceded southern parts of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia to Hungary and the Zaolzie region in Silesia to Poland. This, in effect, ended the First Czechoslovak Republic. It was replaced by Second Czechoslovak Republic, which lasted less than half a year before Germany occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia.

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