a sharp but short-lived Depression at the beginning of the decade, New York enjoyed a booming economy during the Roaring Twenties. New York suffered during the Great Depression, which began with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 Wall
and solve the unemployment crisis. ERA, FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration), WPA (Works Progress Administration) and PWA (Public Works Administration) built and repaired the public infrastructure in dramatic fashion but did little to foster the recovery of the private sector. In sharp contrast to Britain, where private housing construction pulled the country out of depression, American cities saw little private construction or investment, and so they languished in the economic
member, 1933–39, critical of FERA * California State Emergency Relief Administration (California State Relief Administration) References Further reading * Bremer William W. "Along the American Way: The New Deal's Work Relief Programs for the Unemployed." ''Journal of American History'' 62 (December 1975): 636-652. online at JSTOR * Brock William R. ''Welfare, Democracy
Administration . Directed by Tugwell, the RA sought to create healthy communities for the rural unemployed with access to urban opportunities. Some of the RA's activities dealt with land conservation and rural aid, but the construction of new suburban satellite cities was the most prominent. In her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, author Jane Jacobs critically quotes Tugswell on the program: "My idea is to go just outside centers of population, pick up cheap land, build
capitalists for competing with the private sector. As a result, production-for-use projects that capitalists found offensive were terminated by the time the WPA began in late 1935, and no such government production of consumer goods has been repeated since.
. A congressional resolution in 1938 called for construction of a "public building which shall be known as the '''National Cultural Center'''" near Judiciary Square, but nothing materialized. Coming to America The Marienthal study attracted the attention
entirely new federal agencies, the Works Progress Administration and the Social Security Administration. Projects FERA operated a wide variety of work relief projects, including construction, projects for professionals (e.g., writers, artists, actors, and musicians), and production of consumer goods. The construction and professional projects elicited criticisms of "make-work," i.e., that little of value was produced. File:Women stuffing mattresses - NARA - 285192.jpg thumb
of the Columbia Historical Society year 1980 volume 50 page 527 In 1935, Congress (United States Congress) held hearings (congressional hearing) on plans to establish a new Department of Science, Art and Literature and to build a monumental theater and arts building on Capitol Hill (Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C.) near the Supreme Court (United States Supreme Court) building. A small auditorium was added at the Library of Congress, but it had restrictions on its use
of the Rockefeller Foundation, leading to a two-year traveling fellowship to the United States. From 1933-1935, Lazarsfeld worked with the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and toured the United States, making contacts and visiting the few universities that had programs related to empirical social science research. It was during this time that Lazarsfeld met Luther Fry at the University of Rochester (which resulted in the inspiration for the research done in ''Personal Influence'', written
dissolved Dec. 1935 superseding Works Progress Administration (WPA) jurisdiction headquarters latd latm lats latNS longd longm longs longEW region_code coordinates employees Provided work for over 20 million people budget minister1_name minister1_pfo minister2_name minister2_pfo deputyminister1_name deputyminister1_pfo
deputyminister2_name deputyminister2_pfo chief1_name chief1_position chief2_name chief2_position agency_type parent_department parent_agency child1_agency Civil Works Administration (CWA) child2_agency keydocument1 website footnotes map map_width map_caption
thumb 270px FERA camps for unemployed women in Arcola, Pennsylvania (Image:FERA camp in Pennsylvania.jpg); "Second Camp", ca. 07 1934. '''Federal Emergency Relief Administration''' ('''FERA''') was the new name given by the Roosevelt Administration to the '''Emergency Relief Administration''' ('''ERA''') which President Herbert Hoover had created in 1932. FERA was established as a result of the Federal Emergency Relief Act and was replaced in 1935 by the Works Progress
. When Roosevelt's FERA became law in 1933 Nebraska took part. Rowland Haynes, the state's emergency relief director, was the major force in implementing such national programs as the FERA and CWA. Robert L. Cochran, who became governor in 1935, was a "cautious progressive" who sought federal assistance and placed Nebraska among the first American states to adopt a social security law. The enduring impact of FERA and social security in Nebraska was to shift responsibility for social
thumb 270px FERA camps for unemployed women in Arcola, Pennsylvania (Image:FERA camp in Pennsylvania.jpg); "Second Camp", ca. 07 1934. '''Federal Emergency Relief Administration''' ('''FERA''') was the new name given by the Roosevelt Administration to the '''Emergency Relief Administration''' ('''ERA''') which President Herbert Hoover had created in 1932. FERA was established as a result of the Federal Emergency Relief Act and was replaced in 1935 by the Works Progress Administration (WPA).
FERA under Hoover gave loans to the states to operate relief programs. One of these, the New York state program TERA (Temporary Emergency Relief Administration), was set up in 1931 and headed by Harry Hopkins, a close adviser to Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt asked Congress to set up FERA—which gave grants to the states for the same purpose—in May 1933, and appointed Hopkins to head it. Along with the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) it was the first relief operation under the New Deal. Basically, it gave grants and loans to states.
FERA's main goal was alleviating household unemployment by creating new unskilled jobs in local and state government. Jobs were more expensive than direct cash payments (called "the dole"), but were psychologically more beneficial to the unemployed, who wanted any sort of job, for self-esteem, to play the role of male breadwinner. From May 1933 until it closed in December, 1935, FERA gave states and localities $3.1 billion. FERA provided work for over 20 million people and developed facilities on public lands across the country.
Faced with continued high unemployment and concerns for public welfare during the coming winter of 1933-34, FERA instituted the Civil Works Administration (CWA) as a $400 million short-term measure to get people to work. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration was terminated in 1935 and its work taken over by two entirely new federal agencies, the Works Progress Administration and the Social Security Administration.