Etruscan civilization

What is Etruscan civilization known for?


regular architecture

in the introduction to their Works in Architecture, which appeared in 1773. Many years later Wyatt himself told George III that "there had been no regular architecture since Sir William Chambers – that when he came from Italy he found the public taste corrupted by the Adams, and he was obliged to comply with it". Much of Wyatt's classical work is, in fact, in a chastened Adam manner with ornaments in Coade stone and "Etruscan (Etruscan civilization)" medallions


population+called

Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) and Venetians (Adriatic Veneti) inhabited the area, followed by the Romans (Roman Empire). History In the 2nd millennium BC the province was occupied by a population called Umbri, who founded the cities of Ameria (Amelia (Italy)), Narnia Nahars (Narni), Otricolum (Otricoli) and Interamna Nahars (Terni). With the development of the Etruscan civilization, their territory was reduced to the valleys of the Black and Velino. One


research partnership

in Tuscany * Hypogeum of the Volumnis digital media archive (creative commons-licensed photos, laser scans, panoramas), data from a University of Ferrara CyArk research partnership Category:Etruscans Category:Former confederations Latinus, king of the Latins, welcomed Aeneas' army of exiled Trojans (Trojan War) and let them reorganize their lives in Latium. His daughter Lavinia had been


architecture made

. The Etruscans absorbed Greek influence, apparent in many aspects closely related to architecture. The Etruscans had much influence over Roman architecture. Etruscan architecture made lasting contributions to the architecture of Italy, which were adopted


major solo

Rome Roman frescoes and sarcophagi which would influence her later work. Finding a more varied, inclusive and international atmosphere in Europe than in the New York artworld of the time, Spero and her family moved to Paris, living there from 1959 to 1964. Spero’s third son was born in Paris, and the artist had major solo exhibitions in Paris at Galerie Breteau in 1962, 1964, and 1968. During this period, Spero painted a series titled ''Black Paintings'' depicting mythic themes such as mothers and children, lovers, prostitutes and hybrid, human-animal forms. Lunigiana covers an area from the Apennines (Apennine Mountains) to the Magra river, belonging in part to Tuscany and in part to Liguria. It takes its name from Luni (Luni, Italy), a Roman town, perhaps pre-dated by an Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) settlement, which became the principal urban center on the northern Tuscan coast. Some contend that the name Luni refers to the moon, a celestial body whose beauty is made all the more attractive when framed by the white-peaked Apuan Alps and high Apennine mountains. Others maintain, though little or no evidence exists, that the region was populated by those who worshiped the moon. As if to unite history and myth, the symbol of contemporary Lunigiana is a crescent moon held in the claw of a bear. The earliest inhabitants of this region may have been the Apuani (from which is derived the name of the Apuan mountain chain), an ancient Ligurian people, as well as Etruscans who may have inhabited towns along the coast and even the hamlets near in-land trade routes. Curiously, while evidence of both Roman and later Medieval settlements are ample, the wondrously appealing stele, late pre-historic and Bronze Age stone statues which have been found in large numbers in this part of Tuscany, remain the symbol of this ancient land. They are the first expression of the art and, perhaps, of the religious beliefs of the peoples that inhabited northern Tuscany from the Bronze Age to start of the Roman Empire. The appellation ''de' Tirreni'' given to Cava is due to its identification, still unconfirmed, with the ancient Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) town of Marcina, mentioned by Strabo. The valley was certainly inhabited during the Roman Age: the discovery of several archeological relics dating back to that period stands as evidence. thumb 250px A kylix (drinking cup) kylix (File:Museo di Spina sala 3, Ferrara - Pittore di Pentesilea - Zeus e Ganimede.jpg) from Spina. '''Spina''' was an Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) port city, established by the end of the 6th c. BCE, A.J. Graham, ''Colony and Mother City in Ancient Greece'', 2009 (originally published in 1964). p.6. on the Adriatic (Adriatic Sea) at the ancient mouth of the Po (Po River), south of the lagoon which would become the site of Venice. The site of Spina was lost until modern times, when drainage schemes in the delta (river delta) of the Po River in 1922 first officially revealed a necropolis of Etruscan Spina about four miles west of the commune of Comacchio. The fishermen of Comacchio, it soon turned out, had been the source of "Etruscan" vases (actually originally imported from Greece) and other artifacts that had appeared for years on the archeological black market. The archaeological finds from the burials of Spina were discovered with the help of aerial photography. Aside from the white reflective surfaces of the modern drainage channels there appeared in the photographs a ghostly network of dark lines and light rectangles, the former indicating richer vegetation on the sites of ancient canals. Thus the layout of the ancient trading port was revealed, now miles from the sea, due to the sedimentation of the Po delta. Spina may have had a Hellenised (Hellenization) indigenous population. Mogens Herman Hansen and Thomas Heine Nielsen (2004). ''An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis''. ISBN 0198140991. In the index, p. 1390, Spina is labelled "Hell.?", where "Hell." stands for Hellenised indigenous community. History The location of the city was already occupied in the 8th century BC, and neighbouring Pizzo in the Bronze Age. Nepet then became Roman (Ancient Rome) before 386 BC, when Livy speaks of it and Sutrium as the keys of Etruria. In that year it was surrendered to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization)s and recovered by the Romans, who beheaded the authors of its surrender. It became a colony in 383 BC. It was among the twelve Latin colonies that refused further help to Rome in 209 BC. After the Social War (Social War (91–88 BC)) it became a municipium. It is hardly mentioned in imperial times, except as a station on the road (Via Amerina) which diverged from the Via Cassia near the modern Settevene and ran to Amelia and Todi. Ancient Grecian (Pottery of ancient Greece) and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) ceramics are renowned for their figurative painting, especially in the black-figure (Black-figure pottery) and red-figure (Red-figure pottery) styles. Moulded Greek terracotta figurines, especially those from Tanagra (Tanagra figurine), were small figures, often religious but later including many of everyday genre figures, apparently used purely for decoration. History Records in Italian courts of an investigation indicate that the krater was looted (Looted art) from an Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) tomb in the Greppe Sant'Angelo near Cerveteri in December 1971. The krater was sold to the Metropolitan Museum of Art by Robert Hecht Jr., an American antiquities dealer living in Rome, for US$ (United States dollar)1.2 million on November 10, 1972. Hecht, who is currently on trial for allegations of trafficking in illicit antiquities, claimed to have acquired the krater from Dikran Sarrafian, a Lebanese (Lebanon) dealer, whose family had been in possession of the piece since 1920. Evidence suggests that Hecht may have purchased the krater in 1972 from Giacomo Medici (Giacomo Medici (art dealer)), an Italian dealer who was convicted of selling stolen art in 2005. Hecht denies the charges. Euphronios Krater Returned - Art - New York Times History Orbetello was an ancient Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) settlement, which in 280 BC passed under the control of the Romans (ancient Rome), who had founded their colony of Cosa (near the modern Ansedonia). It is thought that there was already a Villanovan (Villanova culture) settlement at the confluence of the Mugnone with the River Arno between the 10th and the 8th century BC. Between the 7th and 6th centuries BC Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) had discovered and used the ford of the Arno near this confluence, closer to the hills of the North and South. A bridge or a ferry was probably constructed here, about ten metres away from the current Ponte Vecchio, but closer to the ford itself. The Etruscans, however, preferred not to build cities on the plain for reasons of defence and instead settled about six kilometres away on a hill. This settlement was a precursor of the fortified centre of Vipsul (today's Fiesole), which was later connected by road to all the major Etruscan centres of Emilia (Emilia (region of Italy)) to the North and Lazio to the South. Luca Mandelli, a historian of the 17th century, ascribes its foundation to settlers from the Greek city of Tegea, in the Peloponnese. In the late 19th century Giacomo Racioppi attributed its foundation to Oscan-Sabellian tribes driven out from their lands as a result of the expansion of the Etruscan civilization. Lately they say '''Tegianum''' was built by Lucanians early in the 4th century BC, and later was a municipal town of Lucania, made into a colony by Emperor Nero. The '''Battle of the Cremera''' was fought between the Roman Republic and the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) city of Veii, in 477 BC (276 AUC). Archaeological excavations have brought to light Gaulish, Gallo-Roman and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) remains. In the outskirts of the village there are ruins of a fortification, probably of Lombard (Lombards) origin. The '''Tampa Museum of Art''' is located in downtown (Downtown Tampa) Tampa (Tampa, Florida), Florida. It exhibits 20th-century fine art, as well as Greek (Art in Ancient Greece), Roman (Ancient Rome), and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) antiquities. The museum was founded in 1979 and debuted an innovative new building in 2010 on the banks of Hillsborough River (Hillsborough River (Florida)) just north of its original site. The current location is part of Tampa's Riverwalk (Tampa Riverwalk) and the Waterfront Arts District along with the Glazer Children's Museum and the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts and includes a gift shop and SONO Cafe, a restaurant operated by Mise En Place. However, the main focus of the galleries is on arts, craft and wares, including exhibits on: Irish coins and currency, silverware, furniture, folklife and costumes, ceramics, glassware, etc. Included are artifacts such as Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) vases, gauntlets worn by King William (William III of England) at Battle of the Boyne, a life belt and oar salvaged from the wreck of the RMS Lusitania and a pocket book carried by Wolfe Tone whilst imprisoned in the Barracks. (''See above''). Claudius had particular affinities with Lugdunum (Lyon). He was born there, and it housed the Imperial cult centre: as both Emperor and a "native" of the city, he was probably seen as its patron. He made the inscribed speech before the Roman Senate in 48 AD. It was a proposal to allow monied, landed citizens from further Gaul to enter the Senatorial class, and thus the Senate itself (Roman Senate), once they had reached the necessary level of wealth. His argument evoked the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) origins of his own family, the Claudius (gens) (gens Claudia), and the recent promotion to senatorial rank of men from Gallia Narbonensis. Europe In Europe, bronze mirrors from the Bronze Age have been discovered from various places, including Britain (Great Britain) and Italy. A notable example includes the Birdlip mirror. Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) mirrors were produced from between the 6th and 2nd centuries BCE. Celtic mirrors in Britain (Prehistoric Britain) were produced up until the Roman (Roman Empire) conquest. Origin The trumpet is found in many early civilizations and therefore makes it difficult to discern when and where the long, straight trumpet design found in the salpinx originated. References to the salpinx are found frequently in Greek literature and art. Early descriptions of the sound of the salpinx can be found in Homer’s ''Iliad'' (9th or 8th century BC), however, this Archaic (Ancient_Greece#Archaic_period) reference is more unique and frequent references are not found until the Classical period (Classical Greece). Homer, ''Iliad,'' 18. 219. McKinnon Similar instruments can be found in Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, though the salpinx is most closely related to the Egyptian version. References to the salpinx in classical literature include mention of the instrument as ''tyrrhene'' Aeschylus, ''Eumenides'', 458 BC. ''O herald, make proclaim, bid all men come. Then let the shrill blast of the Tyrrhene trump, Fulfilled with mortal breath, thro' the wide air Peal a loud summons, bidding all men heed.'' a derivative of ''Tyrrhenoi'', an exonym often employed by the Greeks as an allusion to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) people. Bronze instruments were important among the Etruscans and as a people they were held in high regard by the Greeks for their musical contributions. The salpinx as an Etruscan invention is thus supported by the Greeks and various descriptions can be found among the authors Aeschylus, Pollux (Julius Pollux), and Sophocles. It is likely that the salpinx was introduced to the Greeks in some way through the Etruscans, however, scattered references to the salpinx prior to Greek contact with the Etruscans, as well as the myriad salpinx type instruments described by Eustathius of Thessalonia Nikos Xanthoulis, "The Salpinx in Greek Antiquity," ''International Trumpet Guild Journal', October 2006, 41 , suggests some small level of uncertainty in regard to whether or not the instrument came to the Greeks directly from the Etruscans or through some intermediary source.


cultural visual

&q %22but%20only%20with%20the%20arrival%20of%20the%20Etruscans%20did%20anything%20like%20an%20urban%20center%20begin%20to%20develop.%22&f false p.92 : "The later Romans' own grandiose picture of the early days of their city was intended to glamorize its origins, but only with the arrival of the Etruscans did anything like an urban center begin to develop." Hughes. ''Rome: A Cultural, Visual, and Personal History'' (2012), p.24: "Some Roman technical


rome

inscriptions (c. 700 BC) Helmut Rix, "Etruscan," in ''The Ancient Languages of Europe'', ed. Roger D. Woodard (Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 141-164. until its assimilation into the Roman Republic in the late 4th century BC (Roman-Etruscan Wars). At its maximum extent, during the foundational period of Rome and the Roman kingdom, it flourished in three confederacies of cities

, the political destiny of Italy passed out of Etruscan hands. M. Cary and H. H. Scullard, ''A History of Rome'' (3rd ed., 1979), p. 28. ISBN 0-312-38395-9. The latest mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) study (2013) shows that Etruscans appear to fall very close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations. http: www.plosone.org article info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0055519 ref

and Campania weakened, and it was taken over by Romans and Samnites. In the 4th century, Etruria saw a Gallic (Gaul) invasion end its influence over the Po (Po River) valley and the Adriatic (Adriatic Sea) coast. Meanwhile, Rome (Ancient Rome) had started annexing Etruscan cities. This led to the loss of the Northern Etruscan provinces. Etruria was conquered by Rome in the 3rd century BC. Etruscan


amp political

;. According to folklorist Roma Lister, a contemporary and friend of Leland's, Maddalena's real name was Margherita, and she was a "witch" from Florence who claimed a family lineage from the Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) and knowledge of ancient rituals. quoted


major ancient

peninsula, including the Etruscans (Etruscan civilization). Haywood, 1971. pages 350-358. The last threat to Roman hegemony in Italy came when Tarentum (Taranto), a major Greek (Ancient Greece) colony, enlisted the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus in 281 BC, but this effort failed as well. Pyrrhus of Epirus (2) and Pyrrhus of Epirus (3) by Jona Lendering


modern playing

on their wondrous, miraculous art. Magically, Daedalus could fly, and magically Medea was able to rejuvenate the old (the scene on the jug seems to show her doing just this)". Fox 2009:189. The image of Daedalus demonstrates that he was already well known in the West. * Sortilege (cleromancy). This consists of the casting of lots, or ''sortes (Sortes (ancient Rome))'', whether with sticks, stones, bones, beans, coins, or some other item. Modern playing cards and board games developed from this type of divination. * Augury. Divination that ranks a set of given possibilities. It can be qualitative (such as shapes, proximities, etc.): for example, dowsing (a form of rhabdomancy) developed from this type of divination. The Romans (Roman Republic) in classical times used Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) methods of augury such as hepatoscopy (actually a form of extispicy). Haruspices (haruspex) examined the livers of sacrificed animals. Note that augury is normally considered to specifically refer to divination by studying the flight patterns of birds. * Spontaneous. An unconstrained form of divination, free from any particular medium, and actually a generalization of all types of divination. The answer comes from whatever object the diviner happens to see or hear. Some religions use a form of bibliomancy: they ask a question, riffle the pages of their holy book, and take as their answer the first passage their eyes light upon. Other forms of spontaneous divination include reading auras (Aura (paranormal)) and New Age methods of Feng Shui such as "intuitive" and Fuzion. The '''Etruscan language''' was spoken and written by the Etruscan civilization, in what is present-day Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls). Etruscan was superseded completely by Latin, leaving only a few documents and some loanwords in Latin, such as ''persona'' (from Etruscan ''φersu''), and some place-names, such as Roma (Rome). thumb 300px Approximate distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. (Image:Iron Age Italy.svg) Inscriptions have been found in north-west and west-central Italy, in the region that even now bears the name of the Etruscans (Etruscan civilization), Tuscany (from Latin ''tuscī'' "Etruscans"), as well as in modern Latium north of Rome, in today's Umbria west of the Tiber, around Capua in Campania and in the Po (Po River) valley to the north of Etruria. This range may indicate a maximum Italian homeland where the language was at one time spoken. The island was then invaded, first by the Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) and later (after 480 BC) by the Romans (Ancient Rome). After the Roman period, the island was ravaged by barbarians and Saracens. In the early 11th century it became a possession of the Republic of Pisa. When the latter was sold to the Visconti (house of Visconti) of Milan in 1398, the island was acquired by the Appiani, Lords of Piombino, who retained it for two centuries. In 1546 part of the island was handed over to Cosimo I de' Medici (Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany), who fortified Portoferraio and renamed it "Cosmopoli", while in 1577 the rest of the island was returned to the Appiani. In 1596 Philip II of Spain captured Porto Azzurro and had two fortresses built there. In 1802 the island became a French possession, and its economy flourished. Homer's ''Iliad'' includes some of the earliest descriptions of combat with shield, sword and spear, usually between two heroes who pick one another for a duel. Roman gladiators engaged in dual combat in a sport-like setting, evolving out of Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) ritual. Tomb frescoes from Paestum (4th century BC) show paired fighters, with helmets, spears and shields, in a propitiatory funeral blood rite that anticipates gladiator games. Potter and Mattingly, 226; Paestum was colonized by Rome in 273 BC. One of the bridges in particular stands out – the Ponte Vecchio (''Old Bridge''), whose most striking feature is the multitude of shops built upon its edges, held up by stilts. The bridge also carries Vasari's elevated corridor (Vasari Corridor) linking the Uffizi to the Medici residence (Palazzo Pitti). Although the original bridge was constructed by the Etruscans (Etruscan civilization), the current bridge was rebuilt in the 14th century. It is the only bridge in the city to have survived World War II intact. It is the first example in the western world of a bridge built using segmental arches, that is, arches less than a semicircle, to reduce both span-to-rise ratio and the numbers of pillars to allow lesser encumbrance in the riverbed (being in this much more successful than the Roman Alconétar Bridge) Origins Early literary sources seldom agree on the origins of gladiators and the gladiator games. History The location of the city was already occupied in the 8th century BC, and neighbouring Pizzo in the Bronze Age. Nepet then became Roman (Ancient Rome) before 386 BC, when Livy speaks of it and Sutrium as the keys of Etruria. In that year it was surrendered to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization)s and recovered by the Romans, who beheaded the authors of its surrender. It became a colony in 383 BC. It was among the twelve Latin colonies that refused further help to Rome in 209 BC. After the Social War (Social War (91–88 BC)) it became a municipium. It is hardly mentioned in imperial times, except as a station on the road (Via Amerina) which diverged from the Via Cassia near the modern Settevene and ran to Amelia and Todi. Ancient Grecian (Pottery of ancient Greece) and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) ceramics are renowned for their figurative painting, especially in the black-figure (Black-figure pottery) and red-figure (Red-figure pottery) styles. Moulded Greek terracotta figurines, especially those from Tanagra (Tanagra figurine), were small figures, often religious but later including many of everyday genre figures, apparently used purely for decoration. History Records in Italian courts of an investigation indicate that the krater was looted (Looted art) from an Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) tomb in the Greppe Sant'Angelo near Cerveteri in December 1971. The krater was sold to the Metropolitan Museum of Art by Robert Hecht Jr., an American antiquities dealer living in Rome, for US$ (United States dollar)1.2 million on November 10, 1972. Hecht, who is currently on trial for allegations of trafficking in illicit antiquities, claimed to have acquired the krater from Dikran Sarrafian, a Lebanese (Lebanon) dealer, whose family had been in possession of the piece since 1920. Evidence suggests that Hecht may have purchased the krater in 1972 from Giacomo Medici (Giacomo Medici (art dealer)), an Italian dealer who was convicted of selling stolen art in 2005. Hecht denies the charges. Euphronios Krater Returned - Art - New York Times History Orbetello was an ancient Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) settlement, which in 280 BC passed under the control of the Romans (ancient Rome), who had founded their colony of Cosa (near the modern Ansedonia). It is thought that there was already a Villanovan (Villanova culture) settlement at the confluence of the Mugnone with the River Arno between the 10th and the 8th century BC. Between the 7th and 6th centuries BC Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) had discovered and used the ford of the Arno near this confluence, closer to the hills of the North and South. A bridge or a ferry was probably constructed here, about ten metres away from the current Ponte Vecchio, but closer to the ford itself. The Etruscans, however, preferred not to build cities on the plain for reasons of defence and instead settled about six kilometres away on a hill. This settlement was a precursor of the fortified centre of Vipsul (today's Fiesole), which was later connected by road to all the major Etruscan centres of Emilia (Emilia (region of Italy)) to the North and Lazio to the South. Luca Mandelli, a historian of the 17th century, ascribes its foundation to settlers from the Greek city of Tegea, in the Peloponnese. In the late 19th century Giacomo Racioppi attributed its foundation to Oscan-Sabellian tribes driven out from their lands as a result of the expansion of the Etruscan civilization. Lately they say '''Tegianum''' was built by Lucanians early in the 4th century BC, and later was a municipal town of Lucania, made into a colony by Emperor Nero. The '''Battle of the Cremera''' was fought between the Roman Republic and the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) city of Veii, in 477 BC (276 AUC). Archaeological excavations have brought to light Gaulish, Gallo-Roman and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) remains. In the outskirts of the village there are ruins of a fortification, probably of Lombard (Lombards) origin. The '''Tampa Museum of Art''' is located in downtown (Downtown Tampa) Tampa (Tampa, Florida), Florida. It exhibits 20th-century fine art, as well as Greek (Art in Ancient Greece), Roman (Ancient Rome), and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) antiquities. The museum was founded in 1979 and debuted an innovative new building in 2010 on the banks of Hillsborough River (Hillsborough River (Florida)) just north of its original site. The current location is part of Tampa's Riverwalk (Tampa Riverwalk) and the Waterfront Arts District along with the Glazer Children's Museum and the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts and includes a gift shop and SONO Cafe, a restaurant operated by Mise En Place. However, the main focus of the galleries is on arts, craft and wares, including exhibits on: Irish coins and currency, silverware, furniture, folklife and costumes, ceramics, glassware, etc. Included are artifacts such as Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) vases, gauntlets worn by King William (William III of England) at Battle of the Boyne, a life belt and oar salvaged from the wreck of the RMS Lusitania and a pocket book carried by Wolfe Tone whilst imprisoned in the Barracks. (''See above''). Claudius had particular affinities with Lugdunum (Lyon). He was born there, and it housed the Imperial cult centre: as both Emperor and a "native" of the city, he was probably seen as its patron. He made the inscribed speech before the Roman Senate in 48 AD. It was a proposal to allow monied, landed citizens from further Gaul to enter the Senatorial class, and thus the Senate itself (Roman Senate), once they had reached the necessary level of wealth. His argument evoked the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) origins of his own family, the Claudius (gens) (gens Claudia), and the recent promotion to senatorial rank of men from Gallia Narbonensis. Europe In Europe, bronze mirrors from the Bronze Age have been discovered from various places, including Britain (Great Britain) and Italy. A notable example includes the Birdlip mirror. Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) mirrors were produced from between the 6th and 2nd centuries BCE. Celtic mirrors in Britain (Prehistoric Britain) were produced up until the Roman (Roman Empire) conquest. Origin The trumpet is found in many early civilizations and therefore makes it difficult to discern when and where the long, straight trumpet design found in the salpinx originated. References to the salpinx are found frequently in Greek literature and art. Early descriptions of the sound of the salpinx can be found in Homer’s ''Iliad'' (9th or 8th century BC), however, this Archaic (Ancient_Greece#Archaic_period) reference is more unique and frequent references are not found until the Classical period (Classical Greece). Homer, ''Iliad,'' 18. 219. McKinnon Similar instruments can be found in Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, though the salpinx is most closely related to the Egyptian version. References to the salpinx in classical literature include mention of the instrument as ''tyrrhene'' Aeschylus, ''Eumenides'', 458 BC. ''O herald, make proclaim, bid all men come. Then let the shrill blast of the Tyrrhene trump, Fulfilled with mortal breath, thro' the wide air Peal a loud summons, bidding all men heed.'' a derivative of ''Tyrrhenoi'', an exonym often employed by the Greeks as an allusion to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) people. Bronze instruments were important among the Etruscans and as a people they were held in high regard by the Greeks for their musical contributions. The salpinx as an Etruscan invention is thus supported by the Greeks and various descriptions can be found among the authors Aeschylus, Pollux (Julius Pollux), and Sophocles. It is likely that the salpinx was introduced to the Greeks in some way through the Etruscans, however, scattered references to the salpinx prior to Greek contact with the Etruscans, as well as the myriad salpinx type instruments described by Eustathius of Thessalonia Nikos Xanthoulis, "The Salpinx in Greek Antiquity," ''International Trumpet Guild Journal', October 2006, 41 , suggests some small level of uncertainty in regard to whether or not the instrument came to the Greeks directly from the Etruscans or through some intermediary source.

Etruscan civilization

'''Etruscan civilization''' ( ) is the modern name given to a civilization of ancient Italy (Ancient peoples of Italy) in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio. The ancient Romans called its creators the ''Tusci'' or ''Etrusci''. According to Félix Gaffiot's ''Dictionnaire Illustré Latin Français'', the term Tusci was used by the major authors of the Roman Republic: Livy, Cicero, Horace, and others. Cognate words developed, including ''Tuscia'' and ''Tusculanensis''. ''Tusci'' was clearly the principal term used to designate things Etruscan; ''Etrusci'' and ''Etrūria'' were used less often, mainly by Cicero and Horace, and they lack cognates. According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the English use of ''Etruscan'' dates from 1706. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms ''Tuscany'', which refers to their heartland, and ''Etruria'', which can refer to their wider region.

In Attic Greek, the Etruscans were known as '' (Tyrrhēnoi (Tyrrhenoi))'', earlier ''Tyrsenoi'', from which the Romans derived the names ''Tyrrhēni'' (Etruscans), ''Tyrrhēnia'' (Etruria), and ''Mare Tyrrhēnum'' (Tyrrhenian Sea). Gaffiot's. The Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, which was syncopated (Syncope (phonetics)) to ''Rasna'' or ''Raśna'', Rasenna comes from Dionysius of Halicarnassus I.30.3. The syncopated form, Rasna, is inscriptional and is inflected. The topic is covered in Pallottino, p. 133. Some inscriptions, such as the cippus of Cortona, feature the Raśna (pronounced Rashna) alternative, as is described in Gabor Z. Bodroghy's site, ''The Palaeolinguistic Connection'', under ''Origins''. earlier ''T'rasena'' whence comes the Roman and Greek names, prompting some to associate them with the Egyptian ''Teresh'' (Sea Peoples). The word may also be related to the Hittite ''Taruisa''. Sandars, N.K. (1987). The Sea Peoples: Warriors of the ancient Mediterranean, Revised Edition. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27387-1.

As distinguished by its unique language (Etruscan language), this civilization endured from the time of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions (c. 700 BC) Helmut Rix, "Etruscan," in ''The Ancient Languages of Europe'', ed. Roger D. Woodard (Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 141-164. until its assimilation into the Roman Republic in the late 4th century BC (Roman-Etruscan Wars). At its maximum extent, during the foundational period of Rome and the Roman kingdom, it flourished in three confederacies of cities: of Etruria, of the Po valley with the eastern Alps, and of Latium and Campania. A good map of the Italian range and cities of the culture at the beginning of its history can be found at the mysteriousetruscans.com site. The topic of the "League of Etruria" is covered in Freeman, pp. 562–565. The league in northern Italy is mentioned in Livy, Book V, Section 33. The passage identifies the Raetia Raetii as a remnant of the 12 cities "beyond the Apennines (Apennine Mountains)". The Campanian Etruscans are mentioned (among many sources) by Polybius, (II.17). The entire subject with complete ancient sources in footnotes was worked up by George Dennis in his ''Introduction.'' In the LacusCurtius transcription, the references in Dennis's footnotes link to the texts in English or Latin; the reader may also find the English of some of them on WikiSource or other Internet sites. As the work has already been done by Dennis and Thayer, the complete work-up is not repeated here.

Culture that is identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 BC approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture. The latter gave way in the 7th century to a culture that was influenced by Hellenic (Hellenic civilization) Magna Graecian and Phonecian contacts. After 500 BC, the political destiny of Italy passed out of Etruscan hands. M. Cary and H. H. Scullard, ''A History of Rome'' (3rd ed., 1979), p. 28. ISBN 0-312-38395-9. The latest mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) study (2013) shows that Etruscans appear to fall very close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations. http: www.plosone.org article info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0055519

Search by keywords:


Copyright (C) 2015-2017 PlacesKnownFor.com
Last modified: Tue Oct 10 05:56:30 EDT 2017