school in the country and offers degree, non-degree and summer school study options. Popular courses include Arabic Language and Literature, Islamic Art and Architecture, Arab History and Culture, and, of course, Egyptology. * There are a number of options for learning '''Arabic''' in Cairo, including the Arabic Language Institute Kalimat and International Language Institute
. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine Eusebius also had low regard for the chiliast, Papias, and he let it be known that in his opinion Papias was "a man of small mental capacity" because he had taken the Apocalypse (Book of Revelation) literally. Eusebius, ''Historia Ecclestiastica''. 3.39.13 After 1957 he worked in South America, Iran, Lebanon, Egypt and South Africa
measuring 6.7 on the moment magnitude scale hits Greece at 13:34. The earthquake's epicentre was in the sea region 25 km east of the island of Kythira, about 200 km south of Athens. Although it was felt as far as Sicily, south Italy, Egypt, and Amman in Jordan, it was not disastrous due to its deep hypocentre and the sea-bed epicentre. Little damage (mainly in Kythira) and few light injuries are reported. (CNN.com) (USGS) *Mehmet Ali Ağca, who tried to assassinate Pope John Paul II in 1981, is released from jail. (BBC) *The French warship Clemenceau (FS Clemenceau (1957-1997)) reaches Egypt and is barred access to the Suez Canal. Two Greenpeace activists board the ship. (BBC) * The United Kingdom: Tony Blair to grant new powers to spy on Members of Parliament (Member of Parliament). (Independent) *The French warship Clemenceau (FS Clemenceau (1957-1997))'s transit through the Suez Canal is approved by Egyptian authorities. This decision is heavily criticized by Greenpeace and other environmental groups. (BBC) *Canadian diplomat Glyn Berry is killed and two Canadian soldiers critically injured by a bomb blast in Afghanistan. He is the first Canadian diplomat to be killed on duty. (CBC) *U.S. oil company ExxonMobil announced profits for 2005 of Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt
Foundation in Tunis on November 11, 2011 and sung at the Award Ceremony on November 12, 2011. As ambassador to Ethiopian emperor Menelik II, Lagarde built-up French presence in the Horn of Africa to protect the colony from British domination, which was slowly expanding from Egypt. Mudulood World News: ''Main Events in Somali's History'' downloaded 12 February 2009. In 1896, he gained approval to build a railway line directly from Djibouti to Addis Ababa. Larousse.fr, ''Léonce Lagarde'' downloaded 12 February 2009. Background A daughter of Bahaalddin Toukan, former Jordanian ambassador to the Court of St. James's, she was born in Cairo, Egypt. The Touqan family is a prominent family in Palestine from the city of Nablus. Her father Bahaaldin was born in Jordan in the prominant city of Salt (Salt, Jordan). Alia spent most of her childhood years traveling with her parents during her father’s career in Jordan’s diplomatic corps: she lived in Egypt, Turkey, London, the United States, and Rome. She attended Church School in London with her younger brother, Ali. She studied at the Rome Center of Liberal Arts (John Felice Rome Center) of Loyola University Chicago. She studied political science with a minor in social psychology, and public relations at Hunter College in New York. She was interested in sports and writing, and she wished to be a diplomat. In 1971, she moved to Jordan, where she worked for Royal Jordanian Airlines. She was asked by King Hussein Bin Talal to oversee the preparations for the first International Water Skiing Festival held in Aqaba in September 1972. It currently (2009) occupies a resplendent mansion, and exhibits among others: an Egyptian mummy, the Buddhist stupa from Bharhut, the Buddha (Gautama Buddha)'s ashes, the Ashoka pillar, whose three-lion symbol became the official emblem of the Republic of India, fossil skeletons of prehistoric animals like dinosaurs, an art collection, rare antiques, and a collection of meteorites. A string of archeological forgeries have usually followed news of prominent archaeological excavations. Historically, famous excavations like those in Crete, Valley of the Kings in Egypt and Pompeii have caused the appearance of a number of forgeries supposedly spirited away from the dig. Those have been usually presented in the open market but some have also ended up in museum collections and as objects of serious historical study. The examples Aarseth gives include a diverse group of texts: wall inscriptions of the temples in ancient Egypt that are connected two-dimensionally (on one wall) or three dimensionally (from wall to wall or room to room); the I Ching; Apollinaire’s “calligrammes” in which the words of the poem “are spread out in several directions to form a picture on the page, with no clear sequence in which to be read”; Ayn Rand’s play "Night of January 16th", in which members of the audience form a jury that chooses one of two endings; Marc Saporta’s Composition No. 1, Roman, which is a novel with shuffleable pages; Raymond Queneau’s ''One Hundred Thousand Billion Poems (Hundred Thousand Billion Poems)''; B. S. Johnson’s ''The Unfortunates''; Milorad Pavic (Milorad Pavić (writer))’s ''Landscape Painted with Tea''; Joseph Weizenbaum’s ELIZA; Will Crowther and Don Woods’s ''Adventure''; James Meehan’s Tale-spin; William Chamberlain and Thomas Etter’s Racter; Michael Joyce (Michael Joyce (writer))’s ''afternoon: a story (Afternoon, a story)''; Roy Trubshaw and Richard Bartle’s Multi-User Dungeon (aka MUD1 (Multi-User_Dungeon#MUD_the_game)); and James Aspnes’s TinyMUD. With the exception of Tale-spin, where a program generates a linear text, all these examples can be said to require non-trivial effort from the reader, who must participate actively in the construction of the text. It has been argued that the effort required to read Apollinaire's calligrammes is not Pasha''' ( Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt
: www.egypttoday.com article.aspx?ArticleID 7801 work Egypt Today date January 2008 accessdate 2009-04-05 Webb frequently hosts lectures and posts articles offering Islamic perspectives on modern-day issues such as community involvement and social relevance. ref>
Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt
for himself with the less public role of deputy chief of staff. The two men ran a police state and suppressed virtually all opposition. Under the direction of Shishakli, Selu improved relations with Jordan, opening the first Syrian embassy in Amman and befriending King Talal (Talal of Jordan). He also sought better relations with Lebanon, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There are three mentions of '''Serach''' in the Torah. The first is in Genesis (Book of Genesis), 46:17
Tripoli, but he was taken by surprise by a large combination of enemies at the Battle of al-Buqaia Oldenbourg, p 363 and was almost killed himself. He then moved north to Antioch, with assistance from his brother Qutb ad-Din (Qutb ad-Din Mawdud) in Mosul, his other vassals from Aleppo and Damascus, and the Ortoqids of the Jazira (al-Jazira, Mesopotamia), and besieged the fortress of Harim (Harenc) in 1164. As William of Tyre says, "he stationed
people Palestinian sniper in an attack on Philadelphi Route of the southern Gaza Strip, close to the Egyptian border. The Popular Resistance Committees claims responsibility. (Haaretz) * Adobe Systems buys Macromedia for $ (United States dollar)3.4 billion. (Yahoo! Financial), (New York Times), (USA Today), (MSNBC). * 400 Iranian volunteers sign up to sacrifice their lives in "occupied Islamic countries", particularly Israel, after being inspired by a fatwa from a top hardline cleric giving religious backing to suicide missions (suicide attacks). (Reuters) * American, French and Israeli naval forces rescue three Syrian and Egyptian sailors from a North Korean ship that sank in international waters off the coast of Nahariya. (Ynet) * The American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) fires two members suspected of passing on U.S. secrets to Israel. (BBC) April 30, 2005 *Cairo terrorism (April 2005 terrorist attacks in Cairo): Tourists in the Egyptian capital Cairo are targeted in two separate terrorist attacks (terrorism). (BBC) * U.S. Senator John Kerry formally endorses a candidate for mayor of Los Angeles, Antonio Villaraigosa, repaying Mr. Villaraigosa's support for his own presidential campaign in 2004(AP) The capital of the Kingdom of Judah was Jerusalem. All of the kings of Judah lived and died in Judah except for Ahaziah (Ahaziah of Judah) (who died at Megiddo in Israel), Jehoahaz (Jehoahaz of Judah) (who died a prisoner in Egypt) and Jeconiah (Jehoiachin) and Zedekiah who were deported as part of the Babylonian captivity. :These different journeys can also be made by land. The merchants that start from Spain or France go to Sus al-Aksa ''(in Morocco)'' and then to Tangier, whence they walk to Kairouan and the capital of Egypt. Thence they go to ar-Ramla, visit Damascus, al-Kufa, Baghdad, and al-Basra, cross Ahwaz, Fars (Fars Province), Kirman, Sind, Hind, and arrive in China. Decline and Disintegration These tensions caused the movement's decline during the late 1960s, and it had ceased to exist as a regional political force by 1970. This development was partially propelled by the defeat of Egypt in the 1967 Six Day War, which had led to the discreditation of Nasserism, and forced the ANM to play down its uniting, pan-Arab creed. The final blow to the ANM had come in 1967-69, as the Levantine branches fractured into competing Marxist parties, precipitated by conflicts within the Palestinian movement. The tendency around Habash tried to regroup the movement by forming the Arab Socialist Action Party as a new Pan-Arab political structure. Egypt In Egypt the ANM branch merged into Nasser's Egyptian branch of the Arab Socialist Union (Arab Socialist Union (Egypt)), but were later depoliticized after an internal purge. Life Al-Adil was a son of Najm ad-Din Ayyub, and a younger brother of Salah ad-Din Ayyubi (Saladin). He was born in June 1145, possibly in Damascus. He first achieved distinction as an officer in Nur ad-Din Zengi's army during his uncle Shirkuh's third and final campaign in Egypt (1168–1169); following Nur ad-Din's death in 1174, Al-Adil governed Egypt on behalf of his brother Saladin and mobilized that country's vast resources in support of his brother's campaigns in Syria and his war against the Crusaders (1175–1183). He was governor of Aleppo (1183–1186) but returned to administer Egypt during the Third Crusade (1186–1192); as governor of Saladin's northern provinces (1192–1193), he suppressed the revolt of 'Izz Al-Din of Mosul following Saladin's death (March 1193), and played the role of kingmaker during the succession dispute among Saladin's sons Al-Aziz Uthman and Al-Afdal (Al-Afdal ibn Salah al-din) (1193–1196). He was named governor of Damascus and used this base to expand his power, and championed the faction opposed to Al-Afdal's inept rule following Al-Aziz's death in 1198. Although he was closely besieged in Damascus (1199), he defeated Al-Afdal at the Battle of Bilbeis in January 1200. After his victory, he was proclaimed Sultan and ruled wisely and well over both Egypt and Syria for nearly two decades, promoting trade and good relations with the Crusader states (1200–1217). He took Ahlat in 1207 and bring to Ahlatshahs. He took the field again on hearing news of the Fifth Crusade, despite his advanced age (62, in the year 1217), and organized the defenses of Egypt and Palestine. He fell ill and died while on campaign (August 1218) and was succeeded by his son Malik Al-Kamil. The '''National Democratic Party''' ( Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt
, Lebanon and Sudan). Ghana qualified for the 1992 African Cup of Nations after finishing top of their qualifying group. Ghana qualified to the Quarter-finals after two 1-0 victories over Egypt and Zambia in the first round of the final tournament. Ghana beat Congo national football team to take them through to the Semi-finals where they beat Nigeria, 2-1. On January 26, 1992 in Senegal, Ghana (Ghana national football team) played Côte d'Ivoire (Côte d'Ivoire national football team) in the final of the African Cup of Nations. After extra time the final score was 0-0 and the game entered penalties. After a marathon penalty shootout, the Côte d'Ivoire (Côte d'Ivoire national football team) finally won 11-10 on penalties. The penalty shootout was significant in that it was the first in the final of a major international tournament that every player on the pitch took a penalty. Otto Pfister was highly successful during his time at Al-Zamalek. During his time as Head Coach (1999–2002) Pfister won an impressive five trophies. On December 10, 2000, Al-Zamalek recorded a convincing 6-1 aggregate score in the second-leg final against Canon Yaoundé in the African Cup Winners' Cup (now the Confederations Cup). The first and last time this trophy would be won by the Egyptian club. Pfister led Zamalek for their worst defeat against rivals Al-Ahly 6-1 on the 16th of May 2002, Al-Zamalek also reached the final of the CAF Super Cup, losing 2-0 to Accra Hearts of Oak SC. Cameroon On 27 October 2007, Pfister was appointed the manager of Cameroon (Cameroon National Football Team), succeeding 80 other candidates. He coached Cameroon national football team Cameroon in the 2008 African Cup of Nations, held in Ghana. Two second half goals from Samuel Eto'o was not enough to win their opening game which finished 4-2 to Egypt. Cameroon (Cameroon national football team) picked themselves up four days later and beat Zambia convincingly 5-1. In their final group game Samuel Eto'o again scored twice as Les Lions Indomptables (Cameroon national football team) won 3-0. After finishing second to Egypt in the group stages, Cameroon progressed to the Quarter-finals where after a close encounter, they beat Tunisia 3-2. Stéphane Mbia scored early in extra time to take the Indomptable Lions through to the Semi-finals. Alain N'Kong scored a 72nd minute winner for Cameroon in a 1-0 win over Ghana in the Semi-finals, taking Cameroon to their sixth final of the African Cup of Nations. On 10 February 2008, Cameroon took on defending champions Egypt (Egypt national football team) in the Final in Accra. Egypt (Egypt national football team) scored a 77th minute goal through Mohamed Aboutrika which would be enough to win the match and be crowned the champions of the 2008 African Cup of Nations. Samuel Eto'o was the tournaments highest scorer with 5 goals. Pfister stepped down from his role on 26 May 2009. Nationaltrainer Pfister in Kamerun zurückgetreten Cameroon On 27 October 2007, Pfister was appointed the manager of Cameroon (Cameroon National Football Team), succeeding 80 other candidates. He coached Cameroon national football team Cameroon in the 2008 African Cup of Nations, held in Ghana. Two second half goals from Samuel Eto'o was not enough to win their opening game which finished 4-2 to Egypt. Cameroon (Cameroon national football team) picked themselves up four days later and beat Zambia convincingly 5-1. In their final group game Samuel Eto'o again scored twice as Les Lions Indomptables (Cameroon national football team) won 3-0. After finishing second to Egypt in the group stages, Cameroon progressed to the Quarter-finals where after a close encounter, they beat Tunisia 3-2. Stéphane Mbia scored early in extra time to take the Indomptable Lions through to the Semi-finals. Alain N'Kong scored a 72nd minute winner for Cameroon in a 1-0 win over Ghana in the Semi-finals, taking Cameroon to their sixth final of the African Cup of Nations. On 10 February 2008, Cameroon took on defending champions Egypt (Egypt national football team) in the Final in Accra. Egypt (Egypt national football team) scored a 77th minute goal through Mohamed Aboutrika which would be enough to win the match and be crowned the champions of the 2008 African Cup of Nations. Samuel Eto'o was the tournaments highest scorer with 5 goals. Pfister stepped down from his role on 26 May 2009. Nationaltrainer Pfister in Kamerun zurückgetreten In November 1940, the squadron moved to the Middle East where it stayed for the remainder of the war. On 2 October 1945 the Squadron moved to Palestine but returned to Egypt in December where it was disbanded on 31 March 1946. On 15 April 1946, No. 214 Squadron RAF at Fayid was renumbered No. 37 which flew Avro Lancaster bombers until it was disbanded again on 1 April 1947. It reformed again in Palestine on 14 September 1947, once again flying Lancasters. In May 1948, at the time of the British withdrawal from Palestine, the squadron moved to Malta. In August 1953 the squadron converted to Avro Shackleton bombers and in August 1957 it moved to Aden where it remained until it disbanded on 7 September 1967. The '''Cretan Turks''', '''Turco-Cretans''' (Greek: (Greek language) Τουρκοκρητικοί, ''Tourkokritikoi''), or '''Cretan Muslims''' (Turkish: (Turkish language) ''Giritli'', ''Girit Türkleri'', or ''Türk Giritliler'') were the Muslim inhabitants of Crete (until 1923) and now their descendants, who settled principally in Turkey, the Levant, and Egypt as well as in the larger Turkish diaspora. Those who left Crete in the late 19th and early 20th centuries settled largely along Turkey's Aegean and Mediterranean coast; other waves of refugees settled in Syrian cities like Damascus, Aleppo, and Al Hamidiyah; in Tripoli, Lebanon; Haifa, Israel; Alexandria and Tanta in Egypt. While some of these peoples have integrated themselves with the populations around them over the course of the 20th century, the majority of them still live in a tightly knit communities preserving their unique culture, traditions, Cretan Greek dialect and Turkish language. In fact many of them made reunion visits to distant relatives in Lebanon, in Crete and even other parts of Greece where some of the cousins may still share the family name but follow a different religion. Commons:Category:Egypt WikiPedia:Egypt Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt
'''Egypt''' ( lies within the Nile Valley of North Africa, but it is also considered a Mediterranean country (Mediterranean) as it is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north. It is also bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.
With over 87 million inhabitants, Egypt is the largest country in North Africa and the Arab World, the third-largest in Africa, and the fifteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about , where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara Desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
Egypt has one of the longest histories (History of Egypt) of any modern country, arising in the tenth millennium BCE as one of the world's first nation states. Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Considered a cradle of civilization, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government in history. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx (Great Sphinx of Giza), as well the ruins of Memphis (Memphis, Egypt), Thebes (Thebes, Egypt), Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of archaeological study and popular interest worldwide. Egypt's rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, having endured and at times assimilated various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European.
Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional (Regional power) and middle power, with significant cultural, political, and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Andrew F. Cooper, Agata Antkiewicz and Timothy M. Shaw, 'Lessons from for BRICSAM about South-North Relations at the Start of the 21st Century: Economic Size Trumps All Else?', ''International Studies Review,'' Vol. 9, No. 4 (Winter, 2007), pp. 675, 687. Its economy is one of the largest and most diversified (economy of Egypt) in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and services at almost equal production levels. In 2011 (Egyptian Revolution of 2011), long term President Hosni Mubarak stepped down amid mass protests. Later elections saw the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood, which was ousted by the army a year later amid mass protests.