'''Pedro Jorge Vera''' (b. Guayaquil, 1914 - d.1999) was an Ecuadorian writer and Communist Party of Ecuador politician. He contributed to several newspapers and magazines of controversial character "La Calle", with the writer Alejandro Carrión, as well as "La Mañana". He remained throughout his life a close friend of Cuban president Fidel Castro. Vera was the paternal uncle of Prima Ballerina Noralma Vera Arrata. References
to Italy has always been the neighbouring North Africa (in particular, Morocco, Egypt and Tunisia), with soaring arrivals as a consequence of the Arab Spring. Furthermore, in recent years, growing migration fluxes from the Far East (notably, China (People's Republic of China) "Milan police in Chinatown clash". BBC News. 13 April 2007. and the Philippines) and Latin America ( Ecuador
came from the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe (especially Romania, Albania, Ukraine and Poland). The second most important area of immigration to Italy has always been the neighbouring North Africa (in particular, Morocco, Egypt and Tunisia), with soaring arrivals as a consequence of the Arab Spring. Furthermore, in recent years, growing migration fluxes from the Far East (notably, China (People's Republic of China) " http
. Argentina (Argentina national football team) went on to win the tournament. In the third place game, Colombia (Colombia national football team) beat Ecuador (Ecuador national football team) 1–0 to claim third spot. Asprilla failed to score in the tournament. Expeditions He has undertaken major expeditions to Malaysian Borneo and Brunei (1988), Nigeria (1990), Brazil and Costa Rica (1991), Malaysian Borneo (1995–1996), India (1999), Guyana (1999), India
director of the Ecuadorian Institute of Folklore. He began to explore more experimental techniques of art making incorporating collage and objects into his canvases. He made his first assemblage works in 1968 and appeared in his first "Happening" that same year in Quito. He began to exhibit his work internationally in the 1960s including the 1964 Bienale of Córdoba (Córdoba (Argentina)), Argentina, and the 1969 São Paulo Bienal for which he received honorable mention. His
varies greatly, so check reviews online and speak to current students before enrolling. Students who want to learn Spanish for longer periods and in big groups might consider the programs of two Ecuadorian universities which offer semester length Spanish as a Second Language classes for foreigners. University study is ideal if you are serious about learning Spanish and have the time to complete the full program. Successful completion of a university Spanish program may also allow to continue studying at that university or even to earn a degree. On the other hand, if you wish to learn Spanish while enjoying being on the beach, then Montañita is the best place to learn. Formal university study While all universities in Ecuador can theoretically admit foreign students, most have onerous entry requirements and will not admit students for just a semester or two. Two universities -- Universidad San Francisco and Catholic University -- stand out for extending a welcome to foreign students, who can choose to study for a semester or even complete a full Bachelor's or Master's degree. ''Be sure to inquire about enrollment (matricula) costs which are usually above and beyond normal tuition. Obtain a student visa, if needed, '''before''' you enter Ecuador to study.'' *Catholic University of Ecuador San Francisco de Quito adopted the United States dollar (USD) as its currency in 1999. Other types of currency are not readily accepted. Ecuador has its own coins. These are exactly the same size and weight as American coins, and both are accepted. U.S. dollar coins are widely used, and preferred to $1 bills. American bills are used for higher values, Ecuador does not print any itsef. Many merchants examine large bills ($10 and above) carefully to make sure they aren't counterfeit. Frequently, businesses will not accept fifty dollar bills or hundred dollar bills at all. One must usually go to a bank in order to break hundred dollar bills. Outside of tourist areas and Quito, many merchants do not keep large amounts of money on hand, so getting change for bills large and small may be difficult. This is especially true on cheaper buses. Take lots of one and five dollar bills with you; you will also want to bring the newest possible bills. Worn bills are often regarded with suspicion, and it is not uncommon for a merchant to ask you to pay with another bill if the one you handed them appears old or worn. Banking Travelers' checks can be exchanged at some (but not all) banks for a reasonable fee (usually not more than 3 percent). They are also accepted at some hotels that cater to tourists, although it is difficult to use them elsewhere. There is often a surcharge added to use traveler's checks. Credit and debit cards are accepted at many places that cater to tourists as well as at some upscale shops. However, many places charge a commission for their use as reimbursement for what the banks charge them. You may be asked to show your passport when using a credit or debit card. '''Automated teller machines''' are widely available in major cities and tourist areas. Most claim to be tied in with major international networks, in theory making it possible to withdraw money from foreign accounts. Depending on the transaction fees charged by your bank at home, ATMs offer very good exchange rates. Be aware that you may have to try quite a few different machines before receiving money. TIP: Banco Austro is the only national bank chain that doesn't charge a withdrawal fee. The others have learned a cue from the States, and typically charge $1 or more per transaction. Avoid using ATMs on the street as their users are frequently targeted by street thieves. Hotels or other places with a guard nearby are your best choices. Tipping Bars, restaurants and hotels include a 10% service charge in the bill, so tipping is not required. In the case of restaurants, it is customary to leave some spare change in reward for good service. Some restaurants will include a small piece of paper along with the bill, in which the client can specify a tip if they are paying with credit card. Shopping Prices vary widely in Ecuador. Costs at upscale hotels and restaurants seem to be close, maybe 10 percent less, to what they would be in the United States. Outside of tourist areas, costs are much less. It is possible to get a meal at a clean restaurant for under $2 or to pay less than $10 for a clean but basic hotel room. Even though Ecuador is a very beautiful country, it does not know how to sell itself very well. In Quito, a very famous touristic site is El Mercado Artesenal where many souvenirs can be found but after a thorough look around you will realize that there is a bit of redundancy in the items in the sense that everyone is basically selling the same thing. Therefore, after buying a few main items it becomes difficult to find much more variety. Almost everything that can be bought has a price that can be bargained. If you are not a native, they will try and get higher prices out of you, which is why it is recommended to go with someone who is either fluent in Spanish or native to bargain more effectively. Eat Throughout the country there is a lot of variety as to what is typically eaten, depending on the location. In the Sierra, potatoes almost always accompany lunch and dinner, and in the coast rice is popular. Soup is also a big part of lunch and dinner. Breakfasts often consist of toast, eggs, and juice or fruit. Batidos, or fruit shakes, are popular breakfast items or snacks. Especially in the Coastline, Ecuadorians make a variety of breakfast meals based on green or sweet plantain and yuca, such as bolonoes, empanadas, patacones, corviches, muchines, pan de yuca, humitas and others. They are cooked with either cheese, pork or fish. They are very filling and inexpensive meals. thumb 300px Locro de Papa (Image:Locro de papa.jpg) Restaurants run the gamut in terms of menu, quality, hygiene, hours and price. Basic meals can be had for less than $2, or it is possible to pay close to U.S. prices in the tourist areas, especially for food from the American chains. If you're on a budget, your best bet for a good and local meal is to order an almuerzo (lunch) or a merienda (dinner). These normally consist of a soup, a meat main course and a dessert for $1-$2. More expensive restaurants (say, ones that charge $4 per meal or more) often add a 12% sales tax and a 10% service fee. Coffee or tea (including many herbal varieties) is typically served after the meal unless you ask for it sooner. Except at places that cater to foreigners, it is the custom not to present the diner with the bill until it is requested. While many servers are used to rude tourists, rubbing your fingers together isn't as accepted as in Europe although it's not considered downright rude as in the United States. The best way to get the check is to tell your server "La Cuenta, Por Favor." Smoking is allowed in most restaurants, but the law explicitly prohibits smoking in closed areas, so it's a good idea to ask for a smoking section, or ask if the restaurant allows smoking. thumb 300px Cuy or Guinea Pig (Image:Cuy or guinea pig, from the restaurant Fogon de los Abuelos in Matus, Ecuador.jpg) '''Locro de papa''' is a famous Ecuadorian soup with avocados, potatoes and cheese. '''Ceviche''' is a common dish found on the coast. It is a cold seafood cocktail that is usually served with "chifles," thin fried plantains, and popcorn. '''Encebollado''' is a hearty fish soup with yuca, also found on the coast: A tomato-fish soup filled with chunks of yucca, marinated vegetables with "chifles" thrown in for added crunch. In the Highlands, Ecuadorians eat '''cuy, or guinea pig'''. The entire animal is roasted or fried and often served skewered on a stick. '''Empanadas''' are also a common local food that are usually consumed as snacks in the afternoon. The most common varieties of this filled pastry are cheese and or chicken. '''Bollo''' Made of milled sweet plantain with peanuts and albacore. This is a very typical dish in the Ecuadorian Coast. '''Bolón''' Made of minced plantain with cheese or pork. It is eaten at breakfast with coffee. It is consumed mostly in the coast in the Manabí province. Drink Bottled water is very common and is safe to drink; it comes ''con gas'' (carbonated) and ''sin gas'' (non-carbonated). Water from the tap is unsafe to drink. Even Ecuadorians generally only drink bottled (or boiled) water. Coffee is widely available in cafes and restaurants, and also sold in bean form. Tea is also common, usually with a good selection including herbal. Fruit juice is plentiful and good, and you will often have many options: piña (pineapple), mora (blackberry), maracuyá (passion fruit), naranja (orange), sandía (watermelon), naranjilla (a jungle fruit), melon, taxo, guanabana, guava, etc. If you'd like it made with milk, sort of like a less-frozen milkshake, ask for a ''batida''. Note that often juices are served lukewarm. ''Aguardiente'', often made from fermented sugar cane, is the local firewater. If possible, have some ground freshly into your cup from the sugarcane. Sleep There are many low-cost hostels that can be found throughout Ecuador. Often, the hostels in smaller towns are actually privately owned homes that welcome travellers. As with most things, natives can help you find an excellent hotel at a very low price ($6-14). Again, large groups will be able to bargain for lower prices. Air conditioning is an amenity which often comes at an extra cost of a dollar or two a night. Ecuador is also home to an increasing number of Eco Lodges, including many renovated, traditional Haciendas. Haciendas of Ecuador Stay safe Tourists should use common sense to ensure their safety. Avoid problems by not flashing large amounts of money, not visiting areas near the Colombian (Colombia) border, staying away from civil disturbances and not using side streets in big cities at night. Probably the biggest threat in most places is simple thievery: Belongings should not be left unguarded on the beach, for example, and pickpockets can be found in some of the more crowded areas, especially the Trolébus (Metro) in Quito, in bus terminals and on the buses themselves. Buses allow peddlers to board briefly and attempt to sell their wares; however, they are often thieves themselves, so keep a close eye out for them. Hotel personnel are generally good sources of information about places that should be avoided. You can always ask tourist police officers, police officers or in Tourist information center for the dangerous regions. Ecuador offers great opportunities for hiking and climbing, unfortunately, some travelers have been attacked and robbed in remote sections of well known climbs - several rapes have also been reported so female hikers climbers need to be '''extremely''' careful. Travelers are urged to avoid solo hikes and to go in a '''large group''' for safety reasons. Stay healthy Ecuador is widely considered to be a developing country and health hazards are a significant issue. Of the most significant are foodborne illnesses, though they can easily be treated with digestive drugs such as antacids or antidiarrheals. Bottled water is key in Ecuador if you don't want to get sick. This doesn't only apply to foreigners who don't have the stomach for Ecuadorian food but also Ecuadorians who know that if they don't boil their water or drink it from the bottle that they can get very sick. As a result, it can be purchased almost everywhere (even in the most remote places) for well under $.25-.50. Water bottles are sometimes provided by hostels and hotels, which can be used for brushing teeth. It is advisable to receive a typhoid vaccination, and possibly a yellow fever vaccination, depending on your specific area of travel. Outside the major cities and tourist areas, malaria can be a problem along the coast during the rainy season. Respect The common greetings are "Buenos días", "Buenas tardes" or "Buenas noches", (Good morning, Good afternoon, and Good evening, respectively). It is usually complemented by a handshake, between men, and by a kiss on the cheek between women or between a man and a woman. "Hola" is the most common greeting between friends and acquaintances. Note that, as in most Latin American countries, it's considered normal and polite to stand quite close to the other person while talking. If you speak Spanish with Ecuadorians commoners, take note of the difference between the two forms for the pronoun "you": the informal "tú" and the formal "usted". It's customary to address older people and people with whom you're not familiar with "usted". Ecuadorans are generally forgiving of non-native speakers, but use "usted" when in doubt. Among many other cultural idiosyncrasies, in the Sierra regions it is considered impolite to use a downward-facing palm as a reference for the height of a person. Instead, the hand is held on its side, and the measurement taken from the lower edge to the floor. Gesturing with the palm down is appropriate for animals only. When motioning for someone to "come here," it is impolite to motion your hand with the palm facing up. Instead, use a downward swipe of the hand with the palm facing down. Acceptable clothing varies by region of the country. In the mountainous Sierra region, including Quito, clothes are usually more warm because of the weather. On the coast, meanwhile, more casual clothes predominate. Connect Internet Internet cafes can be found nearly everywhere in the major cities and in many of the smaller ones. Cost is from $1 to $2 per hour in the large cities, and the better places have high-speed access. In some cafes, restaurants, and hotels you can find free wifi access, most of them protected by passwords; in most cases, you just have to ask for the password. Telephone For most visitors, the easiest place to make phone calls is an Internet cafe, most of which provide VOIP service at reasonable rates. You can call the United States for about $0.10 per minute and Europe for a bit more. Avoid making a phone call through an operator; the cost for an international call can be $3 or more per minute. For calls within Ecuador, it is possible to use a telephone cabin. This is an entire storefront filled with telephones. Generally, you are assigned a booth by the proprietor, you make your call, then you pay as you leave. Calls within Ecuador are more expensive than domestic calls in most countries, but not unreasonable, except for calls to cell phones, which generate most of their revenue by charging the caller. Also, call prices increase depending on the distance of your call within Ecuador, based on city, province, etc. Visitors making an extended stay should consider purchasing a cell phone. Most are sold on a prepaid-call basis, and phone refill cards can be purchased in all but the smallest towns. It is also possible to get a modern GSM cellular phone "unlocked" so that it will function in Ecuador (you can take your own phone, if it compatible with GSM 850MHz), however, this should be reserved for emergencies as the cost of actually making such a call is usually exorbitant (about $0,45 per minute). Radio and television Radio and or television is available in Spanish except in some of the particularly remote areas. English-language movies usually are shown in the original language with Spanish subtitles. Many hotels have cable television that may include English-language stations and or premium movie channels that feature subtitled movies in their original languages. Newspapers and magazines Spanish-language newspapers and magazines can be purchased on the streets of cities but can be hard to find elsewhere. Some hotels catering to foreigners may have a small selection of English-language reading material.
is extremely hazardous because of the danger of high-velocity ejecta; this, and its remoteness, have contributed to the preservation of its local ecosystem. Today Sangay is a significant biological center and World Heritage Site, part of Sangay National Park. Its ecological community is governed by distinct altitudinal zonation, and hosts such fauna as mountain tapirs, giant otters, cocks of the rock (cock of the rock), and king vultures. The volcano was first
. NAC player Stanley MacDonald scored the first goal in the new stadium. During its existence, the stadium was host for numerous competition matches, cup ties, friendly matches, but also Intertoto matches, a UEFA Cup match and an international friendly between Ecuador and Turkey. Mexico is home to the largest number of U.S. citizens abroad (estimated at one million as of 1999).
, northern Argentina, and Trinidad. '''Martha Lorena Fierro Baquero''' Martha Fierro's Official Website (born September 6, 1977 in Kingston, Rhode Island, USA) Martha Fierro on www.hoy.com.ec is a chess player. She holds the FIDE player titles of International Master and Woman Grandmaster and the FIDE training title of FIDE Trainer
; (born September 6, 1977 in Kingston, Rhode Island, USA) Martha Fierro on www.hoy.com.ec is a chess player. She holds the FIDE player titles of International Master and Woman Grandmaster and the FIDE training title of FIDE Trainer, acquired after successful examination at the FIDE Seminar for Coaches in Vung Tau (Vietnam) on 29.10.2008.
; is a chess player. She holds the FIDE player titles of International Master and Woman Grandmaster and the FIDE training title of FIDE Trainer, acquired after successful examination at the FIDE Seminar for Coaches in Vung Tau (Vietnam) on 29.10.2008. Arbiters - Trainers Ecuador's strongest female player, Fierro has represented Ecuador in eight biennial Chess
23 millones menor edad elpepidep 20060601elpepidep_1 Tes His performance was well received by the press, http: edant.clarin.com diario 2003 07 06 d-06215.htm http: old.ole.com.ar diario 2003 07 06 c-585306.htm http: www.lanacion.com.ar 509319-muy-frio-san-lorenzo-gano-un-clasico-pobre Despite his early debut, Agüero was not selected again by Ruggeri, and his replacement Osvaldo Sosa, for the remainder of 2002–03 season (2002–03 Argentine Primera División), having only made just one appearance in the Torneo Clausura (2002–03 in Argentine football). Following the arrival of coach Jose Omar Pastoriza, seven months after Agüero's first match he returned to the club's first-team in 4-2 win against Peru's (Peru) Cienciano during the group stages of the 2004 Copa Libertadores. This meant that Agüero also became the youngest player to participate in the Copa Libertadores, a record that he held for three years. http: www.cronica.com.mx nota.php?id_nota 341620 One month later, Agüero again featured in a Copa Libertadores fixture against Ecuador's (Ecuador) El Nacional (Club Deportivo El Nacional). On 19 June, for the first time, Agüero played a full 90 minute match for Independiente against Atlético de Rafaela during the Torneo Clausura (2003–04 Argentine Primera División). http: www.terra.com.ar ctematicos clausura2004 partido 2388.shtml He scored his first goal for Independiente in a 2-2 draw against Estudiantes (Estudiantes de la Plata) on 26 November, with a 22nd minute shot from outside the penalty area. http: www.terra.com.ar ctematicos apertura2004 partido 2661.shtml
'''Ecuador''' ( west of the mainland.
Ecuador's official language is Spanish (Spanish language), which is spoken by 94% of the population; thirteen indigenous languages are also recognized, including Quichua (Quichua language) and Shuar (Shuar language). Ecuador has a land area of 283,520 km 2 and a population of approximately 15.2 million. Its capital city is Quito, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the 1970s for having the best preserved and least altered historic center (Historic Center of Quito) in Latin America. url http: whc.unesco.org en list 2 title City of Quito publisher Whc.unesco.org accessdate 2010-06-26 The country's largest city is Guayaquil. The historic center of Cuenca (Cuenca, Ecuador), the third-largest city in the country in size and economically, url http: www.sri.gob.ec BibliotecaPortlet descargar 802ca618-9bb7-4ada-81ca-647f2b133c06 gen--022982.zip title Statistics of income tax for Ecuador Cities publisher www.sri.gob.ec date 2008-12-31 accessdate 2008-12-31 was also declared a World Heritage Site in 1999 as an outstanding example of a planned, inland Spanish-style colonial city in the Americas. url http: whc.unesco.org en list 863 title Historic Centre of Santa Ana de los Ríos de Cuenca publisher Whc.unesco.org date 1999-12-02 accessdate 2010-06-26
In addition to its rich history, Ecuador is known for hosting a variety of species, many of them endemic (endemism), such as those of the Galápagos Islands. It is one of seventeen megadiverse countries in the world, , Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund. Retrieved 2009-09-07.
Ecuador is a presidential (presidential system) republic. In the territory now known as Ecuador there existed many indigenous groups before it became a part of the Inca Empire. It became an independent country in 1830 after having been part of the Spanish colonial empire (Spanish colonization of the Americas) and, for a much shorter time, of the republic of Gran Colombia. It is a medium-income country with an HDI (Human Development Index) score of 0.711 (2013).