in the Americas. This finding lends substantial credence to a migration theory that at least one set of early peoples moved south along the west coast of the Americas in boats. A previous study showed that mtDNA (human mitochondrial DNA) from indigenous populations in coastal British Columbia showed similarities to coastal populations in Southern California, while inland populations in both localities differed markedly. Dates of 9,730 and 9,880 years BP were obtained on the human remains, making them the oldest ever found in Alaska or Canada. The associated bone tool was dated to 10,300 years old - In addition to ratifying the Convention, a state party must voluntary submit to the Court's jurisdiction for it to be competent to hear a case involving that state. Acceptance of contentious jurisdiction can be given on a blanket basis – to date, Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela have done so http: www.cidh.org Basicos English Basic4.Amer.Conv.Ratif.htm – or, alternatively, a state can agree to abide by the Court's jurisdiction in a specific, individual case. years active 1977-1998 territory Colombia, United States, Central America, Mexico, Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Russia, Argentina, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru, Panama, Japan. ethnic makeup Colombians and international people out of Colombia - 2. 2 June 1996 Quito, Ecuador
of the islands, which stretch over a -long diameter. Since Charles Darwin's famous visit (Second voyage of HMS Beagle) to the islands in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions in the islands, from six different shield volcanoes. Of the 21 emergent volcanoes, 13 are considered active.
covering High Net Worth Individuals (HNWI) claims the fortunes of the world's millionaires and billionaires grew strongly in 2004, increasing by 8.2% to US$30.8 trillion in one year. Driven by North America & Asia–Pacific, this represents "the highest growth of HNWI wealth in more than three years". *Dollarisation - more US currency now circulates outside the US than inside it, and some countries such as Ecuador and El Salvador have adopted the US dollar as national currency
at the mouth of the Esmeraldas River. The city is the chief trading centre for the region's agricultural and lumber resources but is lacking in industrial development. Esmeraldas is home to the majority of the Afro Ecuadorian population. It is the terminus of the 313-mile (504-km) Trans-Ecuadorian Pipeline from the oil fields in northeastern Ecuador. Esmeraldas is exactly at the antipodes of Padang, Indonesia. '''Cayambe''' is an agricultural service town (population
, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Costa Rica, Indonesia, Ecuador, Vietnam and Singapore, among others. International promotions (2001-present) While wrestling in the International Wrestling Association (IWA), he competed in Revolution X-treme Wrestling based in Panama, performing in a royal rumble to determine the winner of the vacant RXW World Heavyweight Championship, where he won the event. ref name "Campeón de Panama" >
an international tour. This tour began with a presentation in Boston for Power House Wrestling Of New England. And continued with a visit to Ecuador where he would defend the Wrestling Alliance Revolution Tag Team Championship. The tour concluded in Panama where he defended the company's title against Ricky Banderas.
participated in a tag team match, where he teamed with a wrestler using the name Don Vega. They defeated a team that included the company's heavyweight champion.
the next year, putting Let's Go on every continent but Antarctica. Habitat The mata mata inhabits slow moving, blackwater streams, stagnant (stagnant (water)) pools, marshes, and swamps ranging into northern Bolivia, eastern Peru, Ecuador, eastern Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, and northern and central Brazil. The mata mata is strictly an aquatic species but it prefers standing in shallow water where its snout can reach the surface to breathe. ref name
cooperation_with_academic_institutions_2012.pdf Ariel University Center of Samaria, in cooperation with academic institutions around the world
has a part in the cultural expressions of the coastal rural regions of Ecuador, such as dances, horsetaming contests and skill exhibitions. * The Edelweiss Club Salzburg was founded in Salzburg in 1881, and had 3 members make the first ascent on two Eight-thousanders, Broad Peak (1957) and Dhaulagiri (1960). * Trained climbers turned their attention to the mountains of North America in 1888, when the Rev. W. S. Green made an expedition to the Selkirk Mountains. From
Linnaeus (1771) http: www.nhm.ac.uk nature-online species-of-the-day biodiversity loss-of-habitat titanus-giganteus index.html There is a local 'cottage industry' in French Guiana of leading tours specifically to collect specimens of this beetle. Dried beetles are commonly available to collectors, but the very large specimens, in particular, are sought after and routinely command high prices, running into hundreds of US$. For instance, a 150 mm male secimen was sold on the internet auction site eBay in March 2012 for US$540. Other countries' ecotourism agencies mention these beetles in their advertisements. Then, two years later, she went on to represent her country in the Miss Universe 2004 pageant held in Quito, Ecuador, where she reached the top fifteen and finished in the 11th place. The pageant was won by Jennifer Hawkins, Miss Australia. '''Fioravanti''' is a fruit-flavored, carbonated soft drink first sold in 1878 in Ecuador. It is notable for being one of the first soft drinks commercially sold. In 1991, it was acquired by the Coca-Cola Company. '''Apu Mallku''' is an Aymara (Aymara people) title meaning "supreme leader" or "king" conferred on a Mallku or "prince". The Apu Mallku's mandate is to oversee the vast network of '''Ayllus''', an ancient Andean system of governing councils that predates even the Inca empire. It appears that the mandate of the Apu Mallku was initially restricted to the Collasuyu (the traditional Aymara lands of Bolivia, parts of Peru and northern Chile) but it could now be interpreted (since a resolution in 2000) to extend to the bounds of the much larger former Inca realm of the Tawantinsuyu which stretched throughout the Andes incorporating the modern states of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina. The self-appellation for the people of this combined territory is ''Qullana''. Common names Some of the common names applied to this snake are ''terciopelo'', ''fer-de-lance'', ''barba amarilla'' (Guatemala, Honduras; "yellow beard"), ''equis'' (Ecuador & Panama; "x"), ''nauyaca'' (México; from Nahuatl ''nahui'', four, and ''yacatl'', nose; "four noses"), ''Diccionario de la Real Academia Española'', 22a. ed. Consulted March 27, 2009 and ''yellow-jaw tommygoff'' (Belize). Distribution It is found in the Atlantic lowlands of eastern Mexico and Central America, including Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. An isolated population occurs in southeastern Chiapas (Mexico) and southwestern Guatemala. In northern South America, it is found in Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. The type locality (Type locality (biology)) given is "Obispo, on the Isthmus of Darien" (Panama). Venom thumb 160px right Severe necrosis tissue necrosis (Image:Tissue necrosis following bite from Bothrops asper PLoS Medicine.jpg) following ''B. asper'' envenomation - the victim was an 11-year old boy, bitten two weeks earlier in Ecuador, but treated only with antibiotics. Leg necrosis This species is an important cause of snakebite within its range. Together with ''Crotalus durissus'', it is the leading cause of snakebite in Yucatán, Mexico. '''Puerto López''' (16,000 inhabitants) "Puerto Lopez Area Road Map." is a small fishing village set in an arched bay on the Pacific coast in the Ecuadorian Manabí Province. Puerto Lopéz is the Machalilla National Park headquarters. The main industries include fishing and ecotourism. The street closest to the beach has many restaurants, cabanas that provide drinks, and some nightclubs. Slavin is a veteran educator and activist in Peterborough (Peterborough, Ontario). Rudy Platiel, "Miller sweeps Muskoka in non-controversial Central Ontario voting," ''Globe and Mail'', 3 May 1985, 12. She was awarded a Development Education Award in 1992 for her field mission work in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. "TEN CANADIANS RECEIVE DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION AWARDS," ''Canada News-Wire'', 29 January 1992, 15:12. In the same period, she helped develop a junior high school course addressing themes of poverty, the environment and international development. "Poverty comes to classroom," ''Hamilton Spectator'', 26 March 1992, C6. She later worked through the International Program at Trent University to target water pollution at Lago San Pablo in Ecuador and the Rio Texcoco in Mexico. JoElle Kovach, "Cleaning Ecuador's water supply: Trent project is making a difference," ''Peterborough Examiner'', 10 July 2001, B1. She opposed Canada's military intervention in Afghanistan in 2001 and later opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Floyd Howlett and Linda Slavin, "Are we at war?", ''Peterborough Examiner'', 23 November 2001, A4; Alan and Linda Slavin, "This would be a racist war," ''Peterborough Examiner'', 17 February 2003, A5. She was granted Trent University's Eminent Service Award in 2003. "Professor Emeritus and Eminent Service Awards announced," ''M2 Presswire'', 12 June 2003. Today Cottolengo Fathers, Sisters, and Brothers still work together in activities primarily geared at communicating God's love for the poorest. They are spread out all over the world: Ecuador, India, Italy, Kenya, Switzerland, Tanzania and United States. '''''Dendrophryniscus''''' is a genus of true toads (Bufonidae) in the Bufonidae family endemic (endemism) to the atlantic forests of Brazil, amazonian Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and the Guianas. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. '''Mindo''' is a rural parish in Ecuador, located in the Los Bancos (Los Bancos (canton)) canton in the province of Pichincha (Pichincha Province). The parish is known for its growing ecotourism industry based in the Mindo-Nambillo Protected Forest. '''La Villa de San Antonio de Caráquez''', known simply as '''Bahía de Caráquez''' or '''Bahía''', is a coastal city in the Ecuadorian province of Manabí (Manabí Province). The city is located on a sandy peninsula on the country's western coast at the mouth of the Río Chone (Chone River). It has seen significant development during the last 15 to 20 years, particularly because it has become a vacation destination for people from Quito and Guayaquil. As a trained lawyer and writer, he has documented U.S. policy in nearly two dozen countries. Since 1986, Willson has studied on-site policies in a number of countries, among them Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Cuba, Haiti, Iraq, Israel (and Palestinian territories), Japan, and Korea, both North (North Korea) and South (South Korea). Documenting the pattern of policies that he says "violate U.S. Constitutional (United States Constitution) and international laws prohibiting aggression and war crimes," Willson has been an educator and activist, teaching about the dangers of these policies. He has participated in lengthy fasts, actions of nonviolent civil disobedience, and tax refusal (Tax resister#Refusing to pay) along with voluntary simplicity. *Costa Rica: Haden (Haden (mango)), Irwin (Irwin (mango)), Keitt (Keitt (mango)), Mora (Mora (mango)), Tommy Atkins (Tommy Atkins (mango)) *Ecuador: Ambassador (Ambassador (mango)), Alfonso (Alphonso (mango)), Ataulfo (Ataulfo mango), Criollos (Criollos (mango)), Haden (Haden (mango)), Julie (Julie (mango)), Keitt (Keitt (mango)), Kent (Kent (mango)), Reina (Reina (mango)), Tommy Atkins (Tommy Atkins (mango)) *Egypt: Alfonso (Alphonso (mango)), Hindi (Hindi (mango)), Hindi Besennara, Beid El Agl, Oweisi, Fuss Oweis, Taymoor, Zebdiah * 1979 - The Sino-Vietnamese War begins. * 1995 - The Cenepa War between Peru and Ecuador ends on a cease-fire brokered by the UN. :''For the Mexican river, see Balsas River. For the Ecuadorian canton, see Balsas, Ecuador. '''Balsas''' is a canton (canton (subnational entity)) in El Oro Province (El Oro Province, Ecuador), Ecuador. Its seat is Balsas (Balsas, Ecuador). right Coca tea thumb 250px Two cups of coca tea (Image:Mate de coca Peru.jpg) '''Coca tea''', also called '''mate de coca''', is a tisane (herbal tea) made using the leaves of the coca plant (Coca); typically the raw leaves of the plant. It is made either by submerging the coca leaf or dipping a tea bag in hot water. The tea originates from the Andes mountain range, particularly Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. The '''common shrew opossums''' (genus '''''Caenolestes'''''), are members of the Caenolestidae family (family (biology)). They are found in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. The team flies the Extra 300 aerobatic aircraft. Their aerobatic routine has been shown in Ecuador, Brazil, England, Belgium, United States, Canada, Israel, France, Peru and Bolivia, among others. 27 * María Capovilla, 116, Ecuadorian oldest person in the world (Oldest people), pneumonia. Tee Corinne , 62, American (United States) writer and artist. Rothenberg , 76, American lawyer, former president of Copyright Society, complications of popliteal (popliteal artery) aneurysm surgery. Spencer , 68, Ecuadorian footballer (Association football) (Peñarol, Ecuador (Ecuador national football team)), highest scorer in Copa Libertadores, infection after heart surgery. Convention 1968 The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic has been ratified by 70 countries. Examples of countries that have not ratified the Convention include Chile, Ireland (Republic of Ireland), the Republic of China (Taiwan), Israel, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Ghana, the Holy See, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Portugal, Republic of Korea (South Korea), Spain, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. '''Luis Adrián Morejón''' (born March 28, 1973 in Guayaquil) is a former tennis player from Ecuador who turned professional in 1991. He represented his native country at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, where he was defeated in the second round by Italy's Renzo Furlan. The right-hander reached his highest singles ATP (Association of Tennis Professionals) ranking on June 24, 1996, when he became the number 122 in the world. Mexico has about six million citizens who speak indigenous languages. That is the second-largest group in the Americas after Peru. However, a relatively small percentage of Mexico's population speaks an indigenous language compared to other countries in the Americas, such as Guatemala (42.8%), Peru (35%), and even Ecuador (9.4%), Panama (8.3%), http: www.inegi.gob.mx est contenidos espanol rutinas ept.asp?t mlen21&c 3349 Paraguay and Bolivia. * ''N. p. pentlandii'', the nominate race, occurs in the Andes of western Bolivia, northwestern Argentina, and extreme northern Chile . * ''N. p. ambigua'' occurs in the Andes of southern Ecuador and northwestern Peru . * ''N. p. oustaleti'' occurs on the west slope of the Andes in central and southern Peru . Range and habitat The Andean Tinamou can be found in the Andes of Ecuador, northern Chile, Peru, Bolivia and northwestern Argentina. The '''Buffy Tuftedcheek''' or '''Lawrence’s Tuftedcheek''', ''Pseudocolaptes lawrencii'', is a passerine bird in the ovenbird family (Ovenbird (family)), which breeds in the tropical New World in Costa Rica, western Panama and the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador. It is sometimes considered conspecific with the Streaked Tuftedcheek, ''P. boissonneautii'', of South America. Birds from Colombia and Ecuador sometimes are considered a separate species, the '''Pacific Tuftedcheek''' ''(P. johnsoni)''. --- * May 31, 2006 - Lloyd Monserratt (1966-2003), was born in Los Angeles (Los Angeles, California), California. Lloyd was the eldest son of Ecuadorian immigrants Carlos and Olga Monserratt. His father was an architect and named his eldest son after Frank Lloyd Wright. Lloyd graduated from UCLA and was politically active, especially on behalf of minorities. He died from complications during surgery. '''''Osornophryne''''' ('''Plump Toads''') is a genus of true toads (Bufonidae) endemic to Colombia and Ecuador at Cordillera Central region. - Maldonado Base Summer
and Mail'', 3 May 1985, 12. She was awarded a Development Education Award in 1992 for her field mission work in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. "TEN CANADIANS RECEIVE DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION AWARDS," ''Canada News-Wire'', 29 January 1992, 15:12. In the same period, she helped develop a junior high school course addressing themes of poverty, the environment and international development. "Poverty comes to classroom,"
'''Ecuador''' ( west of the mainland.
Ecuador's official language is Spanish (Spanish language), which is spoken by 94% of the population; thirteen indigenous languages are also recognized, including Quichua (Quichua language) and Shuar (Shuar language). Ecuador has a land area of 283,520 km 2 and a population of approximately 15.2 million. Its capital city is Quito, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the 1970s for having the best preserved and least altered historic center (Historic Center of Quito) in Latin America. url http: whc.unesco.org en list 2 title City of Quito publisher Whc.unesco.org accessdate 2010-06-26 The country's largest city is Guayaquil. The historic center of Cuenca (Cuenca, Ecuador), the third-largest city in the country in size and economically, url http: www.sri.gob.ec BibliotecaPortlet descargar 802ca618-9bb7-4ada-81ca-647f2b133c06 gen--022982.zip title Statistics of income tax for Ecuador Cities publisher www.sri.gob.ec date 2008-12-31 accessdate 2008-12-31 was also declared a World Heritage Site in 1999 as an outstanding example of a planned, inland Spanish-style colonial city in the Americas. url http: whc.unesco.org en list 863 title Historic Centre of Santa Ana de los Ríos de Cuenca publisher Whc.unesco.org date 1999-12-02 accessdate 2010-06-26
In addition to its rich history, Ecuador is known for hosting a variety of species, many of them endemic (endemism), such as those of the Galápagos Islands. It is one of seventeen megadiverse countries in the world, , Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund. Retrieved 2009-09-07.
Ecuador is a presidential (presidential system) republic. In the territory now known as Ecuador there existed many indigenous groups before it became a part of the Inca Empire. It became an independent country in 1830 after having been part of the Spanish colonial empire (Spanish colonization of the Americas) and, for a much shorter time, of the republic of Gran Colombia. It is a medium-income country with an HDI (Human Development Index) score of 0.711 (2013).