the leadership of Silvano Bertolin. First the western frieze, then the northern and southern portions, and finally the eastern frieze were restored, an effort which cost over three million euro. Berliner Zeitung Online, 25 January 2003 and 10 June 2004 (in German). On June 10, 2004 the completely restored frieze was presented for public viewing. The Pergamon altar can now be viewed in a form reflecting current scientific insights. '''ORP ''Orzeł''''' a Polish Navy
Republic after World War II, Coburg became part of West Germany. As a result, the town spent the Cold War years lying right next to the Iron Curtain, surrounded by East German territory on three sides. Wagenknecht was born on July 16, 1969, in the East German (East Germany) city of Jena. European Parliament profile Her mother worked for a state-run art distributor
;ref http: www.nuclearsuppliersgroup.org Leng 03-member.htm thumb left upright definitive stamp during his term (Image:Stamps of Germany (Berlin) 1964, MiNr 235.jpg) Lübke's status as a one-time political prisoner under the National Socialists stood him in good stead and it was not until 1966 that accusations started to be made by sources in the DDR (East Germany) that he had at the very least been aware of the use of slave labour on his projects; building plans bearing his
in the title role of Brecht's ''Life of Galileo'' and his stirring recordings of workers songs, including many written by Hanns Eisler. He also made a memorable and haunting recording of Peat Bog Soldiers (Peat Bog Soldiers (song)). Many of Busch's original recordings from the 1930s are available in digitized form online and on CD; also available are re-recordings created during the late 1940s and early 1950s, which are equally stirring but perhaps less subtle in approach. After World War II the Potsdam Conference assigned the majority of the Neumark to Polish administration, and since 1945 it remains part of Poland. Polish settlers (Poles) largely replaced the expelled German (Expulsion of Germans after World War II) population. Most of the Polish territory became part of the Lubusz Voivodeship, while the northern towns Choszczno (Arnswalde) (Choszczno), Myślibórz (Soldin) (Myślibórz), and Chojna (Königsberg in der Neumark) (Chojna) belong to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. Some territory near Cottbus, which was administratively part of the district of Frankfurt an der Oder (coterminous with the Neumark) after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, became part of East Germany in the 1940s, becoming part of Germany after reunification (German reunification) in 1990. thumb 300px right Helicopter of the German Army Aviation Corps in Iraq Northern Iraq (File:DN-ST-92-02168.jpg) in 1991 After 1990, the Heer absorbed the army of socialist East Germany, a part of the Nationale Volksarmee (National People's Army). The former East German forces were initially commanded by the Bunderwehr Command East under command of Lieutenant General Jörg Schönbohm and disbanded on 30 June 1991. See Jorg Schonbohm, 'Two Armies and One Fatherland', Berghahn Books, Providence & Oxford, 1996 In the aftermath of the merger, the German Army consisted of four Corps (including IV Corps (IV Corps (Bundeswehr)) at Potsdam in the former DDR) with a manpower of 360,000 men. It was continuously downsized from this point. In 1994 III Corps (III Corps (Bundeswehr)) was reorganised as the German Army Forces Command. In 1996, the 25th Airborne Brigade was converted into a new command leading the Army's special forces, known as the Kommando Spezialkräfte. *Bratsk ITL *Buchenwald (Buchenwald concentration camp#Soviet Special Camp 2) called as the Special camp No 2, the part of GULAG 1948-1950, turned to GDR (East Germany) by Kruglov (Sergei Kruglov (politician)) *Bukachacha ITL Though most Nazi concentration and extermination camps were destroyed after the war, some were made into permanent memorials. In Communist Poland (People's Republic of Poland), some camps such as Majdanek, Jaworzno (Central Labour Camp Jaworzno), Potulice (Central Labour Camp Potulice) and Zgoda (Zgoda labor camp) were used to hold German prisoners of war, suspected Nazis and collaborators, anti-Communists and other political prisoners, as well as civilian members of the German, Silesian (Silesians) and Ukrainian (Ukrainians) ethnic minorities. Currently, there are memorials to both camps in Potulice; they have helped to enable a German-Polish discussion on historical perception of World War II. In East Germany (Buchenwald (Buchenwald concentration camp) and Sachsenhausen (Sachsenhausen concentration camp)), concentration and extermination camps were used for similar purposes. Dachau concentration camp was used as a prison for arrested Nazis. The group decided to build their own version of the BESK to run the bureau, and formed Regnecentralen in October 1955 to complete and run the machine. The result was the DASK (RC DASK), a vacuum tube-based machine that completed construction in 1956 and went into full operation in February 1957. DASK was followed in 1961 by the fully transistorized GIER (RC GIER), used for similar tasks. GIER is an acronym for "Geodaetisk Instituts Elektronisk Regnemaskine" (Institute of Geodetics Electronic Calculator) and was introduced there on September 14, 1961. GIER proved to be a useful machine, and went on to be used at many Danish universities. Bech also sold GIER machines to the Eastern Bloc nations, starting with Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria, and later Romania, the East Germany, and Yugoslavia. thumb right 350px A flag of 150th Rifle Division (Soviet Union) Soviet 150th Rifle Division (File:Soviet Znamya Pobedy.svg) raised over the Reichstag (the Victory Banner). All that was left for the Soviets to do was to launch an offensive to capture central Germany (which would eventually become East Germany after the war). The Soviet offensive had two objectives. Because of Stalin (Joseph Stalin)'s suspicions about the intentions of the Western Allies to hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet zone of occupation (Sphere of influence), the offensive was to be on a broad front and was to move as rapidly as possible to the west, to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible. But the overriding objective was to capture Berlin. The two were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won quickly unless Berlin was taken. Another consideration was that Berlin itself held strategic assets, including Adolf Hitler and the German atomic bomb (German nuclear energy project) program. Beevor, ''Berlin'', see References (#References) Page 138 Meanwhile, a small group of PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine) terrorists, enraged at the looming failure of their campaign to erase Israel's existence, come across the lost Israeli warhead and use it to construct their own weapon, using the bomb's plutonium as fissile material. The terrorists enlist the help of disenfranchised East German (East Germany) physicist Manfred Fromm, who agrees to the plot in order to exact revenge for his country's reunification (Reunification of Germany) as a capitalist democratic state. With Fromm's expertise, the terrorists are able to enhance the weapon and turn it into a thermonuclear device (thermonuclear bomb). right thumb 120px Flag of East Germany (File:Flag of East Germany (Hanging).svg) The '''Culture of East Germany''' varied throughout the years due to the political and historical events that took place in the 20th century, especially as a result of Nazism and Communism. A reflection on the history of arts and culture in East Germany reveals complex relationships between artists and the state, between oppositional and conformist art. In a short four decades, East Germany developed a distinct culture and produced works of literature, film, visual arts, music, and theatre of international acclaim. right thumb 120px Flag of East Germany (File:Flag of East Germany (Hanging).svg) The '''Culture of East Germany''' varied throughout the years due to the political and historical events that took place in the 20th century, especially as a result of Nazism and Communism. A reflection on the history of arts and culture in East Germany reveals complex relationships between artists and the state, between oppositional and conformist art. In a short four decades, East Germany developed a distinct culture and produced works of literature, film, visual arts, music, and theatre of international acclaim. In the GDR (East Germany) the movie industry was very active. Besides folksy movies, the East German movie industry became known worldwide for its productions, especially for its children's movies (''Das kalte Herz'' and cinematic versions of the Grimms' fairy tales, and also modern productions like ''Das Schulgespenst''). GDR (East Germany) cinemas did not only screen domestic productions. Besides the Czech, Polish, and other Eastern European productions, certain foreign movies were shown as well, although the number was limited due to the cost of purchasing the licences. Movies which represented or glorified a capitalistic ideology were not bought. For example ''Grease (Grease (film))'' was not shown but ''One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (film))'' was. Comedies were popular, such as the Danish ''Olsen Gang'' or movies with the French comedian Louis de Funès. One buzzword often heard in this context is Socialist Classicism, while the Western reference to the same phenomenon is Stalinist architecture. In GDR (East Germany) its representative building tendencies were sometimes referred to as „stalinistischer Zuckerbäckerstil“ (roughly: "Stalinist Confectioner Style") or „Stalingotik“ (Stalinist Gothic (Gothic architecture)), unofficially. Designed to alleviate traffic flowing into and out of central Berlin, the U-Bahn rapidly expanded until the city was divided into East (East Berlin) and West Berlin at the end of World War II. Although the system initially remained open to residents of both sides, the construction of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent restrictions imposed by the East German (East Germany) government (Government of East Germany) limited travel across the border: The East Berlin U-Bahn lines were severed from West Berlin; while two West Berlin lines that ran through East Berlin (U6 and U8) were allowed to pass through without stopping, although the stations were closed, with the exception of Friedrichstraße (Berlin Friedrichstraße railway station), used as a transfer point (between U6 and the West Berlin S-Bahn system) and a border crossing into East Berlin. The system was reopened completely following the fall of the Berlin Wall, and German reunification. The physical division of the city cut the A line in half, and shortened the B line by one stop, since the Warschauer Brücke terminal lay in East Berlin, which retained only the eastern half of the A line, and line E. West Berlin paid an annual fee of DM (Deutsch mark)20 million to permit trains on the C and D lines to run through eastern territory, although the trains were not allowed to stop on their way: the former stops became The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.
Championships World Sprint Championships . Two weeks later, at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Flaim missed medals placing fourth 3 times. In his favorite distance he had the disadvantage of starting in the first pair on the 1,500 m and immediately broke Igor Zhelezovski's world record. Establishing this mark was an amazing accomplishment for the 20 year old who was not regarded as a leading contender. This would not be the new world record, though, because two pairs later
also created short articles or stubs for subjects that were far more obscure than they deserved, such as Mass games, the GRiD Compass (probably the first laptop), and Ryszard Siwiec, the first person to self-immolate in protest at the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia. But I'm just as happy to have added smaller details to numerous other articles (did you know that the sound at the beginning of the Sugababes' "Freak Like Me (Freak Like Me (Sugababes song))" is the sound made by the video game Frogger when a coin is inserted?). The Communists see Küsters's husband as a 'revolutionary' and a misguided victim of capitalism, but she is initially unpersuaded; her husband saw communists as troublemakers. Her daughter Corinna advises her mother to have nothing to do with them, and points out the differing conditions enjoyed by the authorities and the people in the East (East Germany). An article on the tragedy by Niemeyer (Gottfried John), a photojournalist who had earlier shown a particular interest in the family, appears in a magazine. Emma finds the article objectionable, but her daughter, who has embarked on an affair with Niemeyer, defends him on 'earning a living' grounds. At the factory, Emma Küsters finds that the company pension scheme will not apply in her case; the workers' council (Works council) and the company board are at one on the issue. Her daughter leaves, and Ernst and Helene, newly returned from holiday, announce they are to set up home on their own. Helene, expecting a child, does not get along with her sister-in-law. Europe * The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.
for an Academy Award (Academy Awards) in the category Live Action Short Film (Academy Award for Live Action Short Film) in 2002 and Wolfgang Becker's (Wolfgang Becker) ''Good Bye Lenin!'' (2003), among others. Alexander Beyer lives and works in Zurich, Switzerland and Berlin, Germany. In 1990, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the first groups of Protestant Scouts and Guides were formed in the still existent German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Today, the VCP
People's Republic of Albania Albania , North Korea, Vietnam (North Vietnam), East Germany, Romania (Socialist Republic of Romania) and Poland (People's Republic of Poland). Most of these nations produced nearly identical variants, with the most common modifications being differing styles of bayonets and the 22 mm (22 mm grenade) rifle grenade launcher commonly seen on Yugoslavian models. There is some debate as to the relative manufacturing quality of each nation's SKS
where some of them form part of the public transport system as active commercial carriers. Most extensive of those still employing steam traction is the Harz mountain group of metre gauge lines, the Harzer Schmalspurbahnen. Other notable lines are the Zittau-Oybin-Jonsdorf line in Saxony, the Mollibahn and the Rügensche Kleinbahn on the Isle of Rügen (Rügen) on the Baltic coast and the Radebeul-Radeburg line, Weisseritztalbahn in the suburbs of Dresden. Although
web url http: www.meghalayatimes.info index.php?option com_content&view article&id 1626:what-is-india&catid 45:notebook title What is India? publisher Meghalayatimes.info date 2009-09-21 accessdate 2009-11-21 Recently, Germany has invested in developing education and skills amongst rural Indians. Also of note, during World War II an Indian division known as the Tiger Legion was attached to the German Wehrmacht. !-- start date -->
'''East Germany''', formally the '''German Democratic Republic''' or '''GDR''' ( ) or ''DDR''), was a state within the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period. From 1949 to 1990, it administered the region of Germany which was occupied by Soviet (USSR) forces at the end of the Second World War—the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line. The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin, but did not include it; as a result, West Berlin remained outside the jurisdiction of the GDR.
The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet Zone, while the Federal Republic (West Germany) was established in the three western zones. The East was often described as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Karl Dietrich Erdmann, Jürgen Kocka, Wolfgang J. Mommsen, Agnes Blänsdorf. ''Towards a Global Community of Historians: the International Historical Congresses and the International Committee of Historical Sciences 1898–2000''. Berghahn Books, 2005, pp. 314. ("However the collapse of the Soviet empire, associated with the disintegration of the Soviet satellite regimes in East-Central Europe, including the German Democratic Republic, brought about a dramatic change of agenda.") Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, and the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. Soviet forces (Group of Soviet Forces in Germany), however, remained in the country throughout the Cold War. The GDR established the Ministry for State Security (Stasi), or "Stasi", which aided the Soviet Army in suppressing uprisings in 1953 (Uprising of 1953 in East Germany). Until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party (Socialist Unity Party of Germany) (SED), though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany. ''Eugene Register-Guard'' October 29, 1989. p. 5A.
The economy was centrally planned, and increasingly state-owned (Government-owned corporation). Peter E. Quint. ''The Imperfect Union: Constitutional Structures of German Unification'' Princeton University Press 2012, pp. 125-126. Prices of basic goods and services were set by central government planners, rather than rising and falling through an unregulated market. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Nonetheless it did not match the economic growth of West Germany. Emigration to the West was a significant problem—as many of the emigrants were young well-educated people, it further weakened the state economically. The government fortified its western borders (Inner German border) and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to emigrate (Escape attempts and victims of the inner German border) were killed by border guards or mines.
In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the destruction of the Berlin Wall and the emergence of a government committed to liberalization. The following year open elections (East German general election, 1990), were held, Geoffrey Pridham, Tatu Vanhanen. ''Democratization in Eastern Europe'' Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0-415-11063-7 pp. 135 and international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty (Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany) on the status and borders of Germany. The GDR was dissolved and Germany was unified (German reunification) on 3 October 1990.