East Germany

What is East Germany known for?


educational political

communist era have considerably changed the face of the city. Some restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Semper Oper and the Dresdner Frauenkirche. Since the German reunification in 1990, Dresden has regained importance as one of the cultural, educational, political and economic centres of Germany. '''East Malaysia''', also known as '''Sabah and Sarawak''' (''Sabah dan Sarawak'') The term "


movies+representing

. These films were part of the phenomenon of Europe producing alternative films about the colonization of America. Cinemas in the GDR also showed foreign films. Czechoslovak and Polish productions were more common, but certain western movies were shown, though the numbers of these were limited because it cost foreign exchange to buy the licences. Further, movies representing or glorifying capitalist ideology were not bought. Comedies enjoyed great popularity, such as the Danish '' Olsen Gang


hits including

publisher url and released in the early 1980, turned out to be a success on a large scale. It spawned more hits, including "My Gipsy Lady", "More" and also "Singapore (Singapore (song))", with the latter even reaching number 7 in Japan. <


numerous medical

name Revolution1989 The Soyuz 29's second visiting crew was launched 26 August on Soyuz 31 with Valery Bykovsky and East German (East Germany) Sigmund Jähn, the third Intercosmos participant, aboard. Food was brought aboard, and numerous medical and biological experiments were carried out. The visiting crew swapped craft with the resident crew, and tested the Soyuz 29's engines on 2 September. Seat liners were exchanged the next day, the craft undocked


commitment quot

'''Clemens Fritz''' (born 7 December 1980 in Erfurt, East Germany) is a German footballer (Association football) who plays as a right back (Defender (association football)#Full back) for Werder Bremen (SV Werder Bremen). He is well known for his pace, passing and team effort. File:Ampelmann.svg


experimental musical

as a platform for his conceptual and experimental musical concerns. http: www.answers.com topic alva-noto In 1996 this was to become Raster-Noton. Archiv Für Ton Und Nichtton with the collaboration of Olaf Bender. - align "left" align "left"


called large

German word for a building whose structure is constructed of large, prefabricated (prefabrication) concrete slabs. The word is a compound of ''Platte'' (in this context: panel) and ''Bau'' (building). Although ''Plattenbauten'' are often considered to be typical of East Germany, the prefabricated construction method was used extensively in West Germany and elsewhere, particularly in public housing (see tower block). In English the building method is also called ''' large-panel


film history

natural resources, chiefly oil and gas reserves. Her best known film roles were "Susanne Wallner" in Wolfgang Staudte's film ''Die Mörder sind unter uns'' (''The Murderers Are Among Us''), the first film released after the Second World War in East Germany and produced by DEFA); and in 1950, "Marina" in ''Die Sünderin'' (''The Sinner''), in which she performed a brief nude scene, the first in German film history, causing a scandal. When the Roman Catholic Church protested, she responded vehemently, “I can't understand all the tumult - five years after Auschwitz.” Ralf Schmitt, "Hildegard Knef ist tot" ''Spielfilm'' (February 1, 2002). Retrieved March 5, 2012 The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.


world shooting

The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.


music written

. Oxford Music Online. 20 Oct. 2008 Music written in this style was supposed to advance party politics as well as be more accessible to all. Mehner, Klaus, "Deutschland ab 1945: Deutsche Demokratische Republik", vol. 2, ''Die Musik in Gesellschaft und Gegenwart'' ed. Ludwig Finscher (Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag, 1995), 1188-91 Hanns Eisler and Ernst Hermann Meyer were among the most famous of the first generation of GDR composers. By the early 1970s, experimental West German rock styles had crossed the border into East Germany and influenced the creation of an East German rock movement referred to as Ostrock. On the other side of the Wall (Berlin Wall), these bands tended to be stylistically more conservative than in the West, to have more reserved engineering, and often to include more classical and traditional structures (such as those developed by Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht in their 1920s Berlin theater songs). These groups often featured poetic lyrics loaded with indirect double-meanings and deeply philosophical challenges to the status quo. As such, they were a style of Krautrock. The best-known of these bands were: *The Puhdys (Puhdys) '''Erich Fritz Emil Mielke''' (December 28, 1907 – May 21, 2000) was a German (Germany) communist politician and Minister of State Security—and as such head of the Stasi of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) between 1957 and 1989. Mielke spent more than a decade as an operative of the NKVD during the rule of Joseph Stalin. He was one of the perpetrators of the Great Purge as well as the Stalinist decimation of the International Brigade during the Spanish Civil War. The state of Prussia was dissolved after the end of the Nazi era (Nazi Germany), and the new state of Saxony-Anhalt was established, with Delitzsch being a part of it. In 1953 the East German (East Germany) government dissolved the states. They were reestablished after the German reunification in 1990, but Delitzsch and Eilenburg (two districts made up of the former Delitzsch district) were initially given to Saxony instead of Saxony-Anhalt. The two districts again merged in 1994 and formed the present borders. Three German teams After the Second World War, Germany was banned from competition in most sports until about 1950, with none of the three new German states, West Germany, East Germany and Saarland (Saar (protectorate)), entering the 1950 World Cup (1950 FIFA World Cup) qualifiers as the DFB was only reinstated as full FIFA member after this World Cup. Declassified information from Soviet archives confirms that the PCI relied on Soviet financial assistance, more so than any other Communist party supported by Moscow. Richard Drake. ''The Soviet Dimension of Italian Communism'', Journal of Cold War Studies, Volume 6, Number 3, Summer 2004, pp. 115-119 The party received perhaps as much as $60 million from the end of World War II until the PCI’s break with Moscow in the early 1980s. The party used these funds mainly for organizational purposes. According to the former KGB archivist Vasili Mitrokhin, after the Athens Colonel Coup (Greek military junta of 1967-1974) in April 1967, Longo and other PCI leaders became alarmed at the possibility of a coup in Italy. These fears were not completely unfounded, as there had been two attempted coups in Italy, Piano Solo in 1964 and Golpe Borghese in 1970, by neo-fascist (Neo-fascism) and military groups. The PCI’s Giorgio Amendola formally requested Soviet assistance to prepare the party in case of such an event. The KGB drew up and implemented a plan to provide the PCI with its own intelligence and clandestine signal corps. From 1967 through 1973, PCI members were sent to East Germany and Moscow to receive training in clandestine warfare and information gathering techniques by both the Stasi and the KGB. Shortly before the May 1972 elections, Longo personally wrote to Leonid Brezhnev asking for and receiving an additional $5.7 million in funding. This was on top of the $3.5 million that the Soviet Union gave the PCI in 1971. The Soviets also provided additional funding through the use of front companies providing generous contracts to PCI members. Andrew, Christopher; Mitrokhin, Vasili. ''The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB'' Basic Books (2001) The present borders of the district were established in 1952, when the government of East Germany formed the new districts. Döbeln is one of the few districts which have not been changed after the German reunification. In August 2008, as a part of the district reform in Saxony, the districts of Döbeln, Freiberg and Mittweida were merged into the new district Mittelsachsen. By country thumb Facsimile of the cover page from an East Germany East German (Image:FialkaManualCoverPage.jpg) operation manual for the M-125 Fialka cipher machine (cipher). The underlined classification markings can be translated as "Cryptologic material! Secret classified material" :de:Verschlusssache. Most countries employ some sort of classification system for certain government information. For example, in Canada, information that the U.S. would classify SBU (Sensitive but Unclassified) is called "protected" and further subcategorised into levels A, B, and C. '''Egon Krenz''' (born 19 March 1937) is a former politician from East Germany (the German Democratic Republic), and that country's last communist leader. He succeeded Erich Honecker as leader of the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) and head of state in October 1989, but was ousted just under three months later amid the collapse of the communist regime. In 1801 the clerical states were dissolved, and Prussia gained the region, only to lose it again in the Napoleonic Wars. In the Congress of Vienna (1815) Prussia as well as the kingdom of Hanover raised claims for the Eichsfeld. The region was divided between both states. Although Hanover was annexed by Prussia in 1866, this border remained the boundary between two Prussian provinces, later between East (East Germany) and West Germany, and today between Thuringia and Lower Saxony. She won two Olympic (List of Olympic medalists in figure skating) gold medals for East Germany, first in the 1984 Sarajevo Olympics (1984 Winter Olympics) and the second in 1988 at the Calgary Olympics (1988 Winter Olympics). She won the World Championships (World Figure Skating Championships) four times (in 1984, 1985, 1987 and 1988), and six consecutive European Championships (European Figure Skating Championships) (1983–1988). She won silver medals at both the 1982 and 1986 World Figure Skating Championships. Her competitive record makes her one of the most successful figure skaters of all time. thumb left upright Katarina Witt, 1982 (Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1982-1127-021, Katarina Witt.jpg) Witt was born in Staaken in East Germany, just outside of West Berlin, which is today part of Berlin. Her mother worked in a hospital as a physiotherapist and her father was a farmer. She went to school in Karl-Marx-Stadt (which today has reverted to its pre-war name of Chemnitz). There she attended Kinder- und Jugendsportschule, a special school for athletically talented children. She represented the club SC Karl-Marx-Stadt for the GDR (East Germany). Jutta Müller began coaching her in 1977. Witt trained six days a week, sometimes for seven hours a day with three hours spent on compulsory figures. In 1994, she made a comeback to the competitive skating scene. She was again coached by Jutta Müller and qualified for the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, where she finished 7th. This was Witt's first international competition for the reunified country of Germany, following 11 years competing for East Germany. Much-noted was her free programme to the music “Sag mir wo die Blumen sind” (an arrangement of the Pete Seeger folksong "Where Have All the Flowers Gone"), considered remarkable for its artistic impression, including a peace message for the people of Sarajevo (the site of her first Olympic victory). She received the Golden Camera (Verleihung der Goldenen Kamera) for her Olympic comeback. In the same year she published her autobiography ''Meine Jahre zwischen Pflicht und Kür'' (''My Years between Compulsories and Freestyle''). As a consequence of the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II Germany was split between the two global blocs in the East and West, a period known as the division of Germany. While seven million prisoners and forced laborers left Germany, over 10 million German speaking refugees arrived there from Eastern Europe as living conditions were harsh. Many German POWs became forced laborers to provide restitution to the countries Germany had devastated in the war, and some industrial equipment was removed as reparations. Germany was stripped of its war gains and lost territories in the east to Poland and Russia. The Cold War polarized Germany between the Allies in the west and Soviets in the east. Germans had little voice in government until 1949 when two states emerged; the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) was a parliamentary democracy with a capitalistic system and free churches and labor unions. The other new state was the much smaller German Democratic Republic (East Germany), a totalitarian Stalinist dictatorship with its Communist leadership selected by Joseph Stalin in order to make it a Soviet satellite state. After 1950 the "economic miracle" in West Germany gave it the most prosperous economy of Europe, while Chancellor Konrad Adenauer came to friendly terms with France, as well as Israel and the United States, and entered NATO and what became the European Union. East Germany stagnated as its socialist economy was linked to the Soviet Union; the secret police (Stasi) tightly controlled daily life, and the Berlin Wall (1961) ended the steady flow of refugees to the west. Germany was reunited in 1990 (German reunification), following the collapse of the East German communist regime. Goole is twinned (Twin towns and sister cities) with Złotów, Poland, (and was twinned with Rostock, East Germany in 1969 although this seems to have lapsed). Goole was informally twinned with Gibraltar in the 1960s; at that time, Gibraltar Court was named in Goole and Goole Court was named in Gibraltar. Afterwards, he moved to East Germany and spent eight years as a student at Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg as well as working in steel plants. Upon returning to China, Luo continued to work in the steel industry and became Party chief of the central Henan Province in the 1980s. Final decade of life From 1978 until his death in 1988, Strauss was minister-president of Bavaria, serving as President (President of the German Bundesrat) of the Bundesrat (Bundesrat of Germany) in 1983 84. After his defeat in the 1980 federal election, he retreated to commenting on federal politics from Bavaria. In the following years, he was the most visible critic of Kohl's politics in his own political camp, even after Kohl ascended to the Chancellorship. In 1983, he was primarily responsible for a loan of 3 billion Deutsche Mark given to East Germany. This move was widely criticised even during Strauss's lifetime – the radical Republicans (The Republicans (Germany)) due to this move. foundation 1918 dissolution Banned from 1933 to 1945, 1946 (in East Germany), 1956 (in West Germany) ideology Communism, Marxism–Leninism The KPD reorganised in the western part of Germany, and received 5.7% of the vote in the first Bundestag election (German federal election, 1949) in 1949. But the onset of the Cold War and imposition of a communist state in East Germany soon caused a collapse in the party's support. At the 1953 election (German federal election, 1953) the KPD only won 2.2 percent of the total votes and lost all of its seats. The party was banned in August 1956 by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany. The ban was due to the aggressive and combative methods that the party used as a "Marxist-Leninist party struggle" to achieve their goals. After the party was declared illegal, many of its members continued to function clandestinely despite increased government surveillance. Part of its membership refounded the party in 1968 as the German Communist Party (DKP), which still exists. Following German reunification, however, many DKP members joined the new PDS (Left Party (Germany)). After 1945, Ernst Thälmann, and other leading communists who were murdered, such as Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, were widely honoured in East Germany, with many schools, streets, factories, etc., named after them. Most of these names were abolished after German reunification though it is still possible to find places named after Thälmann in cities like Berlin, Hamburg, and Frankfurt an der Oder (Frankfurt (Oder)). The East German pioneer organisation (Pioneer Movement) was named the Ernst Thälmann Pioneer Organisation in his memory. Members pledged that "Ernst Thälmann is my role model," adding that "I promise to learn to work and fight struggle as Ernst Thälmann teaches". In the 1950s, an East German film in two parts, ''Ernst Thälmann (Ernst Thälmann (film))'', was made. In 1972, Cuba named a small island, Cayo Ernesto Thaelmann (Ernst Thälmann Island), after him. Selection of lay judges has been described as a "highly political and discriminatory process." The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.

East Germany

'''East Germany''', formally the '''German Democratic Republic''' or '''GDR''' ( ) or ''DDR''), was a state within the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period. From 1949 to 1990, it administered the region of Germany which was occupied by Soviet (USSR) forces at the end of the Second World War—the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line. The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin, but did not include it; as a result, West Berlin remained outside the jurisdiction of the GDR.

The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet Zone, while the Federal Republic (West Germany) was established in the three western zones. The East was often described as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Karl Dietrich Erdmann, Jürgen Kocka, Wolfgang J. Mommsen, Agnes Blänsdorf. ''Towards a Global Community of Historians: the International Historical Congresses and the International Committee of Historical Sciences 1898–2000''. Berghahn Books, 2005, pp. 314. ("However the collapse of the Soviet empire, associated with the disintegration of the Soviet satellite regimes in East-Central Europe, including the German Democratic Republic, brought about a dramatic change of agenda.") Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, and the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. Soviet forces (Group of Soviet Forces in Germany), however, remained in the country throughout the Cold War. The GDR established the Ministry for State Security (Stasi), or "Stasi", which aided the Soviet Army in suppressing uprisings in 1953 (Uprising of 1953 in East Germany). Until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party (Socialist Unity Party of Germany) (SED), though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany. ''Eugene Register-Guard'' October 29, 1989. p. 5A.

The economy was centrally planned, and increasingly state-owned (Government-owned corporation). Peter E. Quint. ''The Imperfect Union: Constitutional Structures of German Unification'' Princeton University Press 2012, pp. 125-126. Prices of basic goods and services were set by central government planners, rather than rising and falling through an unregulated market. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Nonetheless it did not match the economic growth of West Germany. Emigration to the West was a significant problem—as many of the emigrants were young well-educated people, it further weakened the state economically. The government fortified its western borders (Inner German border) and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to emigrate (Escape attempts and victims of the inner German border) were killed by border guards or mines.

In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the destruction of the Berlin Wall and the emergence of a government committed to liberalization. The following year open elections (East German general election, 1990), were held, Geoffrey Pridham, Tatu Vanhanen. ''Democratization in Eastern Europe'' Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0-415-11063-7 pp. 135 and international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty (Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany) on the status and borders of Germany. The GDR was dissolved and Germany was unified (German reunification) on 3 October 1990.

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