. Military Hof was in cold war times of special interest as it was near the frontier to Czechoslovakia and the GDR (East Germany). On Hohe Saas, there was a radar site. Between 1949 and 1993, Hof was also the site of an RIAS (Rundfunk im amerikanischen Sektor) transmitting station. The German national football team has no national stadium. Like the men, the women's team play their home matches in different stadiums throughout the country. As of June 2011, they have played in 87 different German cities. Most home games have been held in Osnabrück with six matches, followed by Ulm (five games), and Bochum, Kaiserslautern, Koblenz, Lüdenscheid, Rheine, Siegen and Weil am Rhein (three games each). The first home match in former East Germany was played in Aue in May 1991. Deutscher Fußball-Bund. 09.05.1991 Germany – Poland 2:1 (1:0) . DFB.de. Accessed 11 August 2008. '''Sigrun Grau''' (born 7 November 1965 in Neu Kaliß, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is an East German (East Germany) former middle distance (Middle distance track event) athlete (Athletics (sport)), who was born '''Sigrun Ludwigs''' in Neu Kaliß. She started out as a 400 m runner in Schwerin, and proved successful in this event in junior meets. She then switched clubs and changed to the 800 m like her new club mate, Christine Wachtel, who would also become her closest rival. '''Karin Balzer''' (née ''Richert'', born June 5, 1938) is a former East German (East Germany) hurdler (hurdling), one of the best in high hurdles event during the 1960s. '''Rosemarie Ackermann''' (born 4 April 1952) is a former East German (East Germany) high jumper. She was the first female high jumper ever to clear the height of 2.00 m, on 26 August 1977 in Berlin. She was born as '''Rosemarie Witschas''' in Lohsa, Sachsen. Under that name, she took part for East Germany in the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, finishing seventh behind Ulrike Meyfarth. East German Cup (1949–91) East Germany also had its own national cup: the FDGB Cup, the cup of the ''Freie Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund'', the association of the East German trade unions. It was introduced in 1949 and awarded annually until 1991 after German reunification in 1990 led to the merger of the football leagues of the two Germanys. A counter-insurgency campaign—the Dhofar Rebellion—was fought here by the Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces in 1965–1975 against guerrilla (guerrilla warfare) fighters of the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Persian Gulf (Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman) (PFLOAG), supported by Communist (Communism) South Yemen after that territory's independence and several other socialist states including East Germany. It aimed to depose the Sultan. The Sultan's forces, assisted by the United Kingdom, Iran, and support from loaned officers and doctors from Pakistan and India In the service of the Sultan - Ian Gardiner , prevailed, and once the campaign was declared over in December 1975, the active remainder of PFLOAG forces surrendered. From the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945 until the reunification (German reunification) of Germany in October 1990, Berlin was divided into four sectors: the American Sector, the French Sector, the British Sector, and the Soviet Sector, each named after the occupying power. The Soviet sector, informally called East Berlin, was considered by East Germany, then a member of the Warsaw Pact, to be part of its territory and in fact its capital, and the American, French, and British Sectors, collectively called West Berlin, were in some respects governed as if they were a part of West Germany, a member of NATO. Seldom did the American government exercise power directly in the American sector, except as it affected American military forces stationed in Berlin. In particular, the judgeship of the United States Court for Berlin was vacant except during the trial over which Judge Stern presided. Themes Karl May's "Winnetou" novels symbolize, to some extent, a romantic desire for a simpler life in close contact with nature. In fact, the popularity of the series is due in large part to the ability of the stories to tantalize fantasies many Europeans had and have for this more untamed environment. The sequel has become the origin of festivals, and the first regular Karl-May-Spiele were staged 1938 till 1941 in Rathen, Saxony. East Germany restarted those open air theater plays in 1984. In West Germany, the "Karl-May-Festspiele" or "Karl-May-Spiele" in Bad Segeberg were started as early as 1950 and then expanded to further places like Lennestadt-Elspe (Lennestadt) in honor of Karl May or, rather, of his Apache hero, Winnetou. Now, they are never difficult to find in either Germany or Austria. Championship play was suspended twice; from 1915 to 1919 due to World War I and again from 1945 to 1947 due to World War II. Following World War II, Germany was occupied (Allied occupation zones in Germany) by the victorious Allies (Allied Control Council) and two German football competitions emerged when the country was divided as a result. The historical tradition of the DFB was continued in what was known as West Germany, while a second national championship (East German football champions) was contested in Soviet-controlled East Germany under the auspices of the DFV (Deutscher Fußball-Verband) (Deutscher Fußball-Verband or German Football Federation). Following the reunification (German reunification) of the country in 1990, the two separate football competitions were merged and a single national championship was restored. Below the level of the 3rd league, leagues are generally often subdivided on a regional basis. For example, the Regionalligen are currently made up of Nord (North), Süd (South) and West divisions, and the Oberligen (upper leagues) are composed of nine divisions representing federal states or large urban and geographical areas. The levels below the Oberligen (Oberliga (football)) differ between the local areas. The league structure has changed frequently and typically reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country. In the early 1990s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany (German reunification) and the subsequent integration of the national leagues of East (East Germany) and West Germany. ** 1965 66–1990 91: 18 ** 1991 92: 20, while East (East Germany) and West German (West Germany) leagues were being combined after German reunification ** Since 1992 93: 18 From the late 1940s to 1990, the town was the site of a major border crossing between the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic. The main rail (Brunswick–Magdeburg railway) and autobahn route between West Germany and Berlin, across the GDR (East Germany), began at the Helmstedt–Marienborn border crossing, also known as Checkpoint Alpha. Official military traffic from NATO countries to West Berlin was only allowed to use this route. Development Work on a successor for the venerable
. The first public military review took place at Andernach, in January 1956. Large, David Clay ''Germans to the Front West German rearmament in the Adenauer era'' University of North Carolina Press 1996 pp244-5 ISBN 0-8078-4539-6 A US Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) helped with the introduction of the Bundeswehr's initial equipment and war material, predominantly of American origin. In 1956, conscription for all men between
-c1b1209.pdf PARTIAL JUSTICE: An inquiry into the deaths of journalists in Russia , June 2009. None of the allegations were ever tested in court. Grachev was replaced as defence minister in 1996, after the end of the first Chechen war. The realistic nature of the 1983 exercise, coupled with deteriorating relations (Cold War (1979–1985)) between the United States and the Soviet Union and the anticipated arrival of Pershing II (Pershing missile) nuclear missiles in Europe, led some members of the Soviet Politburo and Soviet military to believe that Able Archer 83 was a ruse of war, obscuring preparations for a genuine nuclear first strike. Andrew and Gordievsky, ''Comrade Kryuchkov's Instructions'', 85–7. Beth Fischer, ''Reagan Reversal'', 123, 131. Pry, ''War Scare'', 37–9. In response, the Soviets readied their nuclear forces and placed air units in East Germany and Poland (History of Poland (1945–1989)) on alert. Oberdorfer, ''A New Era'', 66. ''SNIE 11–10–84'' "Implications of Recent Soviet Military-Political Activities" Central Intelligence Agency, May 18, 1984. This relatively obscure incident is considered by many historians to be the closest the world has come to nuclear war (nuclear warfare) since the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.
encompassing stock of the Albanian version are visually distinctive. Early versions of Chinese Type 56s (produced 1965–71) used a spike bayonet, whereas the majority use a vertically aligned blade. Many smaller parts, most notably the sights and charging handles, were unique to different national production runs. A small quantity of SKS carbines manufactured in 1955–56 were produced in China with Russian parts, presumably as part of a technology sharing arrangement. Many Yugoslav M59 66 series rifles were exported to Uruguay and Mozambique The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.
of candidates from all parties. In practice, however, only the Communist Party had any real power; all parties in the front had to accept its "leading role." By ensuring that Communists dominated the candidate lists, it effectively predetermined the composition of the legislature. *An episode of ''History Bites'' features this book, with Bob Bainborough portraying Goethe. *Ulrich Plenzdorf, a GDR (East Germany) poet, wrote a novel and a play called '' Die neuen Leiden des
Islands . * Hungary and the Soviet Union were both present at the Games which, among other things, led to a hotly contested and violent water polo encounter (Blood in the Water match) between the nations. * Athletes from both East (East Germany) and West Germany competed in a combined team (United Team of Germany). This remarkable combination would disappear at the 1968 Summer Olympics. * Australian athlete Betty Cuthbert became the "Golden Girl" by winning three track
launcher Guards Mortar regiment at Berka (Bad Berka) in East Germany as the 92nd Special-purpose Brigade of the RVGK Supreme High Command Reserve (92 BON RVGK). Charles Tuten, Making the (Right) Connections: A Cautionary Account of WMD Intelligence, Running End Ltd, 2005, ISBN 1-881625-24-9, 9781881625247, via Google Books. On October 18, 1947 the brigade conducted the first launch of the remanufactured former German A-4 (V-2 rocket) ballistic missile
by the East German (East Germany) Stasi to vote for Brandt. Guillaume had been an espionage agent for East Germany, who was supervised by Markus Wolf, the head of the "Main Intelligence Administration" of the East German Ministry for State Security. Wolf stated after the reunification that the resignation of Brandt had never been intended, and that the planting and handling of Guillaume had been one of the largest mistakes of the East German secret services. In the early 1980s
. In that race he beat the future world-record holder Sebastian Coe and the future Olympic Champion Steve Ovett both from the UK. Beyer's time of 1:43.84 made him temporarily the fourth-fastest 800m runner of all time. Beyer himself explained to the British sports journalist and writer Pat Butcher that he won that surprising championship because for the first and only time in his career, he had been able to train for the previous year free from injuries. He also ran intelligently, not taking
Germany . Because of his close connection to many aspects of project activities, and his extensive technical knowledge, he is considered to have been the most valuable of the "Atomic Spies" in terms of the information he gave to the Soviet Union about the American fission bomb program. He also gave early information about the American hydrogen bomb program but since he was not present at the time that the successful Teller-Ulam design was discovered, his information on this is not thought to have been of much value. *Theodore Hall – a young American physicist at Los Alamos, whose identity as a spy was not revealed until very late in the 20th century. He was never arrested in connection to his espionage work, though seems to have admitted to it in later years to reporters and to his family. '''Ruth Fuchs''', née '''Gamm''' (born December 14, 1946 in Egeln, Saxony-Anhalt) is a German politician and former athlete. Fuchs, representing East Germany, was the winner of the women's javelin at the 1972 (Munich) (1972 Summer Olympics) and 1976 (Montreal) Olympic Games (1976 Summer Olympics). She set the world record for the javelin six times during the 1970s. :: Oh, and any state that calls itself a democracy (e.g. GDR (East Germany), DPRK, LPDR (Laos), DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo)) isn't. --BluePlatypus (User:BluePlatypus) 21:57, 11 April 2006 (UTC) One of the orchestra's later concert venues was the ''Kulturpalast'', during the existence of the DDR (East Germany). After German reunification, plans had been proposed for a new concert hall. These had not come to fruition by the time of the principal conductorship of Marek Janowski, who cited this lack of development of a new hall for the orchestra as the reason for his resignation from the post in 2004. In addition to concerts at the ''Kulturpalast'', the orchestra also performs at the ''Kreuzkirche'', the Hochschule für Musik Dresden (Hochschule für Musik "Carl Maria von Weber"), the Schloss Albrechtsberg. Reconstruction After the end of the GDR (East Germany), in 1993 the action group "Wiederaufbau Kloster Volkenroda e. V." (''"Reconstruction of Volkenroda Abbey"'') was established, with the aim of reviving the monastic tradition. From 1994 the "Brotherhood of Jesus" (''"Jesus-Bruderschaft"'') from Hünfelden-Gnadental in the district of Limburg-Weilburg in Hesse took over the buildings and set up a community in them. Since author Rolf Hochhuth had originally prohibited a production of his play in Eastern European theatres out of apprehension that Eastern European governments could exploit the play for a striking anti-Catholic interpretation, Hetty Burgers: ''Die “Stellvertreter”-Rezeption in der DDR. Zur Rezeption der einen deutschen Literatur im anderen Deutschland''. In: ''Ideologie und Literatur(wissenschaft)''. Hrsg. von Jos Hoogeveen und Hans Würzner. Amsterdam: Rodopi 1986, p. 180. the play was first produced in Eastern Europe almost three years after its premiere at the National Theatre in Belgrade in Yugoslavia in January 1966 and at the National Theatre in Bratislava (Slovak National Theatre) in Czechoslovakia on February 12, 1966. The first production in East Germany took place on February 20, 1966 at Greifswald Theatre. Hetty Burgers: ''Die “Stellvertreter”-Rezeption in der DDR. Zur Rezeption der einen deutschen Literatur im anderen Deutschland''. In: ''Ideologie und Literatur(wissenschaft)''. Hrsg. von Jos Hoogeveen und Hans Würzner. Amsterdam: Rodopi 1986, p. 189. Kuczynski and wife Berta had six children. Among them the GDR (East Germany)-economist Juergen Kuczynski, Brigitte Kuczynski, and one of the most successful secret agents of the 20th century Ursula Kuczynski. All of them were Soviet spies. The Spy Museum, 2007 Richard C.S. Trahair. Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies and Secret Operations. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut – London 2004, p. 156-157. ISBN 0-313-31955-3 '''''Die Legende von Paul und Paula''''' (English (English language): ''The Legend of Paul and Paula'') is a 1973 (1973 in film) tragicomic (tragicomedy) East German (East Germany) film directed by Heiner Carow. It was based on the novel of the same name by Ulrich Plenzdorf. Post-war career Immediately after the war, Kurochkin briefly headed the Kuban Military District until his appointment in 1946 as first deputy commander-in-chief of the Soviet Military Administration in East Germany. After his tour in East Germany ended in 1947, he took over as an assistant commander-in-chief in the Russian Far East Club career Schneider started his professional career at local Carl Zeiss Jena (FC Carl Zeiss Jena), going on to help the East German (East Germany) outfit to remain five consecutive seasons in the second division (2. Fußball-Bundesliga); his debut came on 13 August 1991, playing ten minutes in a 1–3 loss at Darmstadt 98 (SV Darmstadt 98). In April 1933, the recently installed Nazi government (Nazi Germany) declared May 1 the "Day of National Work," an official state holiday, and announced that all celebrations were to be organized by the government. Any separate celebrations by communists, social democrats or labour union (trade union)s were banned. After the World War II, May 1 remained a state holiday in both East (East Germany) and West Germany. In communist East Germany, workers were ''de facto'' required to participate in large state-organized parades on Mayday. Today in Germany it is simply called the "Day of Labour" (''"Tag der Arbeit"''), and there are numerous demonstrations and celebrations by independent workers' organizations. Today, Berlin witnesses yearly demonstrations on May Day, the largest organized by labour union (trade union)s, political parties and others by the far left and Autonomen (Autonomism). First steps North Korea's nuclear program began under Kim il-Sung in the mid-1950s, when North Korean scientists started practical training courses at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna in the Soviet Union. There, they studied electronic physics radiochemistry, high-energy physics and other subjects. These efforts were initially focused on the peaceful use of atomic energy; Soviet-North Korean agreements of the time specifically emphasized the peaceful nature of bilateral cooperation in the nuclear sphere. An intergovermental agreement on cooperation in the field of atomic energy, signed in 1959, laid the foundation for joint nuclear activities between the Soviet Union and North Korea. On the basis of this agreement, the two countries signed the so-called "Series 9559" contracts, concerning matters such as the conduct of geological studies, the construction of a nuclear research center (called a "Furniture Factory" by the North Koreans), and the training of North Korean labor. ''The North Korean Nuclear Program'' Other North Korean scientists received their education in East Germany and China (People's Republic of China). In 1961, North Korea launched a major nuclear development program at Yongbyon, some 60 miles north of Pyongyang. In 1965, the Soviet Union provided North Korea with a 2 MW IRT-2000 research reactor for the Yongbyon nuclear facility, and supplied fuel over the years of the reactor's operation. Oleg V. Davidov, “Russia’s Position towards North Korea’s Nuclear Development" Many official standards in Eastern Europe are virtually identical to the Schuko standard. One of the protocols governing the reunification of Germany required that the DIN and VDE standards would prevail without exception, so the former East Germany had to conform to the Schuko standard. Most other Eastern European countries use the Schuko standard internally but, prior to its collapse, they exported large volumes of appliances to the Soviet Union with the Soviet standard plug installed. Because of that, many of the Russian plugs found their way into other Eastern European countries. One peculiarity of the Soviet standard is the use of an ungrounded plug with 4.0 mm diameter pins for 6 A and a corresponding socket that would not accept the 4.8 mm diameter pins of devices that could draw as much as 16 A. Another is that sockets that in other places would be supplied with 16 A may have been wired for only 10 A during the Soviet era. Club career In his youth Rehmer played for hometown 1. FC Union Berlin; he arrived in the first division (Fußball-Bundesliga) at almost 25, joining former East Germany's F.C. Hansa Rostock during the 1997 winter transfer window. He was crucial for the side during his two 1 2-seasons spell, as it always maintained its top level status. Prior to the Tokyo Olympics, Wood's coach, Don Talbot, strove to change Wood's technique, slowing down the stroke rate, but increasing the deepness of the strokes. This paid dividends at the Olympics when Wood, who had never swum faster than 4 m 20 in the 400 m freestyle, dropped his personal best to 4 m 15.1s, to claim bronze behind the United States' Don Schollander and East Germany's Frank Wiegand. In the 1500 m Wood posted a time of 17 m 07.7s, a 20s drop in his personal best, in a race won by Windle in Olympic record time. Among the swimmers which Wood defeated was Roy Saari, the world record holder in the event. Wood narrowly missed a third medal when he, Windle, Dickson and Peter Doak finished fourth in the 4x200 m freestyle relay. He retired after the Games and became a swimming coach. ***I tried my best to add information and remove further POVs, correct geographical facts. The text was indeed taken from a tourism site. I will add more info tomorrow. However I need SO to check the grammar.23:31, 15 Jul 2004 (UTC) ** East Germany: Culture of East Germany needs a major rewrite by someone who can understand it in the first place, or is more familiar with the subject. heidimo (User:Heidimo) 03:27, 14 Mar 2004 (UTC) **Serian - basically an unwikified student report. Needs it all: wikification, copyediting, reformatting, remove non-encyclopedic tone, etc. --Dcfleck (User:Dcfleck) 11:30, 2005 May 3 (UTC) In his June 1982 address to the British Parliament (Parliament of the United Kingdom) he stated: :It is the Soviet Union that runs against the tide of history by denying human freedom and human dignity to its citizens. It also is in deep economic difficulty. The rate of growth in the national product has been steadily declining since the fifties and is less than half of what it was then. The dimensions of this failure are astounding: A country which employs one-fifth of its population in agriculture is unable to feed its own people. Were it not for the private sector, the tiny private sector tolerated in Soviet agriculture, the country might be on the brink of famine.... Overcentralized, with little or no incentives, year after year the Soviet system pours its best resource into the making of instruments of destruction. The constant shrinkage of economic growth combined with the growth of military production is putting a heavy strain on the Soviet people. What we see here is a political structure that no longer corresponds to its economic base, a society where productive forces are hampered by political ones. ...In the Communist world as well, man's instinctive desire for freedom and self-determination surfaces again and again. To be sure, there are grim reminders of how brutally the police state attempts to snuff out this quest for self-rule (self-governance) – 1953 in East Germany, 1956 in Hungary (People's Republic of Hungary), 1968 in Czechoslovakia, 1981 in Poland. But the struggle continues in Poland (People's Republic of Poland). And we know that there are even those who strive and suffer for freedom within the confines of the Soviet Union itself. ...What I am describing now is a plan and a hope for the long term – the march of freedom and democracy which will leave Marxism-Leninism on the ash heap of history as it has left other tyrannies which stifle the freedom and muzzle the self-expression of the people. And that's why we must continue our efforts to strengthen NATO even as we move forward with our Zero-Option initiative in the negotiations on intermediate-range forces and our proposal for a one-third reduction in strategic (Strategic bombing) ballistic missile warheads." The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.
'''East Germany''', formally the '''German Democratic Republic''' or '''GDR''' ( ) or ''DDR''), was a state within the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period. From 1949 to 1990, it administered the region of Germany which was occupied by Soviet (USSR) forces at the end of the Second World War—the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line. The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin, but did not include it; as a result, West Berlin remained outside the jurisdiction of the GDR.
The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet Zone, while the Federal Republic (West Germany) was established in the three western zones. The East was often described as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Karl Dietrich Erdmann, Jürgen Kocka, Wolfgang J. Mommsen, Agnes Blänsdorf. ''Towards a Global Community of Historians: the International Historical Congresses and the International Committee of Historical Sciences 1898–2000''. Berghahn Books, 2005, pp. 314. ("However the collapse of the Soviet empire, associated with the disintegration of the Soviet satellite regimes in East-Central Europe, including the German Democratic Republic, brought about a dramatic change of agenda.") Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, and the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. Soviet forces (Group of Soviet Forces in Germany), however, remained in the country throughout the Cold War. The GDR established the Ministry for State Security (Stasi), or "Stasi", which aided the Soviet Army in suppressing uprisings in 1953 (Uprising of 1953 in East Germany). Until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party (Socialist Unity Party of Germany) (SED), though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany. ''Eugene Register-Guard'' October 29, 1989. p. 5A.
The economy was centrally planned, and increasingly state-owned (Government-owned corporation). Peter E. Quint. ''The Imperfect Union: Constitutional Structures of German Unification'' Princeton University Press 2012, pp. 125-126. Prices of basic goods and services were set by central government planners, rather than rising and falling through an unregulated market. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Nonetheless it did not match the economic growth of West Germany. Emigration to the West was a significant problem—as many of the emigrants were young well-educated people, it further weakened the state economically. The government fortified its western borders (Inner German border) and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to emigrate (Escape attempts and victims of the inner German border) were killed by border guards or mines.
In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the destruction of the Berlin Wall and the emergence of a government committed to liberalization. The following year open elections (East German general election, 1990), were held, Geoffrey Pridham, Tatu Vanhanen. ''Democratization in Eastern Europe'' Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0-415-11063-7 pp. 135 and international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty (Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany) on the status and borders of Germany. The GDR was dissolved and Germany was unified (German reunification) on 3 October 1990.