East Germany

What is East Germany known for?


quot relationship

. Military Hof was in cold war times of special interest as it was near the frontier to Czechoslovakia and the GDR (East Germany). On Hohe Saas, there was a radar site. Between 1949 and 1993, Hof was also the site of an RIAS (Rundfunk im amerikanischen Sektor) transmitting station. The German national football team has no national stadium. Like the men, the women's team play their home matches in different stadiums throughout the country. As of June 2011, they have played in 87 different German cities. Most home games have been held in Osnabrück with six matches, followed by Ulm (five games), and Bochum, Kaiserslautern, Koblenz, Lüdenscheid, Rheine, Siegen and Weil am Rhein (three games each). The first home match in former East Germany was played in Aue in May 1991. Deutscher Fußball-Bund. 09.05.1991 Germany – Poland 2:1 (1:0) . DFB.de. Accessed 11 August 2008. '''Sigrun Grau''' (born 7 November 1965 in Neu Kaliß, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is an East German (East Germany) former middle distance (Middle distance track event) athlete (Athletics (sport)), who was born '''Sigrun Ludwigs''' in Neu Kaliß. She started out as a 400 m runner in Schwerin, and proved successful in this event in junior meets. She then switched clubs and changed to the 800 m like her new club mate, Christine Wachtel, who would also become her closest rival. '''Karin Balzer''' (née ''Richert'', born June 5, 1938) is a former East German (East Germany) hurdler (hurdling), one of the best in high hurdles event during the 1960s. '''Rosemarie Ackermann''' (born 4 April 1952) is a former East German (East Germany) high jumper. She was the first female high jumper ever to clear the height of 2.00 m, on 26 August 1977 in Berlin. She was born as '''Rosemarie Witschas''' in Lohsa, Sachsen. Under that name, she took part for East Germany in the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, finishing seventh behind Ulrike Meyfarth. East German Cup (1949–91) East Germany also had its own national cup: the FDGB Cup, the cup of the ''Freie Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund'', the association of the East German trade unions. It was introduced in 1949 and awarded annually until 1991 after German reunification in 1990 led to the merger of the football leagues of the two Germanys. A counter-insurgency campaign—the Dhofar Rebellion—was fought here by the Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces in 1965–1975 against guerrilla (guerrilla warfare) fighters of the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Persian Gulf (Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman) (PFLOAG), supported by Communist (Communism) South Yemen after that territory's independence and several other socialist states including East Germany. It aimed to depose the Sultan. The Sultan's forces, assisted by the United Kingdom, Iran, and support from loaned officers and doctors from Pakistan and India In the service of the Sultan - Ian Gardiner , prevailed, and once the campaign was declared over in December 1975, the active remainder of PFLOAG forces surrendered. From the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945 until the reunification (German reunification) of Germany in October 1990, Berlin was divided into four sectors: the American Sector, the French Sector, the British Sector, and the Soviet Sector, each named after the occupying power. The Soviet sector, informally called East Berlin, was considered by East Germany, then a member of the Warsaw Pact, to be part of its territory and in fact its capital, and the American, French, and British Sectors, collectively called West Berlin, were in some respects governed as if they were a part of West Germany, a member of NATO. Seldom did the American government exercise power directly in the American sector, except as it affected American military forces stationed in Berlin. In particular, the judgeship of the United States Court for Berlin was vacant except during the trial over which Judge Stern presided. Themes Karl May's "Winnetou" novels symbolize, to some extent, a romantic desire for a simpler life in close contact with nature. In fact, the popularity of the series is due in large part to the ability of the stories to tantalize fantasies many Europeans had and have for this more untamed environment. The sequel has become the origin of festivals, and the first regular Karl-May-Spiele were staged 1938 till 1941 in Rathen, Saxony. East Germany restarted those open air theater plays in 1984. In West Germany, the "Karl-May-Festspiele" or "Karl-May-Spiele" in Bad Segeberg were started as early as 1950 and then expanded to further places like Lennestadt-Elspe (Lennestadt) in honor of Karl May or, rather, of his Apache hero, Winnetou. Now, they are never difficult to find in either Germany or Austria. Championship play was suspended twice; from 1915 to 1919 due to World War I and again from 1945 to 1947 due to World War II. Following World War II, Germany was occupied (Allied occupation zones in Germany) by the victorious Allies (Allied Control Council) and two German football competitions emerged when the country was divided as a result. The historical tradition of the DFB was continued in what was known as West Germany, while a second national championship (East German football champions) was contested in Soviet-controlled East Germany under the auspices of the DFV (Deutscher Fußball-Verband) (Deutscher Fußball-Verband or German Football Federation). Following the reunification (German reunification) of the country in 1990, the two separate football competitions were merged and a single national championship was restored. Below the level of the 3rd league, leagues are generally often subdivided on a regional basis. For example, the Regionalligen are currently made up of Nord (North), Süd (South) and West divisions, and the Oberligen (upper leagues) are composed of nine divisions representing federal states or large urban and geographical areas. The levels below the Oberligen (Oberliga (football)) differ between the local areas. The league structure has changed frequently and typically reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country. In the early 1990s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany (German reunification) and the subsequent integration of the national leagues of East (East Germany) and West Germany. ** 1965 66–1990 91: 18 ** 1991 92: 20, while East (East Germany) and West German (West Germany) leagues were being combined after German reunification ** Since 1992 93: 18 From the late 1940s to 1990, the town was the site of a major border crossing between the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic. The main rail (Brunswick–Magdeburg railway) and autobahn route between West Germany and Berlin, across the GDR (East Germany), began at the Helmstedt–Marienborn border crossing, also known as Checkpoint Alpha. Official military traffic from NATO countries to West Berlin was only allowed to use this route. Development Work on a successor for the venerable


power international

s of Iran and Thailand, lying between the empires of Britain (United Kingdom) Russia and Britain France respectively, were divided between the spheres of influence of the imperial powers (power (international)). Likewise, after World War II, Germany was divided into four occupation zones, which later consolidated into West Germany and East Germany, the former a member of NATO and the latter a member of the Warsaw Pact. Peng participated in a number


creating football

'', the club merged with ''SC Rotation Leipzig'' in 1954 and played in the DDR-Oberliga, East Germany's top flight league, but earned only mediocre results. In 1963 Leipzig's two most important clubs – ''SC Rotation'' and ''SC Lokomotive Leipzig'' – were put together resulting in two new sides being founded – ''SC Leipzig'' and ''BSG Chemie Leipzig''. East German football went through a general re-organization in 1965, creating football clubs (Football club (GDR)) as centres of high-level


sports winning

, East Germany) is the stage name of a German (Germans) hardcore (hardcore porn) pornographic actress. Due to the Eastern Bloc boycott of these Olympics, some of the strongest rowing nations like East Germany, the USSR (Soviet Union) or Bulgaria were not present. However, this boycott gave an opportunity to Romania, which was one of the few eastern European countries to come to the Games, going on to dominate in women's sports, winning 5 gold medals in 6


time creating

: Johannesburg South Africa Temple, the first temple in Africa. The country is still under apartheid at this time creating controversy. A black 280S was stolen by James Bond (Roger Moore) from comrades of General Orlov (Steven Berkoff) in East Germany in the 1983 film Octopussy. When its tires were punctured by a trap, Bond famously drove the car along a railway track in pursuit of a train carrying Octopussy's circus across the West


film history

natural resources, chiefly oil and gas reserves. Her best known film roles were "Susanne Wallner" in Wolfgang Staudte's film ''Die Mörder sind unter uns'' (''The Murderers Are Among Us''), the first film released after the Second World War in East Germany and produced by DEFA); and in 1950, "Marina" in ''Die Sünderin'' (''The Sinner''), in which she performed a brief nude scene, the first in German film history, causing a scandal. When the Roman Catholic Church protested, she responded vehemently, “I can't understand all the tumult - five years after Auschwitz.” Ralf Schmitt, "Hildegard Knef ist tot" ''Spielfilm'' (February 1, 2002). Retrieved March 5, 2012 The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.


black amp

. According to this explanation, East German political authorities were well aware of West German television's popularity and adopted SECAM rather than the PAL encoding used in West Germany. This did not hinder mutual reception in black & white, because the underlying TV standards remained essentially the same in both parts of Germany. However, East Germans (East Germany) responded by buying PAL decoders for their SECAM sets. Eventually, the government in East Berlin stopped paying attention

''Thierry La Fronde'' and the Flemish (Flanders) ''Johan en de Alverman'' inspired Carel Enkelaar, manager of NTS (forerunner of NTR (Omroep NTR)) to make a similar series, set in the Netherlands. It was written by Gerard Soeteman. The series, though filmed in black & white, was very successful, and had many reruns through the years. It has also been shown in East Germany and Scotland dubbed in English. Post-war era A total of 577 A-37Bs were built, with 254 delivered to the South Vietnamese Air Force (Vietnam Air Force). At war's end, the A-37 had flown over 160,000 combat sorties with only 22 USAF losses, approximately 187 A-37Bs were in South Vietnamese service when the country fell. Ninety-two were recovered by the US, while the other 95 were later used by the Communist Vietnamese in missions over Cambodia (Cambodian–Vietnamese War) and during the China conflict in 1979 (Sino-Vietnamese War). These "renegade" aircraft were phased out of service in the late 1970s or early 1980s, in all probability due to lack of spares. Some of the aircraft were shipped to Vietnam's allies like Czechoslovakia, Poland, the Soviet Union and East Germany. Others were sold to private foreign owners. Six examples of the A-37B became property of American warbird fans, while four A-37Bs are now privately-owned in Australia and New Zealand. thumb upright ''Mattachine Review'' published by the Mattachine Society (File:Mattachine Review 1959.jpg) * '''1950''' – The Organization for Sexual Equality, now Swedish Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights (RFSL), is formed in Sweden; East Germany partially abrogates the Nazis' emendations to Paragraph 175; The Mattachine Society, the first sustained American homosexual group, is founded in Los Angeles (November 11); 190 individuals in the United States are dismissed from government employment for their sexual orientation, commencing the Lavender scare. * '''1951''' – Greece decriminalizes homosexuality. data27 Expulsion of Germans (Expulsion of Germans after World War II) data28 West Germany, East Germany, and Saar (Saar (protectorate)) data29 German reunification thumb left 250px Postage stamp depicting Matti Nykänen (Image:Calgary-1988.jpg) For most of the 1980s, Nykänen and Jens Weißflog of East Germany dominated the sport. Nykänen won gold and silver at the 1984 Winter Olympics (Ski jumping at the 1984 Winter Olympics) in Sarajevo. His 17.5 point gold medal victory was the largest margin of victory in Olympic ski jumping at the time. The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.


low production

barrels while the Yugoslav versions manufactured prior to 1970 do not, resulting in some Yugoslavian rifles having bores in considerably worse condition than even the cheapest Chinese SKSs. East German, Russian, and Albanian SKSs bring a higher price than those of other countries, the stock on the Albanian versions being of a slightly different manufacture and being rarer due to low production numbers. There were approximately 18,000 Albanian SKSs manufactured during the late 1960s until 1978, and of those, approximately half were destroyed. Most of the remaining East German (East Germany) SKSs had been sold transferred to Croatia in the early 1990s. The interchangeability of many parts has resulted in rifles on the market that are a mixture of different parts of varying quality, sometimes including parts from different countries. Such rifles are usually referred to as "parts guns". Other states were converted into Soviet Satellite (Satellite state) states, such as East Germany, The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.


political efforts

political efforts lies the aim of resurrecting the Berlin Wall and all other border fortifications along the border with the former German Democratic Republic. This goal has however been hidden away in the last point of the party manifesto and was characterized by party chairman Sonneborn as merely a, 'populist vehicle'. He held out the prospect of a referendum after the PARTEI's accession to power. In order to raise the necessary finances for the erection of the Wall members are requested to donate the proceeds of their savings contracts. Chairman Martin Sonneborn described the project as follows: 'I give you and all the German public my word of honor, I repeat – my word of honor – that under us there will be no order to shoot at the Wall.' (This is a reference to a false statement by former GDR (East Germany) SED party leader Walter Ulbricht who in 1961 claimed that "Nobody has the intention of building a wall" shortly before the wall was actually built.) Scientific career Sauer studied chemistry from 1967 to 1972 at the Humboldt University of Berlin and was awarded a doctorate in chemistry in 1974. He continued to do research there until 1977 when he joined the Academy of Sciences, Central Institute of Physical Chemistry in Berlin, one of the leading scientific institutes of the former GDR (East Germany) (East Germany). Aschersleben was part of East Germany until 1990, when it became part of Saxony-Anhalt during German reunification. On 1 January 2008, the municipalities of Drohndorf, Freckleben and Mehringen were incorporated into Aschersleben. Aftermath At Frankenhausen, the battle is depicted, along with many other scenes of that age, on the world's largest oil painting, Werner Tübke's ''Frühbürgerliche Revolution in Deutschland'' ("Early Bourgeois Revolution in Germany"), which is The New Zealand Government (w:New Zealand Government) is to investigate how 20-year-old top secret papers were released. They show that New Zealand (w:New Zealand) was spying on the communications of Argentina (w:Argentina), the Soviet Union (w:Soviet Union), East Germany (w:East Germany), France (w:France), Egypt (w:Egypt), Japan (w:Japan), North Korea (w:North Korea), Vietnam (w:Vietnam), Laos (w:Laos), the Philippines (w:Philippines), Fiji (w:Fiji), Tonga (w:Tonga), the Solomon Islands (w:Solomon Islands), South Africa (w:South Africa) and even the United Nations (w:United Nations) diplomatic cables. The union has also demanded equal pay for drivers in former East Germany (w:East Germany). Georg Milbradt (w:Georg Milbradt), chief negotiator for Germany's state governments, said that giving equal wages to the drivers in former East Germany would be extremely difficult. The accident occurred at Kindel Air Field, which is located south of Berlin (w:Berlin), near Eisenach (w:Eisenach). The aircraft involved was a Zlin Z-37 Cmelak (w:Zlin Z-37 Cmelak), a Czech (Czech Republic) built single-seater plane which had been used by authorities in former East Germany (w:East Germany) as a cropduster (w:cropduster). Host German Chancellor Angela Merkel reminisced that the end of the Cold War came as a total surprise. "The 20th anniversary of the fall of the Wall should remind us all what incredible luck we had with the reunification of Europe and Germany," commented Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany (w:East Germany), in Monday's edition of the ''Bild (w:Bild)'' newspaper.


critical work

a member of the Landtag of Brandenburg for Bündnis 90 (Alliance 90). He was Minister for the Environment in a coalition government with SPD (Social Democratic Party of Germany) and FDP (Freie Demokratische Partei) from 1990 to 1994 when the coalition broke up. He became famous in both East (East Germany) and West Germany for his socially critical work titled ''"Die neuen Leiden des jungen W."'' Written in the jargon of the GDR (East Germany)-youth of the 1970s

, it details the tragic story of a young man and his attempt to break free from his stifling bourgeois environment, drawing parallels between his own life and that of the protagonist in Goethe's (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe) work ''The Sorrows of Young Werther (Die Leiden des jungen Werther)'' (1774). He became famous in both East (East Germany) and West Germany for his socially critical work titled ''"Die neuen Leiden des jungen W."'' Written in the jargon

East Germany

'''East Germany''', formally the '''German Democratic Republic''' or '''GDR''' ( ) or ''DDR''), was a state within the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period. From 1949 to 1990, it administered the region of Germany which was occupied by Soviet (USSR) forces at the end of the Second World War—the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line. The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin, but did not include it; as a result, West Berlin remained outside the jurisdiction of the GDR.

The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet Zone, while the Federal Republic (West Germany) was established in the three western zones. The East was often described as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Karl Dietrich Erdmann, Jürgen Kocka, Wolfgang J. Mommsen, Agnes Blänsdorf. ''Towards a Global Community of Historians: the International Historical Congresses and the International Committee of Historical Sciences 1898–2000''. Berghahn Books, 2005, pp. 314. ("However the collapse of the Soviet empire, associated with the disintegration of the Soviet satellite regimes in East-Central Europe, including the German Democratic Republic, brought about a dramatic change of agenda.") Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, and the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. Soviet forces (Group of Soviet Forces in Germany), however, remained in the country throughout the Cold War. The GDR established the Ministry for State Security (Stasi), or "Stasi", which aided the Soviet Army in suppressing uprisings in 1953 (Uprising of 1953 in East Germany). Until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party (Socialist Unity Party of Germany) (SED), though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany. ''Eugene Register-Guard'' October 29, 1989. p. 5A.

The economy was centrally planned, and increasingly state-owned (Government-owned corporation). Peter E. Quint. ''The Imperfect Union: Constitutional Structures of German Unification'' Princeton University Press 2012, pp. 125-126. Prices of basic goods and services were set by central government planners, rather than rising and falling through an unregulated market. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Nonetheless it did not match the economic growth of West Germany. Emigration to the West was a significant problem—as many of the emigrants were young well-educated people, it further weakened the state economically. The government fortified its western borders (Inner German border) and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to emigrate (Escape attempts and victims of the inner German border) were killed by border guards or mines.

In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the destruction of the Berlin Wall and the emergence of a government committed to liberalization. The following year open elections (East German general election, 1990), were held, Geoffrey Pridham, Tatu Vanhanen. ''Democratization in Eastern Europe'' Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0-415-11063-7 pp. 135 and international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty (Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany) on the status and borders of Germany. The GDR was dissolved and Germany was unified (German reunification) on 3 October 1990.

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