by Chinese artist Gu Kaizhi (344–406 AD) *The most comprehensive collection of Japanese pre-20th century art (Japanese art) in the Western world Stein's greatest discovery was made at the Mogao Caves also known as "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", near Dunhuang in 1907. It was there that he discovered the Diamond Sutra, the world's oldest printed text which has a date (corresponding to AD 868), along with 40,000 other scrolls (all removed by gradually winning the confidence of the Taoist Deuel, Leo. 1970. ''Testaments of Time'', p. 459. Baltimore, Pelican Books. Orig. publ. Knopf, NY, 1965. caretaker). He acquired 24 cases of manuscripts and 4 cases of paintings and relics. He was knighted for his efforts, but he continues to be vilified to this day in China for the removal of countless priceless artifacts from the caves. His discovery inspired other French, Russian, Japanese, and Chinese treasure hunters and explorers who also took their toll on the collection. Larmer, Brook. 2010, "Caves of Faith", p. 136-138, National Geographic Magazine, June 2010. width3 250 caption3 Sand dunes of the Gobi Desert near Dunhuang, in Gansu Province. image4 Loess landscape china.jpg Art * The Western Paradise of Amitabha Buddha, detail of a wall painting in Cave 217, Dunhuang, Gansu, is made. Tang dynasty (approximate date). The Tang Empire competed with the Tibetan Empire (Tibetan Kingdom) for control of areas in Inner and Central Asia, which was at times settled with marriage alliances such as the marrying of Princess Wencheng (d. 680) to Songtsän Gampo (d. 649). Commons:Category:Dunhuang Wikipedia:Dunhuang Dmoz:Regional Asia China Gansu Dunhuang
including works found at Dunhuang. A number of apocryphal sutras composed in China are also included in the Chinese Buddhist canon (Chinese Buddhist Canon), although the spurious nature of many more was recognized, thus preventing their inclusion in the canon. The Sanskrit originals of many Mahāyāna texts have not survived to this day, although Sanskrit versions of the majority of the major Mahāyāna sutras have survived. The key oasis towns, watered by rainfall from the mountains, were Kashgar, Marin (Marin (China)), Niya (Niya (Tarim Basin)), Yarkand (Yarkent County), and Khotan (Hotan) (Hetian) to the south, Kuqa and Turpan in the north, and Loulan and Dunhuang in the east. Now many, such as Marin and Gaochang, are ruined cities in sparsely inhabited areas in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) of the People's Republic of China. Commons:Category:Dunhuang Wikipedia:Dunhuang Dmoz:Regional Asia China Gansu Dunhuang
: idp.bl.uk database oo_cat.a4d?shortref Dalton_vanSchaik_2005 Catalogue of the Tibetan Tantric Manuscripts from Dunhuang in the Stein Collection With the Wylie transcription of the manuscripts they are to be made discoverable online in future. Dalton, Jacob & van Schaik, Sam (Sam van Schaik) (2007). Catalogue of the Tibetan Tantric Manuscripts from Dunhuang in the Stein Collection Online . Second electronic edition. International Dunhuang Project. Source: http
fully accessible online in discrete digitized manuscripts. Catalogue of the Tibetan Tantric Manuscripts from Dunhuang in the Stein Collection With the Wylie transcription of the manuscripts they are to be made discoverable online in future. Dalton, Jacob & van Schaik, Sam (Sam van Schaik) (2007). Catalogue of the Tibetan Tantric Manuscripts from Dunhuang in the Stein Collection
Online . Second electronic edition. International Dunhuang Project. Source: (accessed: Tuesday February 2, 2010) The 350 texts is just a small number compared to the vast cache of the Dunhuang manuscripts . left thumb Northern Wei Dynasty Northern Wei (Image:NorthernWeiMaitreya.JPG) Buddha (Buddharupa) Maitreya gilt-bronze figurine, 443 AD (443). In the year 523, Prince Dongyang of the Northern Wei
(16,700 ft) Yartö Tra Pass, which bordered on modern Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh in India). Little, if anything, else is known about this brother. ''Ancient Tibet: Research materials from the Yeshe De Project''. 1986. Dharma Publishing, California. ISBN 0-89800-146-3, p. 216. Choephel, Gedun. ''The White Annals''. Translated by Samten Norboo. (1978), p. 77. Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamsala, H.P., India. Loulan
other dialects, along with the ''fanqie'' analysis of the Guangyun rime dictionary (a later version of the Qieyun of 601 AD). In 1915, he published his reconstruction of Middle Chinese, which underlies in one form or another all subsequent reconstructions. Walter Simon (Walter Simon (sinologist)) and Henri Maspero also made great contributions in the field during the early days of its development. Karlgren himself had no direct access to the Qieyun, which was thought lost; however, fragments of the ''Qieyun'' were discovered in the Dunhuang Caves in the 1930s, and a nearly complete copy was discovered in 1947 in the Palace Museum. Languages The Mi Tripitaka (蕃大藏經) is the Tangut (Tangut language) canon. 国图藏西夏文文献的价值 It is not known if the Khitan edition is in Chinese or Khitan, as all Khitan Buddhist texts found are in Chinese. The Taishō edition contains classical Japanese works. The Dunhuang edition contains some works in old Western Regions languages. 怀念北图馆长北大教授王重民先生 The ''Tripitaka Sinica'' mentioned above features a Tibetan section. The Tibetan Plateau is bounded on the north by a broad escarpment where the altitude drops from around Commons:Category:Dunhuang Wikipedia:Dunhuang Dmoz:Regional Asia China Gansu Dunhuang
state and was renamed the kingdom of Shanshan. Hulsewé (1979), p. 89. The capital was to south-west of Lop Nur near modern Ruoqiang (Ruoqiang Town) (Charkhlik) on the Southern Silk Route between Dunhuang and Khotan. Preservation *International Dunhuang Project — an international collaboration to make more than 100,000 manuscripts, paintings and artifacts from Dunhuang and other Silk Road sites available
The extant copy has the form of a scroll, about 16 feet long. The archaeologist Sir Marc Aurel Stein purchased it in 1907 in the walled-up Mogao Caves near Dunhuang in northwest China from a monk guarding the caves - known as the "Caves of a Thousand Buddhas". Current status The Flemish (Flanders) Catholic missionary, Schram, who wrote about the Monguor based on residence in the current Qinghai Province in the early twentieth century, cited Comte de Lesdain, Lesdain, Jacques (1908). From Pekin to Sikkim through the Ordos, the Gobi Desert and Tibet. London: J. Murray. who characterized the Monguor as "the most authentic reminder of the primitive race from which the Chinese sprung." Schram, Louis M. J. (1954). "The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier. Their Origin, History, and Social Organization." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 44(1): 1-138. p. 25. This characterization reflected that the Monguor culture under their observation has embodied "a high civilization fortified by its own history and distinctive social structure" Nietupski, Paul (2006). Louis Schram and the Study of Social and Political History. The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier. Louis M. J. Schram and Kevin Charles Stuart (editor). Xining, Plateau Publications: 30-36. p. 32. developed by the Xianbei forefathers from their extensive rulings over China and preserved by the "Monguor" "Tu". As early as the Tuyühu period, Confucianism served as the core ideology to govern the country, and the Chinese Buddhism and Shamanism functioned as the principle religions. In Western Xia, Confucianism was further strengthened, and Taoism was made into the national religion along with Buddhism. As the Yellow Sect of Buddhism, also known as the Tibetan Buddhism, became prevalent in the northwest, their religious lives shifted from the Chinese toward Tibetan Buddhism. After Western Xia fell, its territory centered in Ningxia was fragmented by the successive establishments of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai provinces, which increasingly weakened the political and military powers of the Monguor. Through the Ming (Ming Dynasty) (1368–1644) and Qing (Qing Dynasty) (1644–1912) dynasties, the Monguor continued to play important roles in the national defense, and political and religious affairs of China. Starting in the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the ranches of the Monguor were taken into the state possession, and their horses became the subject of being drafted into the national army and looted by the Mongols from the north, resulting in the eventual shift of their lifestyles toward sedentary agriculture, supplemented by minimum animal husbandry, as the original Monguor groups became settled into the form of different villages. In the last two centuries, the areas formerly occupied by the Monguor were encroached upon by increasing inland Chinese migrations. Throughout this period, the Monguor maintained a high degree of political autonomy and self governance under the local chiefdom system of Tusi. Li, Peiye 李培业 (1995). "Xi xia huang zu hou yi kao Investigation on the descendants of the Royal Family of Western Xia 西夏皇族后裔考." Xi bei da xue xue bao Journal fo Northwest University 西北大学学报 88 (3): 46-52. Da, Song 大松 (1996). "Li pei ye shi xi xia huang zu hou yi Li Peiye is the descendant of the Royal Family of Western Xia 李培业是西夏皇族
, and music scores for these two traditions were collected and published in the first mass-produced edition of solo pieces for pipa, now commonly known as the ''Hua Collection'' (華氏譜). This was first published as Nanbei Erpai Miben Pipapu Zhenzhuan (南北二派祕本琵琶譜真傳) The collection was edited by Hua Qiuping (華秋萍) and published in 1818 in three volumes. Commons:Category:Dunhuang Wikipedia:Dunhuang Dmoz:Regional Asia China Gansu Dunhuang
of important archaeological finds were uncovered from Wuwei, including ancient copper carts with stone animals. Zhang Yiping, ''Story of the Silk Road'', 2005, 五洲传播出版社, ISBN 750850832 It became an important provincial capital during the Former Han Dynasty as the ''Hou Hanshu'' makes clear: "In the third year 170 CE , Meng Tuo, the Inspector of Liangzhou, sent the Provincial Officer Ren She, commanding five hundred soldiers from
in the late 1980s, paying record highs for impressionist (Impressionism) paintings and US$51.7 million alone for one blue period Picasso. A Tibetan tradition mentions that after Songtsän Gampo's death in 649 C.E., Chinese troops captured Lhasa and burnt the Red Palace. Commons:Category:Dunhuang Wikipedia:Dunhuang Dmoz:Regional Asia China Gansu Dunhuang
pic DH name.svg piccap "Dunhuang", as written in Chinese picsize 125px psp Tunhwang c 敦煌 w Tun 1 -huang 2 p Dūnhuáng w2 Tun 1 -huang 2 p2 Dūnhuáng s2 炖煌 t2 燉煌 '''Dunhuang''' ( in ancient times meaning 'Blazing Beacon') is a county-level city (pop. 187,578 (2000)) in northwestern Gansu province, Western China. It was a major stop on the ancient Silk Road and is best known for the nearby Dunhuang Caves (Mogao Caves). It has also been known at times as Shāzhōu (沙州), or 'City of Sands', Cable and French (1943), p. 41. "or Dukhan as the Turkis call it." Skrine (1926), p. 117.
Dunhuang is situated in a rich oasis containing Crescent Lake (Crescent Lake (Dunhuang)) and Mingsha Shan (鸣沙山 (:zh:鸣沙山 (敦煌)), meaning "Singing-Sand Mountain"), named after the sound of the wind whipping off the dunes, the singing sand phenomenon. Dunhuang commands a strategic position at the crossroads of the ancient Southern Silk Route and the main road leading from India via Lhasa to Mongolia and Southern Siberia, as well as controlling the entrance to the narrow Hexi Corridor, which led straight to the heart of the north Chinese plains and the ancient capitals of Chang'an (today known as Xi'an) and Luoyang. Lovell (2006), pp. 74-75.
Administratively, the county-level city of Dunhuang is part of the prefecture-level city of Jiuquan.