Duchy of Prussia

What is Duchy of Prussia known for?


military religious

" Seward, Desmond (Desmond Seward). ''The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders''. Penguin Books. London, 1995. ISBN 0-14-019501-7 These remaining Teutonic Knights, led by the next Grand Master, Walter von Cronberg, continued to unsuccessfully claim Prussia, but retained much of the estates in the Teutonic bailiwicks outside of Prussia. On 1 March 1526 Albert married Princess Dorothea (Dorothea of Denmark, Duchess of Prussia), daughter of King Frederick I


quot hit

. Some historians estimate that Crimean Tatar (Crimean Khanate) slave-raiding cost Poland one million of its population from 1494 to 1694. thumb right Wawel (File:Kraków - Wawel from Kopiec Krakusa.jpg), the seat of Polish kings. Kraków was the nation's capital from 1038 until the move to Warsaw in 1596 The peninsula became part of the Duchy of Prussia when Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Albert, Duke of Prussia), the 37th Grand Master


vocal opposition

Renata . In 1642 he lost the political battle and retired from court politics to the see of Bishop of Cracow, passing the chancery to Ossoliński. Since then, he focused mostly on religious matters, coming back into politics only in 1646 with his vocal opposition of Władysław's planned campaign against the Ottoman Empire. Tapiau became part of the Duchy of Prussia in 1525. Tapiau Castle was often used as a second residences of the Prussian dukes; Albert, Duke of Prussia Albert


strong position

Kurfürst ) because of his military and political prowess. Frederick William was a staunch pillar of the Calvinist (Calvinism) faith, associated with the rising commercial class. He saw the importance of trade and promoted it vigorously. His shrewd domestic reforms gave Prussia a strong position in the post-Westphalia (Treaty of Westphalia) political order of north-central Europe, setting Prussia up for elevation from duchy to kingdom (Kingdom of Prussia), achieved under his successor (Frederick I of Prussia). Foreign diplomacy During the Thirty Years' War, George William strove to maintain, with a minimal army, a delicate balance between the Protestant (Protestantism) and Catholic forces fighting throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Out of these meagre beginnings Frederick William managed to rebuild his war-ravaged territories. In contrast to the religious disputes that distrupted the internal affairs of other European states, Brandenburg-Prussia benefited from the policy of religious tolerance adopted by Frederick William. With the help of French subsidies (subsidy), he built up an army to defend the country. In the Second Northern War, he was forced to accept Swedish vassalage for the Duchy of Prussia according to the terms of the Treaty of Königsberg (1656), The '''Treaty of Labiau''' was a treaty signed between Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg and Charles X Gustav of Sweden on 10 November (O.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) Quaritsch (1986), p. 85 20 November (N.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) 1656 in Labiau (Polessk) (now Polessk). With several concessions, the most important being the elevation of Frederick William I from a Swedish vassal to a full sovereign in the Duchy of Prussia and in Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia), Charles X Gustav strove to "buy Frederick William's support" in the ongoing Second Northern War. Sturdy (2002), p. 215 When the Second Northern War broke out in 1654, Charles X Gustav of Sweden offered an alliance to Frederick William I (Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg), the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg (Electorate of Brandenburg) and duke of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia). Shennan (1995), pp. 19-20 As the price for this alliance would have been the surrender of the Prussian ports of Pillau (now Baltiysk) and Memel (Klaipėda) (now Klaipėda) to Sweden, Frederick William I refused and instead signed a defensive alliance with the Dutch Republic in 1655. Charles X Gustav granted Frederick William I full souvereignity in the Duchy of Prussia Shennan (1995), p. 21 and Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia). For his Prussian possessions, Frederick William I was elevated from the status of a duke to a ''princeps summus & Suverenus''. Quaritsch (1986), pp. 85, 86 Article III specifies that this applies also to Frederick William I's successors, who likewise would have the status of ''principes summi & absoluti Suverenii''. Quaritsch (1986), p. 86 Consequences thumb 360px left The Duchy of Prussia (File:Prussia during the Second Northern War.png) as a Polish fief before the Second Northern War and as a Swedish fief after the Treaty of Königsberg (Treaty of Königsberg (1656)). Sweden granted sovereignty in Labiau and Poland-Lithuania in the Treaty of Wehlau-Bromberg. The treaty gave Grand Master Albert of Hohenzollern (Albert, Duke of Prussia) enough autonomy to secede from the Order to become Duke of the new Duchy of Prussia created by secularization of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. This was sealed by the Prussian Homage of 10 April. Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach converted to Lutheranism and turned the Ordenstaat into the secular, Lutheran Duchy of Prussia in 1525. The Teutonic Order retained its holdings in Germany and autonomous Livonia, however. Due to being limited to their possessions in other parts of Germany, which were led by the ''Deutschmeister'', the titles ''Hochmeister'' and ''Deutschmeister'' were combined during the reign of Walter von Cronberg, who was appointed by Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). This dual-title lasted until 1923. For centuries the "Jägerregiment Wien" of the Military of Austria was known as the "Hoch- und Deutschmeister Regiment". date October 8, 1656 place Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki, Ełk County, Poland) result Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth decisive victory Bogusław Radziwiłł taken captive The '''Battle of Prostken''' was fought near Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki in Ełk County, Poland) on October 8, 1656 between forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and allied Crimean Tatars (Crimean Khanate) (2,000 man) commanded by hetman (Hetmans of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Wincenty Gosiewski (Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski) on one side, and on the other allied Swedish (Sweden) and Brandenburg (Brandenburg-Prussia) forces commanded by Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck, reinforced by cavalry of Prince Bogusław Radziwiłł. The Commonwealth forces won the battle, annihilating enemy forces and taking Radziwiłł captive. Pre-1945 For centuries a provincial estate, Palmnicken was founded in 1234 atop an older Old Prussian settlement by the crusading (Northern Crusades) Teutonic Knights, who named the new settlement Palmnicken. After the secularization of the Order's Prussian (Prussia (region)) lands in 1525, Palmnicken became part of the Duchy of Prussia. In the Thirty Years' War Palmnicken was occupied by Sweden (Swedish Empire) for six years. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. * East Pakistan (1955–1971), now Bangladesh, was an exclave from Islamic Republic of Pakistan, if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital Islamabad, mainland. There were 1600 kilometers of foreign territory separating the east and west wings of Pakistan. East Pakistan accounted for 70% of the exports of the country and was more populous than West Pakistan. * East Prussia, a German (Germany) exclave during the Weimar Republic: it was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia (see above), the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania. * Forbidden City - The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi (Henry Pu Yi), succeeded the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and alongside other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of imperial families, etc. Inside the Forbidden City it still flew the Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty. In 1924, the treaty signed in 1911 was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing the Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.


political battle

Renata . In 1642 he lost the political battle and retired from court politics to the see of Bishop of Cracow, passing the chancery to Ossoliński. Since then, he focused mostly on religious matters, coming back into politics only in 1646 with his vocal opposition of Władysław's planned campaign against the Ottoman Empire. Tapiau became part of the Duchy of Prussia in 1525. Tapiau Castle was often used as a second residences of the Prussian dukes; Albert, Duke of Prussia Albert


service made

of Prussia. The usage of the native languages in service made him appoint exiled Protestant Lithuanian pastors as professors (e.g. Stanislovas Rapolionis and Abraomas Kulvietis), making the Albertina also a centre of Lithuanian language and literature. Albertas Juška, ''Mažosios Lietuvos Bažnyčia XVI-XX amžiuje'', Klaipėda: 1997, pp. 742-771, here after the German translation


active resistance

the access towards the people. There was little active resistance to the new creed, although the fact that the Teutonic Knights had brought Catholicism and Protestantism made the transition easier. Koch, H.W. (H.W. Koch) ''A History of Prussia''. Barnes & Noble Books. New York, 1978. ISBN 0-88029-158-3 The Church Order of 1525 provided for visitations of the parishioners and pastors, first carried out by Bishop George in 1538. Because Ducal Prussia was ostensibly a Lutheran (Lutheranism) land, authorities travelled throughout the duchy ensuring that Lutheran teachings were being followed and imposing penalties on pagans and dissidents. The rural population of native descent was only thoroughly Christianised starting with the Reformation in Prussia. A peasant rebellion broke out in Sambia (Sambia Peninsula) (German: ''Samland'') in 1525. The combination of taxation by the nobility, the furor of the Protestant Reformation, and the abrupt secularization of the Teutonic Order's remaining Prussian lands exacerbated peasant unrest. The relatively well-to-do rebel leaders, including a miller from Kaimen (Zarechye) and an innkeeper from Schaaken in Prussia (Nekrasovo), were supported by sympathizers in Königsberg. The rebels demanded the elimination of newer taxes by the nobility and a return to an older tax of two marks (Mark (money)) for every ''Hufe'' (the Prussian hide (Hide (unit)) measuring approximately forty acres). They claimed to be rebelling against the harsh nobility, not against Duke Albert, who was away in the Holy Roman Empire, but they would only swear allegiance to him in person. Upon Albert's return from the Empire, he called for a meeting of the peasants in a field, whereupon he surrounded them with loyal troops and had them arrested without incident; the leaders of the rebellion were subsequently executed. Although there were no more large-scale rebellions, Ducal Prussia became known as a land of Protestant dissent and sectarianism. In 1544 Duke Albert founded the Albertina University (University of Königsberg) in Königsberg, which became the principal educational establishment for Lutheran pastors and theologians of Prussia. The usage of the native languages in service made him appoint exiled Protestant Lithuanian pastors as professors (e.g. Stanislovas Rapolionis and Abraomas Kulvietis), making the Albertina also a centre of Lithuanian language and literature. Albertas Juška, ''Mažosios Lietuvos Bažnyčia XVI-XX amžiuje'', Klaipėda: 1997, pp. 742-771, here after the German translation ''Die Kirche in Klein Litauen'' (section: 5. Die Pfarrer und ihre Ausbildung; The '''Treaty of Labiau''' was a treaty signed between Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg and Charles X Gustav of Sweden on 10 November (O.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) Quaritsch (1986), p. 85 20 November (N.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) 1656 in Labiau (Polessk) (now Polessk). With several concessions, the most important being the elevation of Frederick William I from a Swedish vassal to a full sovereign in the Duchy of Prussia and in Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia), Charles X Gustav strove to "buy Frederick William's support" in the ongoing Second Northern War. Sturdy (2002), p. 215 When the Second Northern War broke out in 1654, Charles X Gustav of Sweden offered an alliance to Frederick William I (Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg), the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg (Electorate of Brandenburg) and duke of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia). Shennan (1995), pp. 19-20 As the price for this alliance would have been the surrender of the Prussian ports of Pillau (now Baltiysk) and Memel (Klaipėda) (now Klaipėda) to Sweden, Frederick William I refused and instead signed a defensive alliance with the Dutch Republic in 1655. Charles X Gustav granted Frederick William I full souvereignity in the Duchy of Prussia Shennan (1995), p. 21 and Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia). For his Prussian possessions, Frederick William I was elevated from the status of a duke to a ''princeps summus & Suverenus''. Quaritsch (1986), pp. 85, 86 Article III specifies that this applies also to Frederick William I's successors, who likewise would have the status of ''principes summi & absoluti Suverenii''. Quaritsch (1986), p. 86 Consequences thumb 360px left The Duchy of Prussia (File:Prussia during the Second Northern War.png) as a Polish fief before the Second Northern War and as a Swedish fief after the Treaty of Königsberg (Treaty of Königsberg (1656)). Sweden granted sovereignty in Labiau and Poland-Lithuania in the Treaty of Wehlau-Bromberg. The treaty gave Grand Master Albert of Hohenzollern (Albert, Duke of Prussia) enough autonomy to secede from the Order to become Duke of the new Duchy of Prussia created by secularization of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. This was sealed by the Prussian Homage of 10 April. Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach converted to Lutheranism and turned the Ordenstaat into the secular, Lutheran Duchy of Prussia in 1525. The Teutonic Order retained its holdings in Germany and autonomous Livonia, however. Due to being limited to their possessions in other parts of Germany, which were led by the ''Deutschmeister'', the titles ''Hochmeister'' and ''Deutschmeister'' were combined during the reign of Walter von Cronberg, who was appointed by Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). This dual-title lasted until 1923. For centuries the "Jägerregiment Wien" of the Military of Austria was known as the "Hoch- und Deutschmeister Regiment". date October 8, 1656 place Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki, Ełk County, Poland) result Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth decisive victory Bogusław Radziwiłł taken captive The '''Battle of Prostken''' was fought near Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki in Ełk County, Poland) on October 8, 1656 between forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and allied Crimean Tatars (Crimean Khanate) (2,000 man) commanded by hetman (Hetmans of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Wincenty Gosiewski (Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski) on one side, and on the other allied Swedish (Sweden) and Brandenburg (Brandenburg-Prussia) forces commanded by Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck, reinforced by cavalry of Prince Bogusław Radziwiłł. The Commonwealth forces won the battle, annihilating enemy forces and taking Radziwiłł captive. Pre-1945 For centuries a provincial estate, Palmnicken was founded in 1234 atop an older Old Prussian settlement by the crusading (Northern Crusades) Teutonic Knights, who named the new settlement Palmnicken. After the secularization of the Order's Prussian (Prussia (region)) lands in 1525, Palmnicken became part of the Duchy of Prussia. In the Thirty Years' War Palmnicken was occupied by Sweden (Swedish Empire) for six years. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. * East Pakistan (1955–1971), now Bangladesh, was an exclave from Islamic Republic of Pakistan, if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital Islamabad, mainland. There were 1600 kilometers of foreign territory separating the east and west wings of Pakistan. East Pakistan accounted for 70% of the exports of the country and was more populous than West Pakistan. * East Prussia, a German (Germany) exclave during the Weimar Republic: it was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia (see above), the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania. * Forbidden City - The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi (Henry Pu Yi), succeeded the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and alongside other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of imperial families, etc. Inside the Forbidden City it still flew the Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty. In 1924, the treaty signed in 1911 was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing the Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.


742

of Poland , and with his personal bishop, Georg von Polenz of Pomesania (Bishopric of Pomesania) and of Samland (Bishopric of Samland), who had converted to Lutheranism in 1523, Albertas Juška, ''Mažosios Lietuvos Bažnyčia XVI-XX amžiuje'', Klaipėda: 1997, pp. 742-771, here after the German translation ''Die Kirche in Klein Litauen

of Prussia. The usage of the native languages in service made him appoint exiled Protestant Lithuanian pastors as professors (e.g. Stanislovas Rapolionis and Abraomas Kulvietis), making the Albertina also a centre of Lithuanian language and literature. Albertas Juška, ''Mažosios Lietuvos Bažnyčia XVI-XX amžiuje'', Klaipėda: 1997, pp. 742-771, here after the German translation

; Albertas Juška, ''Mažosios Lietuvos Bažnyčia XVI-XX amžiuje'', Klaipėda: 1997, pp. 742-771, here after the German translation ''Die Kirche in Klein Litauen'' (section: 2. Reformatorische Anfänge; ) on: ''Lietuvos Evangelikų Liuteronų Bažnyčia'', retrieved on 28 August 2011. David was born in Allenstein (Olsztyn) in Royal Prussia (today


support quot

Style and New Style dates N.S. ) 1656 in Labiau (Polessk) (now Polessk). With several concessions, the most important being the elevation of Frederick William I from a Swedish vassal to a full sovereign in the Duchy of Prussia and in Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia), Charles X Gustav strove to "buy Frederick William's support" in the ongoing Second Northern War. Sturdy (2002), p. 215 When the Second Northern War broke out in 1654, Charles X Gustav of Sweden offered an alliance to Frederick William I (Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg), the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg (Electorate of Brandenburg) and duke of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia). Shennan (1995), pp. 19-20 As the price for this alliance would have been the surrender of the Prussian ports of Pillau (now Baltiysk) and Memel (Klaipėda) (now Klaipėda) to Sweden, Frederick William I refused and instead signed a defensive alliance with the Dutch Republic in 1655. Charles X Gustav granted Frederick William I full souvereignity in the Duchy of Prussia Shennan (1995), p. 21 and Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia). For his Prussian possessions, Frederick William I was elevated from the status of a duke to a ''princeps summus & Suverenus''. Quaritsch (1986), pp. 85, 86 Article III specifies that this applies also to Frederick William I's successors, who likewise would have the status of ''principes summi & absoluti Suverenii''. Quaritsch (1986), p. 86 Consequences thumb 360px left The Duchy of Prussia (File:Prussia during the Second Northern War.png) as a Polish fief before the Second Northern War and as a Swedish fief after the Treaty of Königsberg (Treaty of Königsberg (1656)). Sweden granted sovereignty in Labiau and Poland-Lithuania in the Treaty of Wehlau-Bromberg. The treaty gave Grand Master Albert of Hohenzollern (Albert, Duke of Prussia) enough autonomy to secede from the Order to become Duke of the new Duchy of Prussia created by secularization of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. This was sealed by the Prussian Homage of 10 April. Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach converted to Lutheranism and turned the Ordenstaat into the secular, Lutheran Duchy of Prussia in 1525. The Teutonic Order retained its holdings in Germany and autonomous Livonia, however. Due to being limited to their possessions in other parts of Germany, which were led by the ''Deutschmeister'', the titles ''Hochmeister'' and ''Deutschmeister'' were combined during the reign of Walter von Cronberg, who was appointed by Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). This dual-title lasted until 1923. For centuries the "Jägerregiment Wien" of the Military of Austria was known as the "Hoch- und Deutschmeister Regiment". date October 8, 1656 place Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki, Ełk County, Poland) result Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth decisive victory Bogusław Radziwiłł taken captive The '''Battle of Prostken''' was fought near Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki in Ełk County, Poland) on October 8, 1656 between forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and allied Crimean Tatars (Crimean Khanate) (2,000 man) commanded by hetman (Hetmans of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Wincenty Gosiewski (Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski) on one side, and on the other allied Swedish (Sweden) and Brandenburg (Brandenburg-Prussia) forces commanded by Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck, reinforced by cavalry of Prince Bogusław Radziwiłł. The Commonwealth forces won the battle, annihilating enemy forces and taking Radziwiłł captive. Pre-1945 For centuries a provincial estate, Palmnicken was founded in 1234 atop an older Old Prussian settlement by the crusading (Northern Crusades) Teutonic Knights, who named the new settlement Palmnicken. After the secularization of the Order's Prussian (Prussia (region)) lands in 1525, Palmnicken became part of the Duchy of Prussia. In the Thirty Years' War Palmnicken was occupied by Sweden (Swedish Empire) for six years. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. * East Pakistan (1955–1971), now Bangladesh, was an exclave from Islamic Republic of Pakistan, if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital Islamabad, mainland. There were 1600 kilometers of foreign territory separating the east and west wings of Pakistan. East Pakistan accounted for 70% of the exports of the country and was more populous than West Pakistan. * East Prussia, a German (Germany) exclave during the Weimar Republic: it was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia (see above), the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania. * Forbidden City - The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi (Henry Pu Yi), succeeded the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and alongside other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of imperial families, etc. Inside the Forbidden City it still flew the Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty. In 1924, the treaty signed in 1911 was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing the Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.


century taking

territories (which enjoyed varying degrees of autonomy (Wiktionary:autonomy) or semi-independence from the King) inter alia the Duchy of Prussia ( ). Prussian village A Prussian (Prussians) fishing village sprang up on the coast at some point in the 13th century, taking its name from ''pils'', the Old Prussian word for "fort". A great tempest created the navigable lagoon in front of the village on 10

Duchy of Prussia

The '''Duchy of Prussia''' ( ) or '''Ducal Prussia''' (German: ''Herzogliches Preußen'', Polish: ''Prusy Książęce'') was a duchy in eastern Prussia (Prussia (region)) established during the Protestant Reformation in 1525. It was the first Lutheran (Lutheranism) duchy with a dominant German-speaking population, as well as Polish (Masurians) and Lithuanian (Prussian Lithuanians) minorities. In old texts and in Latin, the term ''Prut(h)enia'' refers alike to ''Ducal Prussia'', its western neighbor Royal Prussia, and their common predecessor, Teutonic Prussia (monastic state of the Teutonic Knights). The adjectival form of the name was "Prut(h)enic (Prutenic Tables)".

In 1525 during the Protestant Reformation, the Grand Master (Grand Masters of the Teutonic Knights) of the Teutonic Knights, Albert, secularized the order's Prussian territory, becoming Albert, Duke of Prussia. His duchy, which had its capital in Königsberg (Polish: Królewiec), was established as fief of the Crown of Poland. It was inherited by the Hohenzollern (House of Hohenzollern) prince-electors of Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg) in 1618; this personal union is referred to as Brandenburg-Prussia. Frederick William (Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg), the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg, achieved full sovereignty over the territory in the 1657 Treaty of Wehlau, which was confirmed in the 1660 Treaty of Oliva. The Duchy of Prussia was elevated to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701.

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