Duchy of Prussia

What is Duchy of Prussia known for?


early modern

"Kirby" Kirby, David (David Kirby (historian)). ''Northern Europe in the Early Modern Period: The Baltic World, 1492–1772''. Longman. London, 1990. ISBN 0-582-00410-1 Bishop George of Polentz had forbidden the widespread forms of pagan worship in 1524, and repeated the ban in 1540. Already on 18 January 1524 Bishop George had ordered to only use native languages at baptisms, which improved the access towards the people. There was little active resistance to the new creed, although the fact that the Teutonic Knights had brought Catholicism and Protestantism made the transition easier. Koch, H.W. (H.W. Koch) ''A History of Prussia''. Barnes & Noble Books. New York, 1978. ISBN 0-88029-158-3 The Church Order of 1525 provided for visitations of the parishioners and pastors, first carried out by Bishop George in 1538. Because Ducal Prussia was ostensibly a Lutheran (Lutheranism) land, authorities travelled throughout the duchy ensuring that Lutheran teachings were being followed and imposing penalties on pagans and dissidents. The rural population of native descent was only thoroughly Christianised starting with the Reformation in Prussia. A peasant rebellion broke out in Sambia (Sambia Peninsula) (German: ''Samland'') in 1525. The combination of taxation by the nobility, the furor of the Protestant Reformation, and the abrupt secularization of the Teutonic Order's remaining Prussian lands exacerbated peasant unrest. The relatively well-to-do rebel leaders, including a miller from Kaimen (Zarechye) and an innkeeper from Schaaken in Prussia (Nekrasovo), were supported by sympathizers in Königsberg. The rebels demanded the elimination of newer taxes by the nobility and a return to an older tax of two marks (Mark (money)) for every ''Hufe'' (the Prussian hide (Hide (unit)) measuring approximately forty acres). They claimed to be rebelling against the harsh nobility, not against Duke Albert, who was away in the Holy Roman Empire, but they would only swear allegiance to him in person. Upon Albert's return from the Empire, he called for a meeting of the peasants in a field, whereupon he surrounded them with loyal troops and had them arrested without incident; the leaders of the rebellion were subsequently executed. Although there were no more large-scale rebellions, Ducal Prussia became known as a land of Protestant dissent and sectarianism. In 1544 Duke Albert founded the Albertina University (University of Königsberg) in Königsberg, which became the principal educational establishment for Lutheran pastors and theologians of Prussia. The usage of the native languages in service made him appoint exiled Protestant Lithuanian pastors as professors (e.g. Stanislovas Rapolionis and Abraomas Kulvietis), making the Albertina also a centre of Lithuanian language and literature. Albertas Juška, ''Mažosios Lietuvos Bažnyčia XVI-XX amžiuje'', Klaipėda: 1997, pp. 742-771, here after the German translation ''Die Kirche in Klein Litauen'' (section: 5. Die Pfarrer und ihre Ausbildung; The '''Treaty of Labiau''' was a treaty signed between Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg and Charles X Gustav of Sweden on 10 November (O.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) Quaritsch (1986), p. 85 20 November (N.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) 1656 in Labiau (Polessk) (now Polessk). With several concessions, the most important being the elevation of Frederick William I from a Swedish vassal to a full sovereign in the Duchy of Prussia and in Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia), Charles X Gustav strove to "buy Frederick William's support" in the ongoing Second Northern War. Sturdy (2002), p. 215 When the Second Northern War broke out in 1654, Charles X Gustav of Sweden offered an alliance to Frederick William I (Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg), the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg (Electorate of Brandenburg) and duke of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia). Shennan (1995), pp. 19-20 As the price for this alliance would have been the surrender of the Prussian ports of Pillau (now Baltiysk) and Memel (Klaipėda) (now Klaipėda) to Sweden, Frederick William I refused and instead signed a defensive alliance with the Dutch Republic in 1655. Charles X Gustav granted Frederick William I full souvereignity in the Duchy of Prussia Shennan (1995), p. 21 and Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia). For his Prussian possessions, Frederick William I was elevated from the status of a duke to a ''princeps summus & Suverenus''. Quaritsch (1986), pp. 85, 86 Article III specifies that this applies also to Frederick William I's successors, who likewise would have the status of ''principes summi & absoluti Suverenii''. Quaritsch (1986), p. 86 Consequences thumb 360px left The Duchy of Prussia (File:Prussia during the Second Northern War.png) as a Polish fief before the Second Northern War and as a Swedish fief after the Treaty of Königsberg (Treaty of Königsberg (1656)). Sweden granted sovereignty in Labiau and Poland-Lithuania in the Treaty of Wehlau-Bromberg. The treaty gave Grand Master Albert of Hohenzollern (Albert, Duke of Prussia) enough autonomy to secede from the Order to become Duke of the new Duchy of Prussia created by secularization of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. This was sealed by the Prussian Homage of 10 April. Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach converted to Lutheranism and turned the Ordenstaat into the secular, Lutheran Duchy of Prussia in 1525. The Teutonic Order retained its holdings in Germany and autonomous Livonia, however. Due to being limited to their possessions in other parts of Germany, which were led by the ''Deutschmeister'', the titles ''Hochmeister'' and ''Deutschmeister'' were combined during the reign of Walter von Cronberg, who was appointed by Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). This dual-title lasted until 1923. For centuries the "Jägerregiment Wien" of the Military of Austria was known as the "Hoch- und Deutschmeister Regiment". date October 8, 1656 place Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki, Ełk County, Poland) result Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth decisive victory Bogusław Radziwiłł taken captive The '''Battle of Prostken''' was fought near Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki in Ełk County, Poland) on October 8, 1656 between forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and allied Crimean Tatars (Crimean Khanate) (2,000 man) commanded by hetman (Hetmans of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Wincenty Gosiewski (Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski) on one side, and on the other allied Swedish (Sweden) and Brandenburg (Brandenburg-Prussia) forces commanded by Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck, reinforced by cavalry of Prince Bogusław Radziwiłł. The Commonwealth forces won the battle, annihilating enemy forces and taking Radziwiłł captive. Pre-1945 For centuries a provincial estate, Palmnicken was founded in 1234 atop an older Old Prussian settlement by the crusading (Northern Crusades) Teutonic Knights, who named the new settlement Palmnicken. After the secularization of the Order's Prussian (Prussia (region)) lands in 1525, Palmnicken became part of the Duchy of Prussia. In the Thirty Years' War Palmnicken was occupied by Sweden (Swedish Empire) for six years. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. * East Pakistan (1955–1971), now Bangladesh, was an exclave from Islamic Republic of Pakistan, if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital Islamabad, mainland. There were 1600 kilometers of foreign territory separating the east and west wings of Pakistan. East Pakistan accounted for 70% of the exports of the country and was more populous than West Pakistan. * East Prussia, a German (Germany) exclave during the Weimar Republic: it was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia (see above), the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania. * Forbidden City - The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi (Henry Pu Yi), succeeded the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and alongside other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of imperial families, etc. Inside the Forbidden City it still flew the Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty. In 1924, the treaty signed in 1911 was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing the Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.


742

of Poland , and with his personal bishop, Georg von Polenz of Pomesania (Bishopric of Pomesania) and of Samland (Bishopric of Samland), who had converted to Lutheranism in 1523, Albertas Juška, ''Mažosios Lietuvos Bažnyčia XVI-XX amžiuje'', Klaipėda: 1997, pp. 742-771, here after the German translation ''Die Kirche in Klein Litauen

of Prussia. The usage of the native languages in service made him appoint exiled Protestant Lithuanian pastors as professors (e.g. Stanislovas Rapolionis and Abraomas Kulvietis), making the Albertina also a centre of Lithuanian language and literature. Albertas Juška, ''Mažosios Lietuvos Bažnyčia XVI-XX amžiuje'', Klaipėda: 1997, pp. 742-771, here after the German translation

; Albertas Juška, ''Mažosios Lietuvos Bažnyčia XVI-XX amžiuje'', Klaipėda: 1997, pp. 742-771, here after the German translation ''Die Kirche in Klein Litauen'' (section: 2. Reformatorische Anfänge; ) on: ''Lietuvos Evangelikų Liuteronų Bažnyčia'', retrieved on 28 August 2011. David was born in Allenstein (Olsztyn) in Royal Prussia (today


political ties

of Denmark , thereby establishing political ties between Lutheranism and Scandinavia. Albert was greatly aided by his elder brother George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, who had already earlier established the Protestant religion in his territories of Franconia and Upper Silesia. Albert also found himself reliant on support from his Jagiellonian uncle Sigismund I (Sigismund I the Old) of Catholic Poland, as the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic Church had


service made

of Prussia. The usage of the native languages in service made him appoint exiled Protestant Lithuanian pastors as professors (e.g. Stanislovas Rapolionis and Abraomas Kulvietis), making the Albertina also a centre of Lithuanian language and literature. Albertas Juška, ''Mažosios Lietuvos Bažnyčia XVI-XX amžiuje'', Klaipėda: 1997, pp. 742-771, here after the German translation


active resistance

the access towards the people. There was little active resistance to the new creed, although the fact that the Teutonic Knights had brought Catholicism and Protestantism made the transition easier. Koch, H.W. (H.W. Koch) ''A History of Prussia''. Barnes & Noble Books. New York, 1978. ISBN 0-88029-158-3 The Church Order of 1525 provided for visitations of the parishioners and pastors, first carried out by Bishop George in 1538. Because Ducal Prussia was ostensibly a Lutheran (Lutheranism) land, authorities travelled throughout the duchy ensuring that Lutheran teachings were being followed and imposing penalties on pagans and dissidents. The rural population of native descent was only thoroughly Christianised starting with the Reformation in Prussia. A peasant rebellion broke out in Sambia (Sambia Peninsula) (German: ''Samland'') in 1525. The combination of taxation by the nobility, the furor of the Protestant Reformation, and the abrupt secularization of the Teutonic Order's remaining Prussian lands exacerbated peasant unrest. The relatively well-to-do rebel leaders, including a miller from Kaimen (Zarechye) and an innkeeper from Schaaken in Prussia (Nekrasovo), were supported by sympathizers in Königsberg. The rebels demanded the elimination of newer taxes by the nobility and a return to an older tax of two marks (Mark (money)) for every ''Hufe'' (the Prussian hide (Hide (unit)) measuring approximately forty acres). They claimed to be rebelling against the harsh nobility, not against Duke Albert, who was away in the Holy Roman Empire, but they would only swear allegiance to him in person. Upon Albert's return from the Empire, he called for a meeting of the peasants in a field, whereupon he surrounded them with loyal troops and had them arrested without incident; the leaders of the rebellion were subsequently executed. Although there were no more large-scale rebellions, Ducal Prussia became known as a land of Protestant dissent and sectarianism. In 1544 Duke Albert founded the Albertina University (University of Königsberg) in Königsberg, which became the principal educational establishment for Lutheran pastors and theologians of Prussia. The usage of the native languages in service made him appoint exiled Protestant Lithuanian pastors as professors (e.g. Stanislovas Rapolionis and Abraomas Kulvietis), making the Albertina also a centre of Lithuanian language and literature. Albertas Juška, ''Mažosios Lietuvos Bažnyčia XVI-XX amžiuje'', Klaipėda: 1997, pp. 742-771, here after the German translation ''Die Kirche in Klein Litauen'' (section: 5. Die Pfarrer und ihre Ausbildung; The '''Treaty of Labiau''' was a treaty signed between Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg and Charles X Gustav of Sweden on 10 November (O.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) Quaritsch (1986), p. 85 20 November (N.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) 1656 in Labiau (Polessk) (now Polessk). With several concessions, the most important being the elevation of Frederick William I from a Swedish vassal to a full sovereign in the Duchy of Prussia and in Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia), Charles X Gustav strove to "buy Frederick William's support" in the ongoing Second Northern War. Sturdy (2002), p. 215 When the Second Northern War broke out in 1654, Charles X Gustav of Sweden offered an alliance to Frederick William I (Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg), the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg (Electorate of Brandenburg) and duke of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia). Shennan (1995), pp. 19-20 As the price for this alliance would have been the surrender of the Prussian ports of Pillau (now Baltiysk) and Memel (Klaipėda) (now Klaipėda) to Sweden, Frederick William I refused and instead signed a defensive alliance with the Dutch Republic in 1655. Charles X Gustav granted Frederick William I full souvereignity in the Duchy of Prussia Shennan (1995), p. 21 and Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia). For his Prussian possessions, Frederick William I was elevated from the status of a duke to a ''princeps summus & Suverenus''. Quaritsch (1986), pp. 85, 86 Article III specifies that this applies also to Frederick William I's successors, who likewise would have the status of ''principes summi & absoluti Suverenii''. Quaritsch (1986), p. 86 Consequences thumb 360px left The Duchy of Prussia (File:Prussia during the Second Northern War.png) as a Polish fief before the Second Northern War and as a Swedish fief after the Treaty of Königsberg (Treaty of Königsberg (1656)). Sweden granted sovereignty in Labiau and Poland-Lithuania in the Treaty of Wehlau-Bromberg. The treaty gave Grand Master Albert of Hohenzollern (Albert, Duke of Prussia) enough autonomy to secede from the Order to become Duke of the new Duchy of Prussia created by secularization of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. This was sealed by the Prussian Homage of 10 April. Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach converted to Lutheranism and turned the Ordenstaat into the secular, Lutheran Duchy of Prussia in 1525. The Teutonic Order retained its holdings in Germany and autonomous Livonia, however. Due to being limited to their possessions in other parts of Germany, which were led by the ''Deutschmeister'', the titles ''Hochmeister'' and ''Deutschmeister'' were combined during the reign of Walter von Cronberg, who was appointed by Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). This dual-title lasted until 1923. For centuries the "Jägerregiment Wien" of the Military of Austria was known as the "Hoch- und Deutschmeister Regiment". date October 8, 1656 place Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki, Ełk County, Poland) result Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth decisive victory Bogusław Radziwiłł taken captive The '''Battle of Prostken''' was fought near Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki in Ełk County, Poland) on October 8, 1656 between forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and allied Crimean Tatars (Crimean Khanate) (2,000 man) commanded by hetman (Hetmans of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Wincenty Gosiewski (Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski) on one side, and on the other allied Swedish (Sweden) and Brandenburg (Brandenburg-Prussia) forces commanded by Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck, reinforced by cavalry of Prince Bogusław Radziwiłł. The Commonwealth forces won the battle, annihilating enemy forces and taking Radziwiłł captive. Pre-1945 For centuries a provincial estate, Palmnicken was founded in 1234 atop an older Old Prussian settlement by the crusading (Northern Crusades) Teutonic Knights, who named the new settlement Palmnicken. After the secularization of the Order's Prussian (Prussia (region)) lands in 1525, Palmnicken became part of the Duchy of Prussia. In the Thirty Years' War Palmnicken was occupied by Sweden (Swedish Empire) for six years. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. * East Pakistan (1955–1971), now Bangladesh, was an exclave from Islamic Republic of Pakistan, if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital Islamabad, mainland. There were 1600 kilometers of foreign territory separating the east and west wings of Pakistan. East Pakistan accounted for 70% of the exports of the country and was more populous than West Pakistan. * East Prussia, a German (Germany) exclave during the Weimar Republic: it was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia (see above), the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania. * Forbidden City - The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi (Henry Pu Yi), succeeded the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and alongside other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of imperial families, etc. Inside the Forbidden City it still flew the Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty. In 1924, the treaty signed in 1911 was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing the Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.


career history

the Duchy of Prussia; previously they had held the territory as a fief of Poland. In case of an end to the Hohenzollern dynasty in Prussia, the territory was to revert to the Polish crown. The treaty was achieved by Brandenburg's diplomat, Christoph Caspar von Blumenthal, on the first diplomatic mission of his career. History About 1348 the Teutonic Knights (State of the Teutonic Order) constructed a wooden fortress near present-day Mrągowo named ''Sensburg'', derived from Old


made deep

) in 1505, transferred most of the legislative power (legislature) from the monarch to the ''Sejm''. This event marked the beginning of the period known as "Golden Liberty", when the state was ruled by the "free and equal" Polish nobility (szlachta). Protestant Reformation movements made deep inroads into the Polish Christianity, which resulted in unique at that time in Europe policies of religious tolerance (religious toleration). The European Renaissance currents evoked in late Jagiellon Poland (kings Sigismund I the Old and Sigismund II Augustus) an immense cultural flowering (Renaissance in Poland). Poland's and Lithuania's territorial expansion included the far north region of Livonia. Jerzy Wyrozumski – ''Historia Polski do roku 1505'' (History of Poland until 1505), p. 178-250 Józef Andrzej Gierowski – ''Historia Polski 1505–1764'' (History of Poland 1505–1764), Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (Polish Scientific Publishers PWN), Warszawa 1986, ISBN 83-01-03732-6, p. 1-105 parent house titles Count of Zollern (Zollern) Margrave of Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg) Duke of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia) Burgrave of Nuremberg Margrave of Bayreuth Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach King of Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) German Emperor Prince of Neuchâtel (Principality of Neuchâtel) King of Romania (Kingdom of Romania) founder Burgrave Frederick I of Nuremberg (Frederick I, Burgrave of Nuremberg) The family split into two branches, the Catholic (Roman Catholic) Swabian branch and the Protestant (Protestantism) Franconian branch, known also as the Kirschner line. The Swabian branch ruled the area of Hechingen until their eventual extinction in 1869. The Franconian-Kirschner branch was more successful: members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg) in 1415 and Duke of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia) in 1525. Following the union of these two Franconian lines (Brandenburg-Prussia) in 1618, the Kingdom of Prussia was created in 1701, eventually leading to the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871. 75px right (Image:POL Prusy książęce COA.svg) In 1525 the Duchy of Prussia was established as a fief of the King of Poland. 75px right (Image:Wappen Preußen.png) In 1701 the title of King in Prussia was granted, without the Duchy of Prussia being elevated to a Kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire. From 1701 onwards the titles of Duke of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg were always attached to the title of King in Prussia. Upon the death of his kinsman Albert I, Duke of Prussia in 1568, the Duchy of Prussia was inherited by the latter's underage son Albert Frederick (Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia). John George's father was a co-inheritor of the Duchy of Prussia. In 1577 the Brandenburg electors became co-regent with Duke Albert Frederick of Prussia. The region of what is now Kaliningrad Oblast was inhabited during the Middle Ages by tribes of Old Prussians in the western part and Lithuanians in the eastern part by the Pregolya (Pregolya River) and Alna Rivers. The Teutonic Knights conquered the region and established a monastic state (Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights). On the foundations of a destroyed Prussian settlement known as Tvanksta, the Order founded the major city of Königsberg (modern Kaliningrad). Germans and Poles resettled the territory and assimilated the indigenous Old Prussians. The Lithuanian (Lithuanians)-inhabited areas became known as Lithuania Minor. In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg (Albert I, Duke of Prussia) secularized (German Mediatisation) the Prussian branch of the Teutonic Order and established himself as the sovereign of the Duchy of Prussia, the Polish fief, later inherited by the Margravate of Brandenburg. The region was reorganized into the Province of East Prussia within the Kingdom of Prussia in 1773. The '''Treaty of Labiau''' was a treaty signed between Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg and Charles X Gustav of Sweden on 10 November (O.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) Quaritsch (1986), p. 85 20 November (N.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) 1656 in Labiau (Polessk) (now Polessk). With several concessions, the most important being the elevation of Frederick William I from a Swedish vassal to a full sovereign in the Duchy of Prussia and in Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia), Charles X Gustav strove to "buy Frederick William's support" in the ongoing Second Northern War. Sturdy (2002), p. 215 When the Second Northern War broke out in 1654, Charles X Gustav of Sweden offered an alliance to Frederick William I (Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg), the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg (Electorate of Brandenburg) and duke of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia). Shennan (1995), pp. 19-20 As the price for this alliance would have been the surrender of the Prussian ports of Pillau (now Baltiysk) and Memel (Klaipėda) (now Klaipėda) to Sweden, Frederick William I refused and instead signed a defensive alliance with the Dutch Republic in 1655. Charles X Gustav granted Frederick William I full souvereignity in the Duchy of Prussia Shennan (1995), p. 21 and Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia). For his Prussian possessions, Frederick William I was elevated from the status of a duke to a ''princeps summus & Suverenus''. Quaritsch (1986), pp. 85, 86 Article III specifies that this applies also to Frederick William I's successors, who likewise would have the status of ''principes summi & absoluti Suverenii''. Quaritsch (1986), p. 86 Consequences thumb 360px left The Duchy of Prussia (File:Prussia during the Second Northern War.png) as a Polish fief before the Second Northern War and as a Swedish fief after the Treaty of Königsberg (Treaty of Königsberg (1656)). Sweden granted sovereignty in Labiau and Poland-Lithuania in the Treaty of Wehlau-Bromberg. The treaty gave Grand Master Albert of Hohenzollern (Albert, Duke of Prussia) enough autonomy to secede from the Order to become Duke of the new Duchy of Prussia created by secularization of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. This was sealed by the Prussian Homage of 10 April. Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach converted to Lutheranism and turned the Ordenstaat into the secular, Lutheran Duchy of Prussia in 1525. The Teutonic Order retained its holdings in Germany and autonomous Livonia, however. Due to being limited to their possessions in other parts of Germany, which were led by the ''Deutschmeister'', the titles ''Hochmeister'' and ''Deutschmeister'' were combined during the reign of Walter von Cronberg, who was appointed by Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). This dual-title lasted until 1923. For centuries the "Jägerregiment Wien" of the Military of Austria was known as the "Hoch- und Deutschmeister Regiment". date October 8, 1656 place Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki, Ełk County, Poland) result Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth decisive victory Bogusław Radziwiłł taken captive The '''Battle of Prostken''' was fought near Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki in Ełk County, Poland) on October 8, 1656 between forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and allied Crimean Tatars (Crimean Khanate) (2,000 man) commanded by hetman (Hetmans of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Wincenty Gosiewski (Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski) on one side, and on the other allied Swedish (Sweden) and Brandenburg (Brandenburg-Prussia) forces commanded by Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck, reinforced by cavalry of Prince Bogusław Radziwiłł. The Commonwealth forces won the battle, annihilating enemy forces and taking Radziwiłł captive. Pre-1945 For centuries a provincial estate, Palmnicken was founded in 1234 atop an older Old Prussian settlement by the crusading (Northern Crusades) Teutonic Knights, who named the new settlement Palmnicken. After the secularization of the Order's Prussian (Prussia (region)) lands in 1525, Palmnicken became part of the Duchy of Prussia. In the Thirty Years' War Palmnicken was occupied by Sweden (Swedish Empire) for six years. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. * East Pakistan (1955–1971), now Bangladesh, was an exclave from Islamic Republic of Pakistan, if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital Islamabad, mainland. There were 1600 kilometers of foreign territory separating the east and west wings of Pakistan. East Pakistan accounted for 70% of the exports of the country and was more populous than West Pakistan. * East Prussia, a German (Germany) exclave during the Weimar Republic: it was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia (see above), the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania. * Forbidden City - The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi (Henry Pu Yi), succeeded the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and alongside other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of imperial families, etc. Inside the Forbidden City it still flew the Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty. In 1924, the treaty signed in 1911 was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing the Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.


history modern

system. Painting by Jan Matejko. The rule of the Jagiellon dynasty, spanned the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era (Modern history) of Polish history. Beginning with the Lithuanian Grand Duke (Grand Duke of Lithuania) Jogaila (Władysław II Jagiełło), the Jagiellon dynasty (1386–1572) formed the Polish–Lithuanian union. The partnership brought vast Lithuania (Grand Duchy of Lithuania)-controlled Rus' areas (Rus' (people)) into Poland's sphere of influence and proved beneficial for the Poles and Lithuanians, who coexisted and cooperated in one of the largest political entities (personal union) in Europe for the next four centuries. In the Baltic Sea region Poland's struggle with the Teutonic Knights continued and included the Battle of Grunwald (1410), where a Polish-Lithuanian army inflicted a decisive defeat on the Teutonic Knights, both countries' main adversary, allowing Poland's and Lithuania's territorial expansion into the far north region of Livonia. In 1466, after the Thirteen Years' War (Thirteen Years' War (1454–66)), King Casimir IV Jagiellon gave royal consent to the milestone Peace of Thorn (Second Peace of Thorn (1466)), which created the future Duchy of Prussia, a Polish vassal. The Jagiellons at one point also established dynastic control over the kingdoms of Bohemia (Kingdom of Bohemia) (1471 onwards) and Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary). "Jagiellon dynasty (European history)". Encyclopædia Britannica. In the south Poland confronted the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Tatars (Crimean Khanate) (by whom they were attacked on 75 separate occasions between 1474 and 1569), and in the east helped Lithuania fight the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Some historians estimate that Crimean Tatar (Crimean Khanate) slave-raiding cost Poland one million of its population from 1494 to 1694. thumb right Wawel (File:Kraków - Wawel from Kopiec Krakusa.jpg), the seat of Polish kings. Kraków was the nation's capital from 1038 until the move to Warsaw in 1596 The peninsula became part of the Duchy of Prussia when Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Albert, Duke of Prussia), the 37th Grand Master, secularized the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights in 1525. The Margraviate of Brandenburg inherited the duchy in 1618, and its Hohenzollern (House of Hohenzollern) ruler proclaimed the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Sambia became part of the Province (Provinces of Prussia) of East Prussia in 1773. (The Kingdom of Prussia completed the unification of Germany by setting up the German Empire in 1871.) The Order was completely ousted from Prussia when Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg (Albert I, Duke of Prussia), after the Polish–Teutonic War (1519–1521), converted to Lutheranism in 1525, secularized the Order's remaining Prussian territories, and assumed from King Sigismund I the Old of Poland, his uncle, the hereditary rights to the Duchy of Prussia as a vassal of the Polish Crown in the Prussian Homage. The Protestant Duchy of Prussia was thus a fief of Catholic Poland. The Archbishopric of Warmia was one of four dioceses created in 1242 by the papal legate William of Modena. Since the 13th century the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights (with Warmia) was colonised mainly by Germans (the Duchy of Prussia, Lutheran from 1525 onwards, gave refuge to Protestant Poles ,Lithuanians, Scots, Salzburgers). The bishopric was exempt and was governed by a prince-bishop, confirmed by Emperor Charles IV (Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor). The Bishops of Warmia (Bishop of Warmia) were usually Germans or Poles, although Enea Silvio Piccolomini, the later Pope Pius II, was an Italian (Italians) bishop of the diocese. Date unknown * The markgraves of Brandenburg are granted Polish (Poland) approval to inherit the Duchy of Prussia, creating the state of Brandenburg-Prussia. * Osman II deposes his uncle Mustafa I as Ottoman Emperor (until 1622). The Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen ruled over a small principality in southwest Germany, with a seat at Sigmaringen Castle. Unlike the Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg) and Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), the Hohenzollern of Sigmaringen, and their cousins of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, the seniormost branch of the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern, and Hohenzollern of Haigerloch (Hohenzollern-Haigerloch), remained Roman Catholic (Roman Catholicism). Polish - Lithuanian Commonwealth In the first half of the 16th century, the enormous Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was a country of many creeds, but Roman-Catholic Church remained the dominating religion. Reformation reached Poland in the 1520s, and quickly gained popularity among mostly German-speaking inhabitants of such major cities, as Gdańsk, Toruń and Elbląg. In Koenigsberg, in 1530, Polish-language edition of Luther's Small Catechism was published. The Duchy of Prussia, which was a Polish fief, emerged as key center of the movement, with numerous publishing houses issuing not only Bibles, but also catechisms, in German, Polish and Lithuanian. * Duchy of Warmia (Warmia) (''Księstwo Warmińskie'', Lidzbark Warmiński) * Duchy of Prussia (''Księstwo Pruskie'', Lidzbark Warmiński) * Płock Voivodeship (''województwo płockie'', Płock) thumb 150px left Sigismund I the Old by Lucas Cranach the Younger (File:Zygmunt1.jpg), ca. 1555 350px thumb left '' Prussian Homage (painting) Prussian Homage (Image:Prussian Homage.jpg)'', by Jan Matejko, 1882. Albrecht Hohenzollern (Albert, Duke of Prussia) receives the Duchy of Prussia in fief from Poland's King Sigismund I the Old, 1525 The son of King Casimir IV Jagiellon and Elisabeth of Austria (Elisabeth of Austria (d. 1505)), Sigismund followed his brothers John I of Poland and Alexander I of Poland to the Polish throne. Their elder brother Ladislaus II of Hungary and Bohemia became king of Hungary and Bohemia. The Polish wars against the Teutonic Knights ended in 1525, when Albert, Duke of Prussia, their marshal (and Sigismund's nephew), converted to Lutheranism, secularized the order, and paid homage to Sigismund. In return, he was given the domains of the Order, as the First Duke of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia). This was called the "Prussian Homage". left thumb King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (File:Gustav II of Sweden.jpg) During the frequent absences of Gustavus in Livonia (Duchy of Livonia (1629–1721)) and in Finland (Österland) (1614–1616) Oxenstierna acted as his viceroy. One assignment Oxenstierna received while the king was in Livonia, was the task to finalize the negotiations regarding the marriage of John Casimir (John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg) and the king's sister, Princess Catharina (Catherine of Sweden (1584-1638)). At the coronation of Gustavus Adolphus, in October 1617, Oxenstierna was knighted. In 1620 he headed the embassy dispatched to Berlin to arrange the nuptial contract between Gustavus and Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. During the king's Russian and Polish wars he had the principal duty of supplying the armies (Swedish Army) and the fleets (Royal Swedish Navy) with everything necessary, including men and money. Oxenstierna's ways of carrying out his assignments apparently gained King Gustavus's appreciation, since the king, in 1622, asked Oxenstierna to accompany him to Livonia and appointed him Governor-General (Governor-General in the Swedish Realm) and commandant of Riga, a strategically important town during the on-going war against Poland. His services in Livonia gained him the reward of four castles (among others Burtnieki and Valmiera) and the whole bishopric of Wenden (Cēsis). Entrusted with the peace negotiations which led to the truce with Poland in 1623, he succeeded in averting a threatened rupture with Denmark in 1624. The Polish-Swedish War was reinitiated in 1626, and on 7 October that year, Oxenstierna became Governor-General in the newly-acquired Swedish possession (Possessions of Sweden) of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia). In 1629 he concluded the advantageous Truce of Altmark with Poland-Lithuania. Prior to this, in September 1628, he arranged a joint occupation of Stralsund with Denmark in order to prevent that important fortress from falling into the hands of the Imperialists. As a consequence of the treaty, Warmia became an autonomous region within Poland ruled by bishop of Warmia (see Duchy of Warmia). Eastern Prussia, later called Duchy of Prussia remained with the Teutonic Order (Teutonic Knights) until 1525, as a Polish fief. In 1525, the Order was ousted from East Prussian territory by its own Hochmeister (Grand Masters of the Teutonic Knights) when Albert, Duke of Prussia adopted Lutheranism and assumed the title of duke as hereditary ruler under the overlordship of Poland in the Prussian Homage. The area became known as the Duchy of Prussia or Ducal Prussia, later East Prussia. When Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Albert, Duke of Prussia) in 1525 securalized the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, Insterburg became part of the Duchy of Prussia and was granted town privileges on 10 October 1583 by the Prussian regent Margrave George Frederick (George Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach). The town became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Because the area had been depopulated by plague (Plague (disease)) in the early 18th century, King Frederick William I of Prussia invited Protestant (Protestantism) refugees who had been expelled from the Archbishopric of Salzburg to settle in Insterburg in 1732. Hartknoch was born in Jablonken (Jabłonka) (Jabłonka, Szczytno County) near Ortelsburg (Szczytno) (Szczytno) in the Duchy of Prussia. His father, Stephan Hartknoch of Lyck (Ełk) (Ełk), is recorded to have been married for 100 years and to have lived to the age of 130. The '''Treaty of Labiau''' was a treaty signed between Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg and Charles X Gustav of Sweden on 10 November (O.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) Quaritsch (1986), p. 85 20 November (N.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) 1656 in Labiau (Polessk) (now Polessk). With several concessions, the most important being the elevation of Frederick William I from a Swedish vassal to a full sovereign in the Duchy of Prussia and in Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia), Charles X Gustav strove to "buy Frederick William's support" in the ongoing Second Northern War. Sturdy (2002), p. 215 When the Second Northern War broke out in 1654, Charles X Gustav of Sweden offered an alliance to Frederick William I (Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg), the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg (Electorate of Brandenburg) and duke of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia). Shennan (1995), pp. 19-20 As the price for this alliance would have been the surrender of the Prussian ports of Pillau (now Baltiysk) and Memel (Klaipėda) (now Klaipėda) to Sweden, Frederick William I refused and instead signed a defensive alliance with the Dutch Republic in 1655. Charles X Gustav granted Frederick William I full souvereignity in the Duchy of Prussia Shennan (1995), p. 21 and Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia). For his Prussian possessions, Frederick William I was elevated from the status of a duke to a ''princeps summus & Suverenus''. Quaritsch (1986), pp. 85, 86 Article III specifies that this applies also to Frederick William I's successors, who likewise would have the status of ''principes summi & absoluti Suverenii''. Quaritsch (1986), p. 86 Consequences thumb 360px left The Duchy of Prussia (File:Prussia during the Second Northern War.png) as a Polish fief before the Second Northern War and as a Swedish fief after the Treaty of Königsberg (Treaty of Königsberg (1656)). Sweden granted sovereignty in Labiau and Poland-Lithuania in the Treaty of Wehlau-Bromberg. The treaty gave Grand Master Albert of Hohenzollern (Albert, Duke of Prussia) enough autonomy to secede from the Order to become Duke of the new Duchy of Prussia created by secularization of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. This was sealed by the Prussian Homage of 10 April. Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach converted to Lutheranism and turned the Ordenstaat into the secular, Lutheran Duchy of Prussia in 1525. The Teutonic Order retained its holdings in Germany and autonomous Livonia, however. Due to being limited to their possessions in other parts of Germany, which were led by the ''Deutschmeister'', the titles ''Hochmeister'' and ''Deutschmeister'' were combined during the reign of Walter von Cronberg, who was appointed by Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). This dual-title lasted until 1923. For centuries the "Jägerregiment Wien" of the Military of Austria was known as the "Hoch- und Deutschmeister Regiment". date October 8, 1656 place Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki, Ełk County, Poland) result Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth decisive victory Bogusław Radziwiłł taken captive The '''Battle of Prostken''' was fought near Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki in Ełk County, Poland) on October 8, 1656 between forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and allied Crimean Tatars (Crimean Khanate) (2,000 man) commanded by hetman (Hetmans of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Wincenty Gosiewski (Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski) on one side, and on the other allied Swedish (Sweden) and Brandenburg (Brandenburg-Prussia) forces commanded by Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck, reinforced by cavalry of Prince Bogusław Radziwiłł. The Commonwealth forces won the battle, annihilating enemy forces and taking Radziwiłł captive. Pre-1945 For centuries a provincial estate, Palmnicken was founded in 1234 atop an older Old Prussian settlement by the crusading (Northern Crusades) Teutonic Knights, who named the new settlement Palmnicken. After the secularization of the Order's Prussian (Prussia (region)) lands in 1525, Palmnicken became part of the Duchy of Prussia. In the Thirty Years' War Palmnicken was occupied by Sweden (Swedish Empire) for six years. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. * East Pakistan (1955–1971), now Bangladesh, was an exclave from Islamic Republic of Pakistan, if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital Islamabad, mainland. There were 1600 kilometers of foreign territory separating the east and west wings of Pakistan. East Pakistan accounted for 70% of the exports of the country and was more populous than West Pakistan. * East Prussia, a German (Germany) exclave during the Weimar Republic: it was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia (see above), the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania. * Forbidden City - The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi (Henry Pu Yi), succeeded the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and alongside other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of imperial families, etc. Inside the Forbidden City it still flew the Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty. In 1924, the treaty signed in 1911 was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing the Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.


great efforts

'' on 20 July 1544, after which the university was inaugurated on August 17. thumb left ''Collegium Albertinum'', c. 1850 (File:Albertinum.JPG) A group of envoys from Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg), Prussia (Duchy of Prussia) and Mecklenburg (Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin) shuttled back and forth between Duke Charles’s and Sigismund’s camps for three weeks, trying to rescue the peace. Despite their great efforts, they failed. Sigismund sailed with his infantry to Stegeborg


personal

Brandenburg in 1618; this personal union is referred to as Brandenburg-Prussia. Frederick William (Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg), the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg, achieved full sovereignty over the territory in the 1657 Treaty of Wehlau, which was confirmed in the 1660 Treaty of Oliva. The Duchy of Prussia was elevated to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. History Background As Protestantism spread among the laity of the monastic

of Poland , and with his personal bishop, Georg von Polenz of Pomesania (Bishopric of Pomesania) and of Samland (Bishopric of Samland), who had converted to Lutheranism in 1523, Albertas Juška, ''Mažosios Lietuvos Bažnyčia XVI-XX amžiuje'', Klaipėda: 1997, pp. 742-771, here after the German translation ''Die Kirche in Klein Litauen

'' (section: 2. Reformatorische Anfänge; ) on: ''Lietuvos Evangelikų Liuteronų Bažnyčia'', retrieved on 28 August 2011. and a number of his commanders already supporting Protestant ideas, Albert began to consider a radical solution. At Wittenberg in 1522 and at Nuremberg in 1524, Martin Luther encouraged him to convert the order's territory into a secular principality under his personal rule, as the anachronistic Teutonic Knights

Duchy of Prussia

The '''Duchy of Prussia''' ( ) or '''Ducal Prussia''' (German: ''Herzogliches Preußen'', Polish: ''Prusy Książęce'') was a duchy in eastern Prussia (Prussia (region)) established during the Protestant Reformation in 1525. It was the first Lutheran (Lutheranism) duchy with a dominant German-speaking population, as well as Polish (Masurians) and Lithuanian (Prussian Lithuanians) minorities. In old texts and in Latin, the term ''Prut(h)enia'' refers alike to ''Ducal Prussia'', its western neighbor Royal Prussia, and their common predecessor, Teutonic Prussia (monastic state of the Teutonic Knights). The adjectival form of the name was "Prut(h)enic (Prutenic Tables)".

In 1525 during the Protestant Reformation, the Grand Master (Grand Masters of the Teutonic Knights) of the Teutonic Knights, Albert, secularized the order's Prussian territory, becoming Albert, Duke of Prussia. His duchy, which had its capital in Königsberg (Polish: Królewiec), was established as fief of the Crown of Poland. It was inherited by the Hohenzollern (House of Hohenzollern) prince-electors of Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg) in 1618; this personal union is referred to as Brandenburg-Prussia. Frederick William (Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg), the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg, achieved full sovereignty over the territory in the 1657 Treaty of Wehlau, which was confirmed in the 1660 Treaty of Oliva. The Duchy of Prussia was elevated to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701.

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