Duchy of Milan

What is Duchy of Milan known for?


Naples

of Austrian rule in Lombardy, and earned Eugene the Governorship of Milan (Duchy of Milan). But the following year was to prove a disappointment for the Prince and the Grand Alliance as a whole. The Emperor and Eugene (whose main goal after Turin was to take Naples (Kingdom of Naples) and Sicily (Kingdom of Sicily) from Philip duc d'Anjou's supporters), reluctantly agreed to Marlborough's plan for an attack on Toulon (Battle of Toulon (1707)) – the seat of French naval power

territories in Italy for his sons by his second marriage to Elizabeth Farnese. Specifically, he hoped to secure Mantua (Duchy of Mantua) for the elder son, Don Carlos (Charles III of Spain), who was already Duke of Parma and had the expectation of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and the Kingdoms of Naples (Kingdom of Naples) and Sicily (Kingdom of Sicily) for the younger son, Don Felipe (Philip of Parma). The two Bourbon monarchs were also joined by Charles Emmanuel of Savoy, who hoped

to secure gains from the Austrian Duchies of Milan (Duchy of Milan) and Mantua (Duchy of Mantua). place Europe, North America and the West Indies territory Spain cedes the Spanish Netherlands, Kingdom of Naples, Duchy of Milan and Sardinia to the Habsburg Monarchy, Sicily to the Duchy of Savoy and Gibraltar and Minorca to Britain. France is guaranteed all its former conquests but recognizes British sovereignty over


centuries early

. It houses a noteworthy ''Pietà'' by an unknown master, dating from the late 14th-early 15th centuries. Early life Pallavicino was born in Piacenza, Italy, a member of the old Italian family of the Pallavicini. He received a good education at Padua and elsewhere, and early in life entered the Augustinian order, residing chiefly in Venice. For a year he accompanied the general Ottavio Piccolomini in his German campaigns (Thirty Years' War) as field chaplain, and in 1641


military architecture

of the finest examples of 16th century Portuguese military architecture, which has been influenced and changed by both the Omani Arabs and the British. Kirkman, J. 1974. ''Fort Jesus: A Portuguese Fortress on the East African Coast'' Clarendon Press: Oxford The fort quickly became a vital possession for anyone with the intention of controlling Mombasa Island or the surrounding areas of trade. When the United Kingdom British


century leading

of the republic. In the 14th century, Italy presents itself as divided between the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily (Kingdom of Sicily) in the south, the Papal States in Central Italy, and the Maritime republics in the north. The Duchy of Milan found itself in the focus of European power politics in the 15th century, leading to the drawn-out Italian Wars, which persisted for the best part of the 16th century before giving way to the Early Modern period in Italy (History of Italy (1559–1814)). He was born to Francesco Sforza, a popular condottiero and ally of Cosimo de' Medici who had gained the Duchy of Milan, and Bianca Maria Visconti. He married into the Gonzaga (House of Gonzaga) family; on the death of his first wife Dorotea Gonzaga, he married Bona of Savoy. The '''War of the League of Cognac''' (1526–30) was fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor)—primarily Spain (Habsburg Spain) and the Holy Roman Empire—and the League of Cognac, an alliance including France, Pope Clement VII, the Republic of Venice, England (Kingdom of England), the Duchy of Milan and Republic of Florence. History The Battle of Giornico was part of an expansionist policy of the Old Swiss Confederation during the 15th century. The confederation attempted to expand into the southern foothills of the Alps to gain control of both ends of the valuable mountain passes. In November 1478, Uri (Canton of Uri) troops moved south over the Gotthard pass into the Levantina (Leventina (district)) valley. The population of the valley, who had long been opposed to Milan (Duchy of Milan), greeted the Swiss troops as liberators and allies. However, below the valley at Bellinzona, they found the city gates closed. Uri was quickly joined by forces from other Confederation cantons and established a siege camp below the walls of Bellinzona on 30 November 1478. The Duke of Milan responded by sending 10,000 men toward Bellinzona to drive the Confederates back and reassert his control over the Levantina. On 15 May 1702 the Powers of the Grand Alliance (Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg)), led by England and the Dutch Republic, declared war on France and Spain. Emperor Leopold I (Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor) also declared war on the Bourbon powers, but his forces under Prince Eugene (Prince Eugene of Savoy) had already begun hostilities in northern Italy along the Po Valley in an attempt to secure for Austria the Spanish Duchy of Milan. Eugene’s successful 1701 campaign had aroused enthusiasm in England for war against France, and helped Emperor Leopold’s efforts in persuading King William III (William III of England) to send an Allied fleet to the Mediterranean Sea. Count Wratislaw (John Wenceslau Wratislaw von Mitrowitz), the Emperor’s envoy in England, urged that the sight of an Allied fleet in the Mediterranean would effect a revolution in the Spanish province of Naples (Kingdom of Naples); win south Italy from the precarious grip of Philip V (Philip V of Spain); overawe the Francophile Pope Clement XI; and encourage the Duke of Savoy (Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia) – and other Italian princes – to change sides. Trevelyan: ''England Under Queen Anne: Blenheim,'' p. 262 More modestly, Prince Eugene pleaded for a squadron to protect the passage of his supplies from Trieste across the Adriatic (Adriatic Sea).


italy

–1535 title_leader Duke of Milan currency Milanese scudo, lira and soldo The '''Duchy of Milan''' was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy. It was created in 1395, when it included twenty-six towns and the wide rural area of the middle Padan Plain east of the hills of Montferrat (Montferrat). During much of its existence, it was wedged between Savoy (House of Savoy) to the west, Venice (Republic of Venice) to the east, the Old

Austria ceded it to the new Cisalpine Republic. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 restored many other states which he had destroyed, but not the Duchy of Milan. Instead, its former territory became part of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, with the Emperor of Austria as its king. In 1859, Lombardy was ceded to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, which would become the Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) in 1861. History


high cultural

the unification of Italy. Under the Visconti and later the Sforza Cremona underwent high cultural and religious development. In 1411 Palazzo Cittanova become the seat of the University of fustian merchants. In 1441 the city hosted the marriage of Francesco I Sforza and Bianca Maria Visconti in the temple built by the Benedictines, which today is the church of Saint Sigismund. In that occasion a new sweet was devised, which was later turned into the famous torrone. Ludovico il Moro


running battle

of warring city-states (Italian city-states), the most powerful being Milan, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire: each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Warfare between

, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire: each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Warfare between the states was common, invasion from outside Italy confined to intermittent


characters including

in northern Italy, it takes place first in the Marquessate of Montferrat (Montferrat) and later in the Duchy of Milan. Most of its characters, including Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Gian Maria Visconti, Facino Cane, Filippo Maria Visconti, and Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola, were real historical figures; the scheming title character is the notable exception. '''Western Lombard''' is a Romance language spoken in Italy, in the Lombard (Lombardy) provinces


book called

Spain Spanish Habsburg court ceremonial, adopting the dress of a Spanish monarch, which, according to British historian Edward Crankshaw, consisted of "a black doublet and hose, black shoes and scarlet stockings". In 1480, Heinrich von Gundelfingen collected a number of local legends into a book called the ''Herkommen der Schwyzer und Oberhasler'' (Traditions of the Schwyzer and Oberhasler) which claimed that the land had been settled by 6,000 Swedish


religious development

the unification of Italy. Under the Visconti and later the Sforza Cremona underwent high cultural and religious development. In 1411 Palazzo Cittanova become the seat of the University of fustian merchants. In 1441 the city hosted the marriage of Francesco I Sforza and Bianca Maria Visconti in the temple built by the Benedictines, which today is the church of Saint Sigismund. In that occasion a new sweet was devised, which was later turned into the famous torrone. Ludovico il Moro

Duchy of Milan

The '''Duchy of Milan''' was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy. It was created in 1395, when it included twenty-six towns and the wide rural area of the middle Padan Plain east of the hills of Montferrat (Montferrat). During much of its existence, it was wedged between Savoy (House of Savoy) to the west, Venice (Republic of Venice) to the east, the Swiss Confederacy (Old Swiss Confederacy) to the north, and separated from the Mediterranean by Genoa (Republic of Genoa) to the south. The Duchy eventually fell to Habsburg Austria with the Treaty of Baden (1714), concluding the War of the Spanish Succession. The Duchy remained an Austrian possession until 1796, when a French army under Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) conquered it, and it ceased to exist a year later as a result of the Treaty of Campo Formio, when Austria ceded it to the new Cisalpine Republic.

After the defeat of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 restored many other states which he had destroyed, but not the Duchy of Milan. Instead, its former territory became part of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, with the Emperor of Austria as its king. In 1859, Lombardy was ceded to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, which would become the Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) in 1861.

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