On 15 May 1702 the Powers of the Grand Alliance (Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg)), led by England and the Dutch Republic, declared war on France and Spain. Emperor Leopold I (Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor) also declared war on the Bourbon powers, but his forces under Prince Eugene (Prince Eugene of Savoy) had already begun hostilities in northern Italy along the Po Valley in an attempt to secure for Austria the Spanish Duchy of Milan. Eugene’s successful 1701 campaign had aroused enthusiasm in England for war against France, and helped Emperor Leopold’s efforts in persuading King William III (William III of England) to send an Allied fleet to the Mediterranean Sea. Count Wratislaw (John Wenceslau Wratislaw von Mitrowitz), the Emperor’s envoy in England, urged that the sight of an Allied fleet in the Mediterranean would effect a revolution in the Spanish province of Naples (Kingdom of Naples); win south Italy from the precarious grip of Philip V (Philip V of Spain); overawe the Francophile Pope Clement XI; and encourage the Duke of Savoy (Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia) – and other Italian princes – to change sides. Trevelyan: ''England Under Queen Anne: Blenheim,'' p. 262 More modestly, Prince Eugene pleaded for a squadron to protect the passage of his supplies from Trieste across the Adriatic (Adriatic Sea).
as the Republic of Venice. The other factions may be unlocked one at a time, as soon as the player has defeated that faction in the campaign by conquering all their settlements including occupied temporary forts or by killing off the entire royal family of that faction, regardless of whether the player wins the entire campaign or not. The unlockable factions may be unlocked all at once by winning the short or long campaign as one of the five initially available factions, and include Kingdom
of Austrian rule in Lombardy, and earned Eugene the Governorship of Milan (Duchy of Milan). But the following year was to prove a disappointment for the Prince and the Grand Alliance as a whole. The Emperor and Eugene (whose main goal after Turin was to take Naples (Kingdom of Naples) and Sicily (Kingdom of Sicily) from Philip duc d'Anjou's supporters), reluctantly agreed to Marlborough's plan for an attack on Toulon (Battle of Toulon (1707)) – the seat of French naval power
territories in Italy for his sons by his second marriage to Elizabeth Farnese. Specifically, he hoped to secure Mantua (Duchy of Mantua) for the elder son, Don Carlos (Charles III of Spain), who was already Duke of Parma and had the expectation of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and the Kingdoms of Naples (Kingdom of Naples) and Sicily (Kingdom of Sicily) for the younger son, Don Felipe (Philip of Parma). The two Bourbon monarchs were also joined by Charles Emmanuel of Savoy, who hoped
to secure gains from the Austrian Duchies of Milan (Duchy of Milan) and Mantua (Duchy of Mantua). place Europe, North America and the West Indies territory Spain cedes the Spanish Netherlands, Kingdom of Naples, Duchy of Milan and Sardinia to the Habsburg Monarchy, Sicily to the Duchy of Savoy and Gibraltar and Minorca to Britain. France is guaranteed all its former conquests but recognizes British sovereignty over
. It houses a noteworthy ''Pietà'' by an unknown master, dating from the late 14th-early 15th centuries. Early life Pallavicino was born in Piacenza, Italy, a member of the old Italian family of the Pallavicini. He received a good education at Padua and elsewhere, and early in life entered the Augustinian order, residing chiefly in Venice. For a year he accompanied the general Ottavio Piccolomini in his German campaigns (Thirty Years' War) as field chaplain, and in 1641
of the finest examples of 16th century Portuguese military architecture, which has been influenced and changed by both the Omani Arabs and the British. Kirkman, J. 1974. ''Fort Jesus: A Portuguese Fortress on the East African Coast'' Clarendon Press: Oxford The fort quickly became a vital possession for anyone with the intention of controlling Mombasa Island or the surrounding areas of trade. When the United Kingdom British
of the negotiations led to the downfall of Anne de Montmorency, who had been their chief proponent; for more details, see Knecht, ''Renaissance Warrior'', 395–397. Factions There are twenty-one factions (Political faction), of which seventeen are playable in the Campaign game, although only five are playable in the beginning: The Kingdoms of England (Kingdom of England), France (Kingdom of France) and Spain (Kingdom of Castile); the Holy Roman Empire as well
of warring city-states (Italian city-states), the most powerful being Milan, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire: each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Warfare between
, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire: each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Warfare between the states was common, invasion from outside Italy confined to intermittent
with Ferdinand I of Naples, who was aiming to overthrow Galeazzo. In 1797, following the occupation of the Duchy of Milan by the French, Napoleon I had the Milan mint strike a commemorative medal with the dedication "All'Insubria Libera" ("To The Free Insubria") and an allegory of the French Republic, which was represented as a woman wearing a headpiece and helped on the right hand by Peace who places the Phrygian cap onto Insubria's head. Insubria is led
Sforza Galeazzo as Saint Mary with the child Jesus Christ. The main problems for Bianca Maria in this period came from their eldest son, Galeazzo Maria (Galeazzo Maria Sforza), whose unstable and treacherous character created numerous troubles for her. On 13 December 1465, her mother, Agnese del Maino, died. Shortly afterward, on 8 March 1466, Duke Francesco Sforza died also. Bianca Maria quickly took the reins of the duchy and called back Galeazzo Maria, who was fighting alongside
to receive Milan (Duchy of Milan) and Mantua (Duchy of Mantua) in exchange. This was not acceptable for Charles Emmanuel, as it would recreate a Spanish domination in Italy as it had been in the previous centuries. While negotiations continued about the matter, the Savoy-French-Spanish troops attacked Mantua under the supreme command of Charles Emmanuel himself. In the 1647 campaign, Thomas Francis is mentioned as commanding alongside the French general in the forces sent across north Italy
The '''Duchy of Milan''' was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy. It was created in 1395, when it included twenty-six towns and the wide rural area of the middle Padan Plain east of the hills of Montferrat (Montferrat). During much of its existence, it was wedged between Savoy (House of Savoy) to the west, Venice (Republic of Venice) to the east, the Swiss Confederacy (Old Swiss Confederacy) to the north, and separated from the Mediterranean by Genoa (Republic of Genoa) to the south. The Duchy eventually fell to Habsburg Austria with the Treaty of Baden (1714), concluding the War of the Spanish Succession. The Duchy remained an Austrian possession until 1796, when a French army under Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) conquered it, and it ceased to exist a year later as a result of the Treaty of Campo Formio, when Austria ceded it to the new Cisalpine Republic.
After the defeat of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 restored many other states which he had destroyed, but not the Duchy of Milan. Instead, its former territory became part of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, with the Emperor of Austria as its king. In 1859, Lombardy was ceded to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, which would become the Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) in 1861.