Democratic Republic of the Congo

What is Democratic Republic of the Congo known for?


field recordings

available in Malaysia author Rudolph Muller work MyBroadband location South Africa url http: mybroadband.co.za news wireless 1054-iburst-now-available-in-malaysia.html accessdate August 21, 2011 The provider ceased operations in March 2011. '''Deep Forest''' is the first and eponymous album by the musical group Deep Forest: French duo Eric Mouquet and Michel Sanchez. The album mixes New Age electronics with UNESCO field

recordings of music from Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo), the Solomon Islands, Burundi, Tibesti and the Sahel. A percentage of the profits from sales of Deep Forest goes to the Pygmy Fund, a California-based organization committed to helping the natives of central Africa cope with environmental threats to their homeland. But for Sanchez and Mouquet, the most important purpose of the record is to express their own fascination with the Pygmies — and open the world's


training role

110,000. Its equipment includes Russian-manufactured fighters, bombers, and transport planes. There are also Brazilian-made EMB-312 Tucano for training role, Czech-made L-39 for training and bombing role, Czech Zlin for training role and a variety of western made aircraft such as C-212\Aviocar, Sud Aviation Alouette III, etc. A small number of AAF personnel are stationed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa) and the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville). Angola is bordered by Namibia to the south, Zambia to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north-east, and the South Atlantic Ocean to the west. The exclave of Cabinda (Cabinda (province)) also borders the Republic of the Congo to the north. Angola's capital, Luanda, lies on the Atlantic coast in the northwest of the country. It is estimated that Angola was host to 12,100 refugees and 2,900 asylum seekers by the end of 2007. 11,400 of those refugees were originally from the Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) who arrived in the 1970s. U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. "World Refugee Survey 2008". Available Online at: http: www.refugees.org countryreports.aspx?id 2117. pp.37 As of 2008 there were an estimated 400,000 DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo) migrant workers, World Refugee Survey 2008 – Angola, UNHCR. NB: This figure is highly doubtful, as it makes no clear distinction between migrant workers, refugees, and immigrants. at least 30,000 Portuguese (Portuguese people), Angola, U.S. Department of State. NB: Estimations in 2011 put that number at 100,000, and add about 150,000 to 200,000 other Europeans and Latin Americans. and more than 20,000 Chinese (Overseas Chinese) living in Angola. ANGOLA and reconstructing the country: Prevention made in China, PlusNews, 12 November 2008 Prior to independence in 1975, Angola had a community of approximately 350,000 Portuguese; See the carefully researched article by Gerald Bender & Stanley Yoder, ''Whites in Angola on the Eve of Independence. The Poitics of Numbers'', in: ''Africa Today'', 21 (4), 1974, pp. 23–27. Flight from Angola, ''The Economist '', 16 August 1975 puts the number at 500,000, but this is an estimate lacking appropriate sources. currently, there are just under 100,000 who are registered with the consulates, and increasing due to the debt crisis in Portugal. Commons:Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo Wikipedia:Democratic Republic of the Congo Dmoz:Regional Africa Congo, Democratic Republic of the


charity projects

after the terrorist attacks of September 11 of that year. He has also made significant donations to Dikembe Mutombo's charity projects, which include a hospital in Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2005, Dolan helped organize "From The Big Apple to The Big Easy" benefit concerts for victims of Hurricane Katrina. * Gustavo Noboa- former Ecuadorian president. * Floribert Ndjabu, Nationalist and Integrationist Front's militia leader


low+rock

of Kisangani. Because of low rock banks, at this point the Congo River is not anymore navigable and it creates rapids. 18 December 2005 (Sunday) *The International Court of Justice rules that Uganda must pay compensation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo for human rights violations during the Second Congo War. (ReliefWeb) *The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) holds its first national democratic poll in 40 years.(BBC)(Reuters) (Link dead as of 03:30, 15 January 2007 (UTC)) 5 December 2005 (Monday) * An earthquake (2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquake) strikes the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire). Many people are feared dead after an earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale struck Lake Tanganyika near the town of Kalemie. (TimesOnLine) (News24) (The Independent) (BBC) The '''Matadi-Kinshasa Railway''' is a Commons:Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo Wikipedia:Democratic Republic of the Congo Dmoz:Regional Africa Congo, Democratic Republic of the


home early

, was the taking of hands. The punishment for failing to meet rubber quotas was death. Concerned that the soldiers were using their precious bullets on sport hunting, the command required soldiers to submit one hand for every bullet used as proof they had used the bullet to kill someone. Entire villages would be surrounded and inhabitants murdered with baskets of severed hands being returned to commanders. Soldiers could get bonuses and return home early for returning more hands than others, while some


news scores

Jacdec accessdate 4 January 2010 *On January 9, 2011, Iran Air Flight 277, a Boeing 727–286 Advanced, registration EP-IRP, crashed shortly before landing northwest of Orumiyeh, Iran. Of the 104 passengers and crew on board, 77 were killed. Commons:Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo Wikipedia:Democratic Republic of the Congo Dmoz:Regional Africa Congo, Democratic Republic of the


species making

"deWaal1997" Commons:Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo Wikipedia:Democratic Republic of the Congo Dmoz:Regional Africa Congo, Democratic Republic of the


major contemporary

Progress''' http: www.udps.org ( ) is one of major contemporary political parties in Democratic Republic of the Congo along with MLC (Movement for the Liberation of the Congo). The party has the lengthiest record of continuous operation in Democratic Republic of the Congo. The party contains the most registered members of any political organization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo as of 2008

of the Congo general election, 2011 2011 General Election . http: en.wikipedia.org wiki Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo_general_election,_2006 The '''Union for Democracy and Social Progress''' http: www.udps.org ( ) is one of major contemporary political parties in Democratic Republic of the Congo along with MLC (Movement for the Liberation of the Congo). The party has the lengthiest

le Progrès Social ) is one of major contemporary political parties in Democratic Republic of the Congo along with MLC (Movement for the Liberation of the Congo). The party has the lengthiest record of continuous operation in Democratic Republic of the Congo. The party contains the most registered members of any political organization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo as of 2008, with 45 million members. Polls taken over the last decade indicate that roughly 75


bringing great

villages faced with unrealistic rubber quotas would raid neighboring villages to collect hands to present to the FP in order to avoid the same fate. Rubber prices boomed in the 1890s, bringing great wealth to Leopold and the whites of Congo, but eventually low-cost rubber from the Americas and Asia decreased prices and the operation in the CFS became unprofitable. By the turn of the century, reports of these atrocities reached Europe. After a few years of successfully convincing the public that these reports were isolated incidents and slander, other European nations began investigating the activities of Leopold in the Congo Free State. Publications by noteworthy journalists and authors (like Conrad's ''Heart of Darkness'' and Doyle's ''The Crime of the Congo'') brought the issue to the European public. Embarrassed, the government of Belgium finally annexed the Congo Free State, took over Leopold's holdings, and renamed the state '''Belgian Congo''' (to differentiate from French Congo, now Republic of the Congo). No census was ever taken, but historians estimate around half of the Congo's population, up to 10 million people, was killed between 1885-1908. Belgian Congo Aside from eliminating forced labor and the associated punishments, the Belgian government didn't make significant changes at first. To exploit the Congo's vast mineral wealth, the Belgians began construction of roads and railroads across the country (most of which remains, with little upkeep over the century, today). The Belgians also worked to give the Congolese access to education and health care. During WWII, the Congo remained loyal to the Belgian government in exile in London and sent troops to engage Italians in Ethiopia and Germans in East Africa. The Congo also became the one of the world's main suppliers of rubber & ores. Uranium mined in Belgian Congo was sent to the U.S. and used in the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After WWII, the Belgian Congo prospered and the 1950s were some of the most peaceful years in the Congo's history. The Belgian government invested in health care facilities, infrastructure, and housing. Congolese gained the right to buy sell property and segregation nearly vanished. A small middle class even developed in the larger cities. The one thing the Belgians did not do was prepare an educated class of black leaders and public servants. The first elections open to black voters and candidates were held in 1957 in the larger cities. By 1959, the successful independence movements of other African countries inspired the Congolese and calls for independence grew louder and louder. Belgium did not want a colonial war to retain control of the Congo and invited a handful of Congolese political leaders for talks in Brussels in January 1960. The Belgians had in mind a 5-6 year transition plan to hold parliamentary elections in 1960 and gradually give administrative responsibility over to the Congolese with independence in the mid-1960. The carefully crafted plan was rejected by the Congolese representative and the Belgians eventually conceded to hold elections in May and grant a hasty independence on 30 June. Regional and national political parties emerged with once-jailed leader Patrice Lumumba elected Prime Minister and head of the government. Independence was granted June 30, 1960 to the "Republic of the Congo" (the same name neighboring French colony Middle Congo adopted). The day was marked by a sneer and verbal assault directed at the Belgian king after praising the genius of King Leopold II. Within weeks of independence, the army rebelled against white officers and increasing violence directed at remaining whites forced nearly all 80,000 Belgians to leave the country. Congo Crisis After independence on 30 June 1960, the country quickly fell apart. The region of South Kasai declared independence on 14 June and the region of Katanga declared independence on 11 July under strongman Moise Tshombe. While not a puppet of Belgium, Tshombe was greatly helped by Belgian financial and military aid. Katanga was essentially a neo-colonial state backed by Belgium and the interests of Belgian mining companies. On 14 July, the UN Security Council passed a resolution authorizing a UN peacekeeping force, and for Belgium to withdraw remaining troops from the Congo. The Belgian troops left, but many officers stayed as paid mercenaries and were key in warding off the Congolese army's attacks (which were poorly-organized and were guilty of mass killings and rape). President Lumumba turned to the USSR for help, receiving military aid and 1,000 Soviet advisers. A UN force arrived to keep the peace, but did little initially. South Kasai was recaptured after a bloody campaign in December 1961. European mercenaries arrived from all around Africa and even from Europe to help the Katangan army. The UN force attempted to round up and repatriate mercenaries, but didn't make an impact. The UN mission was eventually changed to reintegrate Katanga into Congo with force. For over a year UN & Katanga forces fought in various clashes. UN forces surrounded and captured the Katanga capital Elisabethville (Lubumbashi) in December 1962. By January 1963, Tshombe was defeated, the last of the foreign mercenaries fled to Angola, and Katanga was reintegrated into the Congo. Meanwhile, in Leopoldville (Kinshasa), relations between Prime Minister Lumumba and President Kasa-Vubu, of opposing parties, grew increasingly tense. In September 1960, Kasa-Vubu dismissed Lumumba from his Prime Minister position. Lumumba challenged the legality of this and dismissed Kasa-Vubu as President. Lumumba, who wanted a socialist state, turned to the USSR to ask for help. On September 14—just two and a half months after independence—Congolese Army Chief of Staff General Mobutu was pressured to intervene, launching a coup and placing Lumumba under house arrest. Mobutu had received money from the Belgian and US embassies to pay his soldiers and win their loyalty. Lumumba escaped and fled to Stanleyville (Kisangani) before being captured and taken to Elizabethville (Lubumbashi) where he was publicly beaten, disappeared, and was announced dead 3 weeks later. It was later revealed that he was executed in January 1961 in the presence of Belgian & US officials (who had both tried to kill him covertly ever since he asked the USSR for aid) and that the CIA and Belgium were complicit in his execution. President Kasa-Vubu remained in power and Katanga's Tshombe eventually became Prime Minister. Lumumbist and Maoist Pierre Mulele led a rebellion in 1964, successfully occupying two thirds of the country, and turned to Maoist China for help. The US and Belgium once again got involved, this time with a small military force. Mulele fled to Congo-Brazzaville (Republic of the Congo), but would later be lured back to Kinshasa by a promise of amnesty by Mobutu. Mobutu reneged on his promise, and Mulele was publicly tortured, his eyes gouged out, genitals cut off, and limbs amputated one by one while still alive; his body was then dumped in the Congo River. The whole country saw widespread conflict and rebellion between 1960-1965, leading to the naming of this period the "Congo Crisis" Mobutu General Mobutu, a sworn anti-communist, befriended the US and Belgium in the height of the Cold War and continued to receive money to buy his soldiers' loyalty. In November 1965, Mobutu launched a coup, with U.S. & Belgian support behind the scenes, during yet another power struggle between the President and Prime Minister. Claiming that "politicians" had taken five years to ruin the country, he proclaimed "For five years, there will be no more political party activity in the country." The country was placed in a state of emergency, Parliament was weakened and soon eliminated, and independent trade unions abolished. In 1967, Mobutu established the only permitted political party (until 1990), the Popular Movement of the Revolution (MPR), which soon merged with the government so that the government effectively became a function of the party. By 1970, all threats to Mobutu's power were eliminated and in the presidential election he was the only candidate and voters were given the choice of green for hope or red for chaos (Mobutu... green... won with 10,131,699 to 157). A new constitution drafted by Mobutu and his cronies was approved by 97%. In the early 1970s, Mobutu began a campaign known as '''''Authenticité''''', which continued the nationalist ideology begun in his ''Manifesto of N’Sele'' in 1967. Under Authenticité, Congolese were ordered to adopt African names, men gave up Western suits for the traditional abacost, and geographical names were changed from colonial to African ones. The country became '''Zaire''' in 1972, Leopoldville became Kinshasa, Elisabethville became Lubumbashi, and Stanleyville became Kisangani. Most impressive of all, Joseph Mobuto became ''Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga'' ("The all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, goes from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake."), or simply ''Mobutu Sese Seko''. Among other changes, all Congolese were declared equal and hierarchical forms of address were eliminated, with Congolese required to address others as "citizen" and foreign dignitaries were met with African singing and dancing rather than a Western-style 21-gun salute. Throughout the 1970s and 80s, the government remained under the tight grip of Mobutu, who constantly shuffled political and military leaders to avoid competition, while the enforcement of Authenticité precepts waned. Mobutu gradually shifted in methods from torturing and killing rivals to buying them off. Little attention was paid to improving the life of Congolese. The single-party state essentially functioned to serve Mobutu and his friends, who grew disgustingly wealthy. Among Mobutu's excesses included a runway in his hometown long enough to handle Concorde planes which he occasionally rented for official trips abroad and shopping trips in Europe; he was estimated to have over US$5 billion in foreign accounts when he left office. He also attempted to build a cult of personality, with his image everywhere, a ban on media from saying any other government official by name (only title), and introduced titles like "Father of the Nation," "Saviour of the People," and "Supreme Combatant." Despite his Soviet-style single party state and authoritarian governance, Mobutu was vocally anti-Soviet, and with the fear of Soviet puppet governments rising in Africa (such as neighbouring Angola) the US and other Western powers continued providing economic aid and political support to the Mobutu regime. When the Cold War waned, international support for Mobutu gave way criticism of his rule. Covertly, domestic opposition groups began to grow and the Congolese people began to protest the government and the failing economy. In 1990, the first multi-party elections were held, but did little to effect change. Unpaid soldiers began rioting and looting Kinshasa in 1991 and most foreigners were evacuated. Eventually, a rival government arose from talks with the opposition, leading to a stalemate and dysfunctional government. First and Second Congo Wars By the mid-1990s, it was clear Mobutu's rule was nearing an end. No longer influenced by Cold War politics, the international community turned against him. Meanwhile, the economy of Zaire was in shambles (and remains little improved to this day). The central government had a weak control of the country and numerous opposition groups formed and found refuge in Eastern Zaire—far from Kinshasa. The Kivu region was long home to ethnic strife between the various 'native' tribes and the Tutsis who were brought by the Belgians from Rwanda in the late 19th century. Several small conflicts had occurred since independence, resulting in thousands of deaths. But when the 1994 Rwandan genocide took place in neighbouring Rwanda, over 1.5 million ethnic Tutsi and Hutu refugees flowed into Eastern Zaire. Militant Hutus—the main aggressors in the genocide—began attacking both Tutsi refugees and the Congolese Tutsi population (the ''Banyamulenge'') and also formed militias to launch attacks into Rwanda in hopes of returning to power there. Not only did Mobutu fail to stop the violence, but supported the Hutus for an invasion of Rwanda. In 1995, the Zairian Parliament ordered the return of all people of Rwandan or Burundian descent to return to be repatriated. The Tutsi-led Rwandan government, meanwhile, began to train and support Tutsi militias in Zaire. In August 1996, fighting broke out and the Tutsis residing in the Kivu provinces began a rebellion with the goal of gaining control of North & South Kivu and fighting Hutu militias still attacking them. The rebellion soon gained support of the locals and collected many Zairian opposition groups, which eventually united as the ''Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo'' (AFDL) with the goal of ousting Mobutu. By the end of the year, with help from Rwanda & Uganda, the rebels had managed to control a large section of Eastern Zaire that protected Rwanda & Uganda from Hutu attacks. The Zairian army was weak and when Angola sent troops in early 1997, the rebels gained the confidence to capture the rest of the country and oust Mobutu. By May, the rebels were close to Kinshasa and captured Lubumbashi. When peace talks between sides broke down, Mobutu fled and AFDL leader Laurent-Desire Kabila marched into Kinshasa. Kabila changed the country's name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, attempted to restore order, and expelled foreign troops in 1998. A mutiny broke out in Goma in August 1998 among Tutsi soldiers and a new rebel group formed, taking control of much of the Eastern DRC. Kabila turned to Hutu militias to help suppress the new rebels. Rwanda saw this as an attack on the Tutsi population and sent troops across the border for their protection. By the end of the month, the rebels held much of the Eastern DRC along with a small area near the capital, including the Inga Dam which allowed them to shut off electricity to Kinshasa. When it looked certain Kabila's government and the capital Kinshasa would fall to the rebels, Angola, Namibia, & Zimbabwe agreed to defend Kabila and troops from Zimbabwe arrived just in time to protect the capital from a rebel attack; Chad, Libya, & Sudan also sent troops to help Kabila. As a stalemate approached, the foreign governments involved in fighting in the DRC agreed to a ceasefire in January 1999, but since the rebels weren't a signatory, fighting continued. In 1999, the rebels broke up into numerous factions aligned along ethic or pro-Uganda pro-Rwanda lines. A peace treaty among the six warring states (DRC, Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Rwanda and Uganda) and one rebel group was signed in July and all agreed to end fighting and track down and disarm all rebel groups, especially ones associated with the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Fighting continued as pro-Rwanda & pro-Uganda factions turned on each other and the UN authorized a peacekeeping mission (MONUC) in early 2000. In January 2001, President Laurent Kabila was shot by a bodyguard and later died. He was replaced by his son Joseph Kabila. The rebels continued to break up into smaller factions and fought each other in addition to the DRC & foreign armies. Many rebels managed to gain funds through the smuggling of diamonds and other "conflict minerals" (like copper, zinc, & coltan) from the regions they occupied, many times through forced and child labor in dangerous conditions. The DRC signed peace treaties with Rwanda & Uganda in 2002. In December 2002, the main factions signed the ''Global and All-Inclusive Agreement'' to end the fighting. The agreement established a Transitional DRC government that would reunify the country, integrate & disarm rebel factions, and hold elections in 2005 for a new constitution & politicians with Joseph Kabila remaining president. The UN peacekeeping force grew much larger and was tasked with disarming rebels, many of which retained their own militias long after 2003. Conflict remains in North & South Kivu, Ituri, & northern Katanga provinces. During the course of fighting, the First Congo War resulted in 250,000-800,000 dead. The Second Congo War resulted in over 350,000 violent deaths (1998-2001) and 2.7-5.4 million "excess deaths" as a result of starvation and disease among refugees due to the war (1998-2008), making it the deadliest conflict in the world since the end of World War Two. Modern DRC Joseph Kabila remained president of a transitional government until nationwide elections were held in 2006 for a new Constitution, Parliament, & President with major financial and technical support from the international community. Kabila won (and was re-elected in 2011). While corruption has been greatly reduced and politics have become more inclusive of minority political views, the country remains little improved from its condition at the end of Mobutu's rule. The DRC has the dubious distinction of having the lowest or second-lowest GDP per capita in the world (only Somalia ranks lower) and the economy remains poor. China has sought a number of mining claims, many of which are paid for by building infrastructure (railroads, roads) and facilities like schools & hospitals. The UN and many NGOs have a very large presence in the Kivu provinces, but despite a large amount of aid money, many still live in refugee camps and survive on foreign UN aid. Fighting in Kivu & Ituri waned by the end of the decade, although many former militia members remain militant. Few have been tried and convicted for war crimes, although many former rebels leaders are accused of crimes against humanity & the use of child soldiers. Soldiers formerly members of a militia that fought in Kivu from 2006 until a peace agreement in 2009 mutinied in April 2012 and a new wave of violence followed as they took control of a large area along the Uganda Rwanda borders. Rwanda has been accused of backing this M23 movement and the UN is investigating their possible involvement. Climate The country straddles the Equator, with one-third to the North and two-thirds to the South. As a result of this equatorial location, the Congo experiences large amounts of precipitation and has the highest frequency of thunderstorms in the world. The annual rainfall can total upwards of 80 inches (2,032 mm) in some places, and the area sustains the second largest rain forest in the world (after that of the Amazon). This massive expanse of lush jungle covers most of the vast, low-lying central basin of the river, which slopes toward the Atlantic Ocean in the West. This area is surrounded by plateaus merging into savannas in the south and southwest, by mountainous terraces in the west, and dense grasslands extending beyond the Congo River in the north. High, glaciated mountains are found in the extreme eastern region. Read *''Heart of Darkness'' by Joseph Conrad. A short novel published in 1903 based on the experiences of Conrad while working in the Congo Free State. *''Through the Dark Continent'' by Henry Morton Stanley. An 1878 book documenting his trip down the Congo River. *''King Leopold's Ghost'' by Adam Hochschild. A non-fiction popular history book which examines the activities of Leopold and the men who ran the Congo Free State. A best-seller with 400,000 copies printed since publication in 1998. It is the basis of a 2006 documentary of the same name. *''Blood River:A Journey to Africa's Broken Heart'' by Tim Butcher. The author carefully retraces the route of Stanley's expedition in ''Through the Dark Continent'' and describes the challenges he faces. *''Dancing in the Glory of Monsters'' by Jason Stearns. Written by a member of the UN panel investigating Congolese rebels, this is a meticulously researched yet accessible account of the Congo wars. People Over 200 ethnic groups populate the Democratic Republic of Congo, including the '''Kongo''', '''Mongo''', '''Mangbetu Azande''', and '''Luba''' who constitute 45% percent of the population of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Regions thumb right 475px Map of Democratic Republic of the Congo with regions colour coded (Image:Congo Dem Rep Regions Map.png) Commons:Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo Wikipedia:Democratic Republic of the Congo Dmoz:Regional Africa Congo, Democratic Republic of the


main influence

movies and cowboys as their main influence. Also in 1979, Papa Wemba, a Rumba (African Rumba) star in Zaire Democratic Republic of the Congo, Africa began to be the leader of the Sapeur ('Société des Ambianceurs et des Personnes d'Élégance' thus 'SAPE' for short), which he promoted as a youth cult. Papa Wemba's music has been influenced by previous stars of Rumba music in Zaire (such as Papa Wendo) and also by his visits to Europe and by the appearance, in 1974, of James Brown (James Brown (musician)) at the ''Rumble in the Jungle''. Wemba said: The Sapeur cult promoted high standards of personal cleanliness, hygiene and smart dress, to a whole generation of youth across Zaire. When I say well groomed, well shaven, well perfumed, it's a propriety that I am insisting on among the young. I don't care about their education, since education always comes first of all from the family. :''Not to be confused with the Mau-Mau rebellion in Kenya. For other uses of the term maimai, see Maimai (disambiguation)'' The term '''Mai-Mai''' or '''Mayi-Mayi''' refers to any kind of community-based militia group active in the Second Congo War and its aftermath in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), formed to defend their local territory against other armed groups. Most were formed to resist the invasion of Rwandan forces and Rwanda-affiliated Congolese rebel groups, but some may have formed to exploit the war for their own advantage by looting, cattle rustling or banditry. Geographic range right thumb 240px Distribution of ''B. gabonica'' (in black) (Image:Bitis-gabonica-range-map.png)This species can be found in Guinea, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, DR Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Central African Republic, southern Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, eastern Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, eastern Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and northeast KwaZulu-Natal Province (KwaZulu-Natal) in South Africa. Mallow ''et al.'' (2003) also list Sierra Leone and Liberia in West Africa. The type locality (Type locality (biology)) is given as "Gabon" (Africa). '''Goma''' is a city in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is located on the northern shore of Lake Kivu, next to the Rwandan city of Gisenyi. The lake and the two cities are in the Albertine Rift, the western branch of the East African Rift system. Goma lies only 13 to 18 km due south of the crater of the active Nyiragongo Volcano. The recent history of Goma has been dominated by the volcano and the Rwandan Genocide of 1994, which in turn fuelled the First (First Congo War) and Second Congo Wars. The aftermath of these events was still having effects on the city and its surroundings in 2010. - '''1968''' Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Malawi, Tanzania - At the time many former European colonies, such as Cameroon, Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Senegal, Algeria, Jamaica, etc., were becoming independent. Some advocates of Quebec independence saw Quebec's situation in a similar light. Numerous activists were influenced by the writings of Frantz Fanon, Albert Memmi, Aimé Césaire, Léopold Sédar Senghor and Karl Marx. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has seen extensive civil conflict since independence in 1960, and no free and fair election had been held there until 2006. In the absence of an effective central government, most political groups (political party) (especially those in the interior) exist solely to control territory and enforce allegiance to certain leaders instead of performing the typical party functions of electoral participation and ideological debate. mascot battles Kosovo war Task Force K-Bar Operation Enduring Freedom Operation Anaconda Operation Jacana Operation Atalanta Democratic Republic of the Congo Dagbladet.no Sudan Dagbladet.no anniversaries * White House officials announce that Condoleezza Rice will be nominated to succeed Colin Powell as Secretary of State. (BBC) * Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo)lese music star Papa Wemba has been found guilty of people-smuggling in a Paris court in France. (BBC) *The British Government details a white paper to implement a smoking ban in public places to combat the risks of tobacco smoking. (BBC) *Chinese state media (media in the People's Republic of China) confirms all 166 miners missing after a coal mine explosion in central Shaanxi province on November 28 are dead. (Xinhua) (BBC) *Rwandan troops are spotted by UN (United Nations) personnel in eastern Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo) where Congolese officials say the troops are attacking and burning villages. The last invasion started the Congo Civil War, which resulted in the deaths of Commons:Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo Wikipedia:Democratic Republic of the Congo Dmoz:Regional Africa Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Democratic Republic of the Congo

title Languages list

(Category:Democratic Republic of the Congo) Category:Countries in Africa Category:Bantu countries and territories Category:French-speaking countries and territories Category:Member states of La Francophonie Category:Member states of the African Union Category:Least developed countries Category:Republics Category:Swahili-speaking countries and territories Category:Member states of the United Nations Category:Central African countries Category:States and territories established in 1997 '''Angola''', officially the '''Republic of Angola''' ( ; This is the pronunciation in Portugal; in Angola it is pronounced as it is written Kikongo, Kimbundu, Umbundu: Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in southern Africa bordered by Namibia on the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the north, and Zambia on the east; its west coast is on the Atlantic Ocean with Luanda as its capital city. The exclave (Enclave and exclave) province of Cabinda (Cabinda Province) has borders with the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

During this period of time, the Bantu established a number of political units ("kingdoms", "empires") in most parts of what today is Angola. The best known of these is the Kingdom of the Kongo that had its centre in the northwest of contemporary Angola, but included important regions in the west of present day Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of Congo as well as in southern Gabon. It established trade routes with other trading cities and civilizations up and down the coast of southwestern and West Africa and even with the Great Zimbabwe Mutapa Empire, but engaged in little or no transoceanic trade.

The Angolan Armed Forces (AAF) is headed by a Chief of Staff who reports to the Minister of Defense. There are three divisions—the Army (Exército), Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MGA), and National Air Force (National Air Force of Angola) (Força Aérea Nacional, FAN). Total manpower is about 110,000. Its equipment includes Russian-manufactured fighters, bombers, and transport planes. There are also Brazilian-made EMB-312 Tucano for training role, Czech-made L-39 for training and bombing role, Czech Zlin for training role and a variety of western made aircraft such as C-212\Aviocar, Sud Aviation Alouette III, etc. A small number of AAF personnel are stationed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa) and the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville).

Angola is bordered by Namibia to the south, Zambia to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north-east, and the South Atlantic Ocean to the west. The exclave of Cabinda (Cabinda (province)) also borders the Republic of the Congo to the north. Angola's capital, Luanda, lies on the Atlantic coast in the northwest of the country.

It is estimated that Angola was host to 12,100 refugees and 2,900 asylum seekers by the end of 2007. 11,400 of those refugees were originally from the Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) who arrived in the 1970s. U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. "World Refugee Survey 2008". Available Online at: http: www.refugees.org countryreports.aspx?id 2117. pp.37 As of 2008 there were an estimated 400,000 DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo) migrant workers, World Refugee Survey 2008 – Angola, UNHCR. NB: This figure is highly doubtful, as it makes no clear distinction between migrant workers, refugees, and immigrants. at least 30,000 Portuguese (Portuguese people), Angola, U.S. Department of State. NB: Estimations in 2011 put that number at 100,000, and add about 150,000 to 200,000 other Europeans and Latin Americans. and more than 20,000 Chinese (Overseas Chinese) living in Angola. ANGOLA and reconstructing the country: Prevention made in China, PlusNews, 12 November 2008 Prior to independence in 1975, Angola had a community of approximately 350,000 Portuguese; See the carefully researched article by Gerald Bender & Stanley Yoder, ''Whites in Angola on the Eve of Independence. The Poitics of Numbers'', in: ''Africa Today'', 21 (4), 1974, pp. 23–27. Flight from Angola, ''The Economist '', 16 August 1975 puts the number at 500,000, but this is an estimate lacking appropriate sources. currently, there are just under 100,000 who are registered with the consulates, and increasing due to the debt crisis in Portugal.

A small number of FAA personnel are stationed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa) and the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville). A presence during the unrest in the Ivory Coast, 2010 2011, were not officially confirmed. Angola is basically interested in the participation of the FAA operations of the African Union and has formed special units for this purpose.

From 1975 to 1989, Angola was aligned with the Eastern bloc, in particular the Soviet Union, Libya, and Cuba. Since then, it has focused on improving relationships with Western countries (Western world), cultivating links with other Portuguese-speaking countries, and asserting its own national interests in Central Africa through military and diplomatic intervention. In 1993, it established formal diplomatic relations with the United States. It has entered the Southern African Development Community as a vehicle for improving ties with its largely Anglophone neighbors to the south. Zimbabwe and Namibia joined Angola in its military intervention in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where Angolan troops remain in support of the Joseph Kabila government. It also has intervened in the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville) to support the existing government in that country.

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