Democratic Republic of Georgia

What is Democratic Republic of Georgia known for?


ancient silver

an ancient silver lead mine in the nearby Alagir Gorge. It was built up as a fortified settlement around a smelting plant and became a major mining center. By the end of the 19th century, the town had been increasingly populated by Georgians and Russians who came to work there. During the Russian Civil War, in January 1919, Alagir was a scene of intense fighting, which resulted in heavy casualties in the town's Georgian population and difficult flight of the survivors through


violent period

, by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia. It lost popularity thereafter as it became associated with the chaotic and violent period around Georgia's independence from the Soviet Union. Early life and family John Shalikashvili was a scion of the medieval Georgian noble house of Shalikashvili. His father, Prince Dimitri Shalikashvili (1896–1978), born in Gurjaani ''"Shalikashvili seeks


quot legal

with the Democratic Republic of Georgia * Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic References * At the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, an independent republic was proclaimed in Ganja on May 28, 1918 following an abortive attempt to establish a federal Transcaucasian Republic with Armenia and Georgia (Democratic Republic of Georgia). This was the first Democratic Republic established in Islamic World. In Baku, however, a coalition of Bolsheviks, Dashnaks and Mensheviks fought against a Turkish-Islamic army led by Nuru Pasha. This coalition known as the "Baku Commune" also inspired or tacitly condoned the massacres of local Muslims by well-armed Dashnak-Armenian forces. This coalition, however, collapsed and was replaced by a British-controlled government known as Central Caspian Dictatorship in July 1918. British forces under General Dunsterville occupied Baku and helped the mainly Dashnak-Armenian forces to defend the capital. However, Baku fell on September 15, 1918 and an Azeri-Ottoman army entered the capital, causing British forces and much of the Armenian population to flee. The Ottoman Empire, however, capitulated on October 30, 1918 and the British occupational force re-entered Baku. - align center February 25 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia''' supersedes the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Tbilisi remains the capital until 1922. - - align center May 26 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Democratic Republic of Georgia''' secedes from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tbilisi is the capital. - thumb left (File:Oliver Wardrop 2.jpg) In July 1919 the British Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon offered Wardrop the post of the first British Chief Commissioner of Transcaucasus in Tbilisi. The government of independent Georgia (Democratic Republic of Georgia) and its head Noe Zhordania welcomed Sir Oliver's return to Georgia. Wardrop, a capable diplomat tried to promote Georgian culture and gather all the support from the west for the newly formed country under the threat of Bolshevik (Bolshevik Russia) aggression. However, in February 1921 Soviet Russia's Red Army invaded Georgia, putting an end to the short-lived democratic republic. In England, Wardrop organized the set-up of the Georgian Society and the Georgian Committee in London. In 1930, along with W.E.D. Allen (William Edward David Allen), he formed the Georgian Historical Society which published its own journal ''Georgica''. His sister Marjory Wardrop (1869–1909) translated the 12-century Georgian epic by Shota Rustaveli, ''The Knight in the Panther's Skin'' into English (English language). image 300px (File:Red Army in Tiflis Feb 25 1921.jpg) caption Soldiers of the 11th Red Army entering the Democratic Republic of Georgia's capital of Tiflis in February 1921 dates


poems+novels

and national liberation. In 1989, during the anti-Soviet protests (April 9 tragedy) in Tbilisi, the poems, novels and political life of Ilia Chavchavadze became a driving force behind the Georgian struggle for independence. The idea of National revival (Romantic nationalism), which Ilia preached and advocated in various Georgian societies throughout his life, gained in momentum in 1990. In 2002, Mikheil Saakashvili, a young Georgian politician who was educated in the United States, created


prominent military

and one of the most prominent military figures in the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921). During the service in the Russian army (Imperial Russian Army), he was also known by a Russian transliteration of his surname – '''Mazniev'''. thumb Giorgi Kvinitadze (File:General Giorgi Kvinitadze.jpg) '''Giorgi Kvinitadze''' ( At the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, an independent republic was proclaimed in Ganja on May 28, 1918 following an abortive attempt to establish a federal Transcaucasian Republic with Armenia and Georgia (Democratic Republic of Georgia). This was the first Democratic Republic established in Islamic World. In Baku, however, a coalition of Bolsheviks, Dashnaks and Mensheviks fought against a Turkish-Islamic army led by Nuru Pasha. This coalition known as the "Baku Commune" also inspired or tacitly condoned the massacres of local Muslims by well-armed Dashnak-Armenian forces. This coalition, however, collapsed and was replaced by a British-controlled government known as Central Caspian Dictatorship in July 1918. British forces under General Dunsterville occupied Baku and helped the mainly Dashnak-Armenian forces to defend the capital. However, Baku fell on September 15, 1918 and an Azeri-Ottoman army entered the capital, causing British forces and much of the Armenian population to flee. The Ottoman Empire, however, capitulated on October 30, 1918 and the British occupational force re-entered Baku. - align center February 25 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia''' supersedes the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Tbilisi remains the capital until 1922. - - align center May 26 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Democratic Republic of Georgia''' secedes from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tbilisi is the capital. - thumb left (File:Oliver Wardrop 2.jpg) In July 1919 the British Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon offered Wardrop the post of the first British Chief Commissioner of Transcaucasus in Tbilisi. The government of independent Georgia (Democratic Republic of Georgia) and its head Noe Zhordania welcomed Sir Oliver's return to Georgia. Wardrop, a capable diplomat tried to promote Georgian culture and gather all the support from the west for the newly formed country under the threat of Bolshevik (Bolshevik Russia) aggression. However, in February 1921 Soviet Russia's Red Army invaded Georgia, putting an end to the short-lived democratic republic. In England, Wardrop organized the set-up of the Georgian Society and the Georgian Committee in London. In 1930, along with W.E.D. Allen (William Edward David Allen), he formed the Georgian Historical Society which published its own journal ''Georgica''. His sister Marjory Wardrop (1869–1909) translated the 12-century Georgian epic by Shota Rustaveli, ''The Knight in the Panther's Skin'' into English (English language). image 300px (File:Red Army in Tiflis Feb 25 1921.jpg) caption Soldiers of the 11th Red Army entering the Democratic Republic of Georgia's capital of Tiflis in February 1921 dates


national opera

At the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, an independent republic was proclaimed in Ganja on May 28, 1918 following an abortive attempt to establish a federal Transcaucasian Republic with Armenia and Georgia (Democratic Republic of Georgia). This was the first Democratic Republic established in Islamic World. In Baku, however, a coalition of Bolsheviks, Dashnaks and Mensheviks fought against a Turkish-Islamic army led by Nuru Pasha. This coalition known as the "Baku Commune" also inspired or tacitly condoned the massacres of local Muslims by well-armed Dashnak-Armenian forces. This coalition, however, collapsed and was replaced by a British-controlled government known as Central Caspian Dictatorship in July 1918. British forces under General Dunsterville occupied Baku and helped the mainly Dashnak-Armenian forces to defend the capital. However, Baku fell on September 15, 1918 and an Azeri-Ottoman army entered the capital, causing British forces and much of the Armenian population to flee. The Ottoman Empire, however, capitulated on October 30, 1918 and the British occupational force re-entered Baku. - align center February 25 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia''' supersedes the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Tbilisi remains the capital until 1922. - - align center May 26 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Democratic Republic of Georgia''' secedes from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tbilisi is the capital. - thumb left (File:Oliver Wardrop 2.jpg) In July 1919 the British Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon offered Wardrop the post of the first British Chief Commissioner of Transcaucasus in Tbilisi. The government of independent Georgia (Democratic Republic of Georgia) and its head Noe Zhordania welcomed Sir Oliver's return to Georgia. Wardrop, a capable diplomat tried to promote Georgian culture and gather all the support from the west for the newly formed country under the threat of Bolshevik (Bolshevik Russia) aggression. However, in February 1921 Soviet Russia's Red Army invaded Georgia, putting an end to the short-lived democratic republic. In England, Wardrop organized the set-up of the Georgian Society and the Georgian Committee in London. In 1930, along with W.E.D. Allen (William Edward David Allen), he formed the Georgian Historical Society which published its own journal ''Georgica''. His sister Marjory Wardrop (1869–1909) translated the 12-century Georgian epic by Shota Rustaveli, ''The Knight in the Panther's Skin'' into English (English language). image 300px (File:Red Army in Tiflis Feb 25 1921.jpg) caption Soldiers of the 11th Red Army entering the Democratic Republic of Georgia's capital of Tiflis in February 1921 dates


education science

suffered an economic crisis. Some signs of improvement were observed towards 1920–1921. Education, science and culture The most important event in the country's cultural life during this turbulent period was indeed the foundation of a national university in Tbilisi (now known as the Tbilisi State


military school

Ordzhonikidze requested permission from Moscow to advance into Georgia. Though official consent was not granted by Lenin and ''Sovnarkom (Council of Ministers of the USSR)'', local Bolsheviks attempted to seize the Military School of Tbilisi as a preliminary to a coup d'état (1920 Georgian coup attempt) on May 3, 1920, but were successfully repelled by General Kvinitadze (Giorgi Kvinitadze). The Georgian government began mobilization and appointed Giorgi Kvinitadze commander-in-chief

battalion, a telegraph platoon, a motor squadron with an armored car detachment, a cavalry regiment, and a military school. A People’s Guard consisted of 4 regular battalions. It could further mobilize 18 battalions, i.e., one division. Thus, in 1920, the Georgian army and People’s Guard together comprised 16 infantry battalions (1 army division and a NG regiment), 1 sapper battalion, 5 field artillery divisions, 2 cavalry legions, 2 motor squadrons with 2 armored car detachments, an air detachment

University ) (1918), a long-time dream of Georgians thwarted by the Imperial Russian authorities for several decades. Other educational centers included gymnasiums (gymnasium (school)) in Tbilisi, Batumi, Kutaisi, Ozurgeti, Poti and Gori (Gori, Georgia), Tbilisi Military School, Gori Pedagogical Seminary, the Pedagogical Seminary for Women, etc. Georgia had also a number of schools for ethnic minorities. The National Museum of Georgia, theaters in Tbilisi and Kutaisi


quot participation

takeover of Georgia in 1921, he was appointed a militsiya chief in the Pshavi district, which was a scene of an anti-Soviet guerrilla revolt. Razikashvili was suspected by the Bolshevik government to have sympathized with the insurgents who were led by Kakutsa Cholokashvili, Razikashvili's erstwhile friend. After the rebel leaders managed to escape into Chechnya in September 1922, Razikashvili was arrested on the charges of "participation in banditism." A group


position made

Dvali Dvali, Gia Russia At the end of the war, Snowden was elected to the National Executive Committee of the Labour Party (Labour Party (UK)) in its Women's Section. This position made her a very prominent figure within the left-wing movements and led to a great deal of foreign travel, including to Berne and Vienna (to try to re-establish the Socialist International), Palestine, Georgia (Democratic Republic of Georgia) and twice to the United States. Most notably, she was named to a joint TUC-Labour Party delegation to Russia in early 1920 which was sent to be an impartial inquiry into the Bolshevik Revolution. Cross, p. 168. After her return she published a book, ''Through Bolshevik Russia'', which revealed her own findings. Although she liked Lenin (Vladimir Lenin) ("the merry-eyed fanatic of the Kremlin"), but her general reaction was profoundly critical. She upbraided a Bolshevik who told a public meeting that a British revolution would start in three months, insisting that "we want power, but we do not want a revolution", and observed that "Everyone I met in Russia outside the Communist Party goes in terror of his liberty or his life". She had told a reporter for the ''Evening Standard'' on her return that "I oppose Bolshevism because it is not Socialism, it is not democracy and it is not Christianity", and likened working conditions to slavery. Cross, p. 169-170. upright thumb One of the founding political leaders and speaker of ADR, Mammed Amin Rasulzade (File:Emin bey.jpg), widely regarded as the national leader of Azerbaijan. The '''Azerbaijan Democratic Republic''' ('''ADR'''; At the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, an independent republic was proclaimed in Ganja on May 28, 1918 following an abortive attempt to establish a federal Transcaucasian Republic with Armenia and Georgia (Democratic Republic of Georgia). This was the first Democratic Republic established in Islamic World. In Baku, however, a coalition of Bolsheviks, Dashnaks and Mensheviks fought against a Turkish-Islamic army led by Nuru Pasha. This coalition known as the "Baku Commune" also inspired or tacitly condoned the massacres of local Muslims by well-armed Dashnak-Armenian forces. This coalition, however, collapsed and was replaced by a British-controlled government known as Central Caspian Dictatorship in July 1918. British forces under General Dunsterville occupied Baku and helped the mainly Dashnak-Armenian forces to defend the capital. However, Baku fell on September 15, 1918 and an Azeri-Ottoman army entered the capital, causing British forces and much of the Armenian population to flee. The Ottoman Empire, however, capitulated on October 30, 1918 and the British occupational force re-entered Baku. - align center February 25 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia''' supersedes the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Tbilisi remains the capital until 1922. - - align center May 26 bgcolor #FFDDDD The '''Democratic Republic of Georgia''' secedes from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tbilisi is the capital. - thumb left (File:Oliver Wardrop 2.jpg) In July 1919 the British Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon offered Wardrop the post of the first British Chief Commissioner of Transcaucasus in Tbilisi. The government of independent Georgia (Democratic Republic of Georgia) and its head Noe Zhordania welcomed Sir Oliver's return to Georgia. Wardrop, a capable diplomat tried to promote Georgian culture and gather all the support from the west for the newly formed country under the threat of Bolshevik (Bolshevik Russia) aggression. However, in February 1921 Soviet Russia's Red Army invaded Georgia, putting an end to the short-lived democratic republic. In England, Wardrop organized the set-up of the Georgian Society and the Georgian Committee in London. In 1930, along with W.E.D. Allen (William Edward David Allen), he formed the Georgian Historical Society which published its own journal ''Georgica''. His sister Marjory Wardrop (1869–1909) translated the 12-century Georgian epic by Shota Rustaveli, ''The Knight in the Panther's Skin'' into English (English language). image 300px (File:Red Army in Tiflis Feb 25 1921.jpg) caption Soldiers of the 11th Red Army entering the Democratic Republic of Georgia's capital of Tiflis in February 1921 dates

Democratic Republic of Georgia

The '''Democratic Republic of Georgia''' ('''DRG'''; ) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia (Georgia (country)).

The DRG was created after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its established borders were with the Kuban People's Republic and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus in the north, the Ottoman Empire and the First Republic of Armenia in the south, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the southeast. It had a total land area of roughly 107,600 km² (by comparison, the total area of today's Georgia (Georgia (country)) is 69,700 km²), and a population of 2.5 million.

The republic's capital was Tbilisi, and its state language was Georgian (Georgian language). Proclaimed on May 26, 1918, on the break-up of the Transcaucasian Federation, it was led by the Georgian Social Democratic Party (Social Democratic Labour Party of Georgia) (Menshevik). Facing permanent internal and external problems, the young state was unable to withstand invasion by the Russian SFSR Red Armies (Red Army), and collapsed between February and March 1921 to become a Soviet republic (Georgian SSR).

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