, Robert. Islamic Art and Architecture, Thames & Hudson World of Art series; 1999, London. ISBN 978050020305 on top of the ancient temple of Jupiter (Jupiter (mythology)) and in place of the basilica of St. John the Baptist, the most sacred site in the city. This building served as a point of reference for builders (and for art historians) for the birth of the Arab plan, as Byzantine Christian. The Abbasid dynasty (750 A.D. - 1258 ref>
, Hamah and Aleppo. The Bank's financial support continued to some other railway projects including the line Constantinople-Salonica, Smyrna-Kasaba (1892) and the Baghdad Railway (1903). In 1896, the Bank played a major role in the establishment of the Ereğli (Karadeniz Ereğli) coal mining company on the Black Sea shore. In August 1896, the bank was the subject of a seizure by Armenian Revolutionaries (1896 Ottoman Bank Takeover) intent on bringing international attention to mistreatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. thumb w:Temple of Bel Temple of Bel (File:Temple of Bel in Palmyra.JPG) in Palmyra '''Palmyra (w:Palmyra)''' was an ancient Arabic city in central Syria (w:Syria). In antiquity, it was an important city located in an oasis (w:oasis) 215 km (134 mi) northeast of Damascus (w:Damascus) and 180 km (110 mi) southwest of the Euphrates (w:Euphrates) at Deir ez-Zor (w:Deir ez-Zor). It had long been a vital caravan stop (w:caravan city) for travelers crossing the Syrian desert (w:Syrian desert) and was known as the ''Bride of the Desert''. The earliest documented reference to the city by its Semitic name Tadmor, Tadmur or Tudmur (which means "the town that repels" in Amorite and "the indomitable town" in Aramaic) is recorded in Babylonia (w:Babylonia)n tablets found in Mari (w:Mari, Syria). *14th century saw advent of Islam and establishment of Muslim rule. The Muslim rule gave a new character to the city, both to its physical and cultural form. Srinagar became the epicenter of the socio-cultural and religious transformation of the region. Then onwards, for another 500 years the city also got a new name, Shehri-Kashmir. Coincidentally the city has the same latitude (w:Latitude) as great Islamic cities of Baghdad (w:Baghdad), Damascus (w:Damascus) and Fez, Morroco (w:Fez, Morocco). **INTACH (w:Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage), in "Shehr -i- Kashmir" The U.N. (w:United Nations), acting with uncertainty that withdrawal claims are true, will work to check them. A U.N. team sent for this purpose has already begun work in Damascus (w:Damascus). A spokesman said the group would first gather material in the Syrian capital, then later leave for the Lebanese capital in Beirut (w:Beirut). Earlier in the day, Kanaan went on Lebanese radio station, Voice of Lebanon (w:Voice of Lebanon), denying that he showed the U.N. investigators cheques paid to him by the late Hariri. Kanaan was Syria's most powerful intelligence chief in Lebanon, which was ruled by Syria until its military withdrawal earlier this year. He returned to Damascus (w:Damascus) in 2002 as political intelligence chief and joined the cabinet (w:cabinet) in 2004 (w:2004). "The government of Syria has kept this a secret because they don't want to be embarrassed," said Joshua Landis, a Fulbright Scholar living in Damascus (w:Damascus). "It's the ultimate sign of their weakness, because they can do nothing about this," said the professor from the University of Oklahoma (w:University of Oklahoma). WikiPedia:Damascus commons:دمشق
definitive victory at Hattin; Guy was imprisoned in Damascus and eventually released, but Reynald was executed as punishment for his many atrocities. The '''Azzam palace''' (150 SP, students: 10 SP) includes a museum trying to describe the life of royal families. The '''October War Panorama''' is out in the suburbs but accessible by minibus or taxi. It's about US$7 to get in and well worth it. It was built with the help of the North Korean Government and the influence shows. There is an exhibit of military hardware outside. English-speaking guides are available. Do *'''View the city from Mount Qasioun''' is a must-do activity in Damascus as it offers a panoramic view. The peak is accessible at any time, although the view is perhaps most spectacular at night when the whole city is lit up and the minarets of mosques are bathed in green light. The '''Umayyad Mosque''' in the old town is particularly impressive when viewed from the mountain. There is a wide range of food and refreshment available on the peak from stalls to fancy restaurants that serve good local cuisine and alcohol. Check the price before you get too comfortable though- it is a well-known scam for local cab drivers to take you to their 'favorite' cafe, where you'll end up paying anything up to 500SP for a cup of tea. *'''Visit a restaurant in old Damascus'''. There are many restaurants in the old quarter each with their own unique character, but perhaps the most famous (and touristy) is "Beit Jabri", although "Al-Khawali" is considered by many to be the best dining experience in the old city. Another restaurant in the old city, '''Narcissus Palace''', located close to Maktab Anbar, would offer an enlightening experience. Every night, a singer and band play old Arabic music and create an amazing atmosphere in the restaurant. A good idea, when considering these restaurants, is to go for breakfast, and then go sightseeing. The breakfast is very cheap, the bill will amount to 1000 SP for about four people. *'''Bathe in a Hammam''', i.e., a Turkish bath. '''The Nur-al-Din Bath''' (between the Azem Palace and Straight Street) and the '''Bakri Bath''' (first street on the right after entering the Old City at Bab Touma) are two baths that are familiar with Western tourists. A visit to either costs about 500 SP, and includes towels, soap, scrub, a massage and a tea. The price is typically composed of bath entry (300 SP), scrub (50 SP), sauna (100 SP), massage (100 SP) and extras such as tea or soap. Nur-al-Din is for men only, Bakri might be able to accommodate women or mixed groups upon prior arrangement. Bakri Bath: for women each day except Friday 10 - 5PM *'''Relax at a Hooka cafe "Narjelah"''' Hooka cafe's are popular in Damascus and are easy to find. When visiting the old city, you'll get a more cultural or traditional experience. You'll probably find a crowd of tea-drinking, backgammon-playing men all smoking hooka. In the modern city, most cafe's cater to a younger crowd and are a big part of the night life offering a huge variety of flavored tobacco ranging from double apple which is the most common, to cappuccino. In almost every major restaurant, hookas are available, including the restaurants in the old city. Learn Arabic There are several institutions in Damascus that teach Arabic: *'''Language Institute at Damascus University''' - The Language Institute fully immerse their students in Arabic; the course materials and all interaction between students and teachers are done in Arabic. Students are placed in beginning, intermediate or advanced courses based on a placement test. *'''Ma'had'''- This state-run language academy is in the Mezze district of Damascus. It is the cheapest option, although the courses are not as good as those at Damascus University. *'''The British Council''' - While the classes may be expensive, they are mainly aimed toward diplomats and businessmen. *'''DSA - Damascus Language School for Standard Arabic'''- The school provides basic courses for beginners and advanced courses also on certain topics as for journalists, physicians, diplomats, engineers etc. Normal classes have maximum 4 Students. Lessons with private teachers are even possible. Twice a year, there are certain courses for students available at half price. Teachers are well experienced in teaching foreigners. Basic courses start every Saturday. *'''Arabesk Studies in Damascus'''- The institute offers extensive classes in Arabic. Aide with living arrangement provided. *'''TikaTrip - Travels and Studies in Syria'''- Providing private Arabic tutors as well as professional language teachers and all important services: starting with the pickup service at the airport, arranging accommodation and advices on how to tackle the bureaucratic procedures. '''Tour Guide :''' You can get an English speaking guide by emailing : firstname.lastname@example.org. Buy Damascus offers some of the best shopping in the Middle East. Prices are cheap, and since very few stores depend on tourists for their income, most will leave you alone to browse until you are ready to buy. Small stores are located throughout the old city, although the '''Souq al-Hamidiyya''', located along the Roman straight street, offers the highest density of shops. The souq is a fantastic experience, but be prepared for the crowds. Eat * WikiPedia:Damascus commons:دمشق
of Siddim - Ashteroth Karnaim - Ham (Ham, son of Noah) - Shaveh Kiriathaim - Seir - Elparan - Enmishpat (Kadesh) (Kadesh (South of Israel)) - Hazezontamar - Dan (Dan (Bible)) - Hobah - Damascus - Salem (Jerusalem) * Kuwait City, Kuwait * Damascus International Festival, Syria 1976 * Damascus, Syria * Cairo, Egypt 2008 * Damascus Opera House, Damascus, Syria—Sah al-Nom Musical Play - 28,29,30,31 Jan, 1,2,3,4 Feb
He then turned south and traveled through Iraq, reached Damascus in Syria. He left for Egypt from Palestine. Records exist, some in the fragmentary remains of his autobiography, and from another biography written by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani in 1310, to date his arrival in Egypt at 30 August 1078. In the early 13th century, a new wave of invaders, the Mongol armies of the Mongol Empire, swept through the region, sacking Baghdad (Battle of Baghdad (1258)) in 1258 and advancing as far south as the border of Egypt. Mamluk Emir Baibars
to fight Charlemagne. He is often seen as the parallel of Charlemagne, both being old, handsome and skillful with a sword. One might say they were equals, except that Charlemagne had the help of Saint Gabriel. - Damascus Sulcus Damascus, Syria - Zaza literature and broadcast programs The first written statements in Zaza were compiled by the linguist (linguistics) Peter Lerch in 1850. Two other important documents are the religious writings of Ehmedê Xasi of 1899,<
Lebanese diva arouses emotion, controversy in Syria author Khaled Yacoub Oweis newspaper Reuters date 28 January 2008 url http: www.reuters.com article idUSL2874028520080128 accessdate 14 January 2010 She went to Syria where she was received by a crowd of 7000 fans, screaming her name at the borders, as her car passed into Syrian grounds. Mosques and prayers on radio were all held back as Fairouz's songs played day and night through almost every media outlet in the Syrian nation. Radio channels, TV channels, the Syrian satellite broadcasters, restaurants and cafes, and newspapers were all focused on Fairuz's legendary return after 20 years absence. However big this controversy was, it seems it has not affected her popularity in Lebanon as she held the Orthodox Good Friday Prayer Mass in West Beirut as hundreds and hundreds crowded the church premises. Commemoration for Husayn ibn Ali began after the Battle of Karbala. After the massacre, the Umayyad army looted Husayn's camp and set off with his women and children for the court of Ibn Ziyad. A moving oration delivered by Zaynab in Kufa is recorded in some sources. The prisoners were next sent to the court of Yazid, Umayyad caliph, in Damascus, where one of his Syrian followers asked for Husayn's daughter Faṭimah al-Kubra, and once again it was Zaynab who came to the rescue and protected her honour. The family remained in Yazid's prison for a time. The first assembly (''majlis'') of Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali is said to have been held by Zaynab in prison. In Damascus, too, she is reported to have delivered a poignant oration. The prison sentence ended when Husayn's 3 year old daughter, Janabe Rukaiyya, died in captivity, unaware of her father's martyrdom. She often cried in prison to be allowed to see her father. She is believed to have died when she saw her fathers mutilated head. Her death caused an uproar in the city, and Yazid, fearful of a potential resulting revolution, freed the captives. WikiPedia:Damascus commons:دمشق
survived from more than eight centuries of Muslim and Arab presence in Spain. Individual authors in Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt created original works by imitating the classical ''maqama''. The most prominent of these was al-Muwaylihi, whose book, ''The Hadith of Issa ibn Hisham'' (حديث عيسى بن هشام), critiqued Egyptian society in the period of Ismail (Ismail of Egypt). This work constitutes the first stage in the development of the modern Arabic novel. This trend was furthered by Georgy Zeidan, a Lebanese Christian writer who immigrated with his family to Egypt following the Damascus riots of 1860. In the early twentieth century, Zeidan serialized his historical novels in the Egyptian newspaper ''al-Hilal''. These novels were extremely popular because of their clarity of language, simple structure, and the author's vivid imagination. Two other important writers from this period were Khalil Gibran and Mikha'il Na'ima, both of whom incorporated philosophical musings into their works. *4 June - Treaty of Trianon, Treaty of Peace between the Allies and Hungary. *14 July - France declares that Faisal I of Syria is deposed and occupies Damascus and Aleppo. *21 July - Interallied Mission to Poland is launched. thumb The White Minaret (Image:Weißes Minarett, Qadian (Minarat ul-Massih).jpg) at Qadian According to Islamic tradition, Jesus (Jesus in Ahmadiyya Islam), upon his second advent, would descend with or near a White Minaret disputably to the east of Damascus or in the eastern side of Damascus. Translation of Sahih Muslim, Book 41: Kitab al-Fitan wa Ashart as-Sa’ah (Book Pertaining to the Turmoil and Portents of the Last Hour) Ghulam Ahmad argued that this Hadith does not explain whether the minaret will be within the eastern side of Damascus or to the eastern side of the city. According to him, this prophecy was fulfilled with his advent in Qadian, a town situated to the east of Damascus, and the significance of the minaret symbolic. The minaret, according to him, symbolised the spread of the "light of Islam", its message reaching far and wide, and the "supremacy of Islam", which was to tower up as it were like a minaret in the time of the promised one. The prophecy is also believed to be pointing to an age of enlightenment and one where there are numerous facilities for communication and transport, thereby making conveyance and proselytising easier. This was reflective of the physical purpose that minarets were used in medieval Islamic societies, the efficient communication of the call to prayer to a wider audience in the locality. The British Government and Jihad, by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Ghulam Ahmad claimed that God had revealed to him: Given Kufa's opposition to Damascus, Kufan traditionists had their own take on Umayyad history. The historian Abu Mikhnaf al-Azdi (d. 774) compiled their accounts into a rival history, which became popular under Abbasid rule. This history does not survive but later historians like Tabari quoted from it extensively. It was revealed later that Ayman had missed the audition in Cairo, Egypt by one day & had one last chance to audition in Damascus, Syria. The Aramaeans who lived outside their homelands apparently followed the traditions of the country where they settled. The King of Damascus, for instance, employed Phoenician sculptors and ivory-carvers. In tell Halaf-Guzana, the palace of Kapara, an Aramaean ruler (9th century B.C.), was decorated with orthostats and with statues that display a mixture of Mesopotamian, Hittite (Hittites) and Hurrian influences. Soon after he was blocked by the intervention of Russia, however. As the result of endless discussions between the representatives of the powers, the Porte and the pasha, the Convention of Kutaya was signed on May 14, 1833, by which the sultan agreed to bestow on Muhammad Ali the pashaliks of Syria, Damascus, Aleppo and Itcheli, together with the district of Adana. The announcement of the pasha's appointment had already been made in the usual way in the annual firman (firman (decree)) issued on May 3. Adana was bestowed on Ibrahim under the style of muhassil, or collector of the crown revenues, a few days later. Those people are identified by the Sumerian logogram ''SA.KAS'' in most of the letters, and by the Akkadian name ''Hapiru'' in a few from the area of Jerusalem. They appear to be active on a broad area including Syria (at Upe near Damascus), Phoenicia (Sumur (Tell Kazel), Batrun and Byblos), and to the south as far as Jerusalem. None of the kings of the region, with the possible exception of one Abdi-Ashirta, are called ''Habiru'' or ''SA.KAS''. birth_date WikiPedia:Damascus commons:دمشق
carrying Free French commanders General Georges Catroux and General Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme (Paul Legentilhomme) enters the city, escorted by French Circassian (Circassians) cavalry (''Gardes Tcherkess''). thumb Insigna of the Free French Forces in the Far East (French Indochina (File:Insigna of the Free French Forces in the Far East Langlade Mission.jpg)), Langlade Mission. - Damascus Embassy John Jenkins (diplomat) Dr John Jenkins
'''Damascus''' ( ''). In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities (List of cities by time of continuous habitation) in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious center of the Levant. The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 (2009 est.).
Located in southwestern Syria, Damascus is the center of a large metropolitan area of 2.6 million people (2004). Central Bureau of Statistics Syria Syria census 2004 Geographically embedded on the eastern foothills of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range above sea-level, Damascus experiences a semi-arid climate due to the rain shadow effect. The Barada River (Barada) flows through Damascus.
First settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. During Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) rule, the city decayed completely while maintaining a certain cultural prestige. Today, it is the seat of the central government and all of the government ministries.