the Magnificent, due to his numerous contributions to Cilician Armenian statehood in the political, military, and economic spheres. Levon's growing power made him a particularly important ally for the neighbouring crusader state of Antioch, which resulted in intermarriage with noble families there, but his dynastic policies revealed ambition towards the overlordship of Antioch which the Latins ultimately could not countenance. They resulted in the Antiochene Wars of Succession between Levon's grand-nephew Raymond Roupen and Bohemond IV of Antioch-Tripoli. Natasha Hodgson, Conflict and Cohabitation Marriage and Diplomacy between Latins and Cilician Armenians c. 1150-1254’ in The Crusades and the Near East, ed. C Kostick (Routledge, 2010) The family is said to descend from the Hispano-Roman (Hispania) or Visigothic nobleman named Cassius (Count Cassius). According to the 10th century Muwallad (Muladi) historian Ibn al-Qutiyya, Count Cassius converted to Islam in 714 as the ''mawali'' (client) of the Umayyads, shortly after the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. Cañada Juste, "Los Banu Qasi", 6; This origin legend, as recounted by Ibn al-Qutiyya, may be a product of the spurious antiquarianism of the latter Umayyad period that satisfied the need for stories which bridged the conquest, rather than reliable genealogy. After his conversion, he is said to have traveled to Damascus to personally swear allegiance to the Umayyad Caliph, Al-Walid I. WikiPedia:Damascus commons:دمشق
"distinct" from generic Canaanites Amorites, in scholarship or in tradition (although in the Biblical Book of Nations, ''"Heth"'', Hittites are a son of Canaan, despite the fact that it has been proven beyond doubt that the Hittites spoke an Indo-European language). As markets redeveloped, new trade routes that would avoid the heavy tariffs of the coast would develop from Kadesh Barnea, through Hebron, Lachish, Jerusalem, Bethel, Samaria
Basil Lekapenos poisoned the emperor to prevent him from stripping Lekapenos of his ill-gotten lands and riches. Treadgold. ''History of the Byzantine State and Society'', p. 512. John was succeeded by his ward and nephew, Basil II, who had been nominal co-emperor since 960. # Raphana in Jordan # Damascus, the capital of modern Syria; Damascus was considerably north of the others and so is sometimes thought to have been an "honorary"
; member. Shahrbaraz took Damascus and Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire in 613 and 614 respectively, and the Holy Cross (True Cross) was carried away in triumph. However, during Heraclius' (610–641) campaign in the Persian Empire (Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628) in the 620s, mutual suspicion arose between Khosrau II and Shahrbaraz. Byzantine agents showed Shahrbaraz letters indicating that Khosrau II was planning the general's execution. This kept one
railway station. In 2008, the government announced a plan to construct a Damascus Metro with opening time for the green line scheduled for 2015. WikiPedia:Damascus commons:دمشق
and entered a dark age. Nonetheless, it remained the economic and cultural center of the Near East as well as the Arameaen resistance. In 727, a revolt took place in the city, but was put down by Assyrian forces. After Assyria went on a wide-scale campaign of quelling revolts throughout Syria, Damascus became totally subjugated by their rule. A positive effect of this was stability for the city and benefits from the spice and incense trade with Arabia. However, Assyrian authority was dwindling
10 December 2006. because of its extensive military and intelligence presence in Lebanon, and the public rift between Hariri and Damascus over the Syrian-backed constitutional amendment extending President Lahoud's (Émile Lahoud) term in office. Others, namely the March 8 Alliance and Syrian officials, claimed that the assassination may have been executed by the Israeli Mossad in an attempt to destabilize the country.
in Mari (Mari, Syria). Syria Gate - About Syria - Palmyra Retrieved 2008-11-16. Despite the lack, to date, of any actual substantial evidence implicating any party or individual, the Syrian government has borne the brunt of Lebanese and international outrage at the murder, because of its extensive military and intelligence influence in Lebanon, as well as the public rift between Hariri and Damascus
– Edessa (which he had founded in 1097 during the crusade), Antioch, and Tripoli, which he helped capture in 1109. He successfully defended against Muslim invasions, from the Fatimids at the numerous battles at Ramla (Battle of Ramla) and elsewhere in the southwest of the kingdom, and from Damascus and Mosul at the Battle of al-Sannabra in the northeast in 1113. Thomas Madden, ''The New Concise History of the Crusades'' (Rowman and Littlefield, 2005), pp. 40–43. ref>
the rail infrastructure for secondary use in construction. Many of the steel beams can still be seen in the roofs of local homes. ''Indications of a world oil glut led to a rapid decline in world oil prices early in 1982. OPEC appears to lose control over world oil prices.'' *'''March''': Damascus closes Iraq's trans-Syrian oil export pipeline to show support for Iran. *'''March 11''': U.S. boycotts Libyan crude oil crude
accurate in its portrayal of Biblical events. Works Nebez wrote many essays in Arab newspapers in Baghdad about the political, social and human rights of the Kurds. One of these publications, in spring 1954, was a critical article published in „Sawt al-Ahali“(voice of the population) on a press-interview given by Celal Bayar, then expresident of Turkey, during a sojourn in the United States, in which Bayar denied the existence of any other people but Turkish people Turks
'''Damascus''' ( ''). In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities (List of cities by time of continuous habitation) in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious center of the Levant. The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 (2009 est.).
Located in southwestern Syria, Damascus is the center of a large metropolitan area of 2.6 million people (2004). Central Bureau of Statistics Syria Syria census 2004 Geographically embedded on the eastern foothills of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range above sea-level, Damascus experiences a semi-arid climate due to the rain shadow effect. The Barada River (Barada) flows through Damascus.
First settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. During Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) rule, the city decayed completely while maintaining a certain cultural prestige. Today, it is the seat of the central government and all of the government ministries.