What is Czechoslovakia known for?

recording music

the stage name '''Rattlesnake Annie'''. She earned her nickname as a child from her respect of snakes. McGowan began recording music in 1974 and achieved success in Europe. She became the first female country musician to tour the Eastern Bloc countries in Europe and released an album with a country singer from Czechoslovakia. In 1990, she became the first American country performer to sign a recording contract with Sony Music Japan. Because of promotion and her focus

defending world

, beating Věra Čáslavská of Czechoslovakia. Still the defending World Champion at the 1964 Summer Olympics, she was beaten by Čáslavská in the all-around competition. Latynina did however add two more gold medals to her tally, winning the team event and the floor event both for the third time in a row. A silver medal and two bronzes in the other apparatus events brought her total of Olympic medals to eighteen — nine gold medals, five silver and four bronze. She won a medal in every event in which she competed, except for the 1956 balance beam where she came fourth. Her nine gold medals makes her second on the list of most Olympic gold medalists (List of multiple Olympic gold medalists) together with Mark Spitz, Carl Lewis and Paavo Nurmi, only behind Michael Phelps, who has 14; she held the distinction of having more Olympic gold medals (either individually or with a team) than anybody ever, from 1964 to 2008, until Michael Phelps beat her record. She is the only woman to have won nine gold medals.


advertising school, and worked at an advertising studio in Marseilles until 1936. http: fr rubrique faits karel-zeman-le-centenaire-du-magicien-du-cinema-tcheque It was in France that he first worked with animation, filming an ad for soup. http: verne_zeman_engl.html He then returned to his home country (by now Czechoslovakia), after visiting Egypt, Yugoslavia, and Greece. http:

free history

?url http: levan_urushadze_98 DRG.doc&date 2009-10-25+02:13:35 In 1966, the ''Daily Worker'' was re-launched as ''The Morning Star'' http: index2.php free history Morning Star History - French had been among those who had campaigned against this change. The CPGB leadership's decision to support the Dubček (Alexander Dubček) leadership in Czechoslovakia and oppose the Soviet-led Warsaw

military fighting

population before World War II. thumb right 300px Military fighting against unidentified attackers believed to be loyalists of the regime (served with cakes by a civilian). (File:Romanian Revolution 1989 5.jpg) Meanwhile, messages of support were flooding in from all over the world: France (President (President of the French Republic) François Mitterrand) ; the Soviet (Soviet Union) (President Mikhail Gorbachev); Hungary (the Hungarian Socialist Party); the new East

album art

of the imagery on the album art is representative of an end to a golden age — namely, the band's. - 7 July The Czechoslovak (Czechoslovakia) army reoccupied its territory and dissolved the Slovak Soviet Republic. - - 21 September Soviet and Czechoslovak (Czechoslovakia) partisan armed forces entered German (Nazi Germany)-occupied Czechoslovakia. - - 25 February Czechoslovakian president Edvard Beneš accepted the resignations of the non- Communism Communist


US, 1990. ISBN 0195066553. pg. 139. the film version (in ''Beckett on Film (Beckett on Film#Catastrophe)'' 2001 ) was directed by David Mamet and performed by Harold Pinter, Sir John Gielgud (John Gielgud), and Rebecca Pidgeon. Chris Ackerley, S. E. Gontarski. ''The Grove companion to Samuel Beckett: a reader's guide to his works, life, and thought''. Grove Press, 2004. ISBN 0802140491. pg. 44 * Zia Haider, Bangladesh World War II Eager

popular past

of European Jewry (Ashkenazi Jews) during the Holocaust. The sport was again suspended for the duration of the Second World War, but once again post-war migration saw the game revived. The new migrants came increasingly to Tasmania from southern and eastern European nations such as Italy, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia, and for many of these new arrivals, football was the most popular past time. The post-war revival of the 1950s was a boom time for football in Tasmania. Player numbers rose sharply, and many new clubs were formed, merged and folded. It was in the early 1950s that the State Soccer Council was created to oversee the rapidly expanding popularity of the game in Tasmania. This period is often nostalgically referred to as the 'golden era' of Tasmanian football, and even featured visiting professionals from leagues such as Italy's Serie A, making guest appearances for clubs like Hobart Juventus (Hobart Zebras).

agricultural character

. The city kept an agricultural character in the 19th and 20th centuries. Economic development has influenced the architecture of the city. After break-up of Austria-Hungary in 1918, the town became part of Czechoslovakia and received status of the district capital (until 1960). After the First Vienna Award, the town was from 1938 to 1945 part of Hungary. In the second half of the 20 century the character of the Jizera Mountains changed completely. The German population of the area was expelled (Expulsion of Germans after World War II) in 1945 and replaced by Poles on the now Polish and Czechs on the Czechoslovakian side of the mountains. The ecosystem was badly hit by emissions, produced by lignite fired power stations located in the Zittau basin. Weakened spruce forest, less resistant against various types of parasites (parasitism), were on the verge of extinction. The higher parts of the mountains, once densely wooded, became largely treeless, in part also because of excessive deforestation. New roads cut through the once secluded landscape. The situation improved only after the fall of communism (Revolutions of 1989) in 1989. Open-pit (Open-pit mining) coal mines in the former East Germany were closed, as well as several major power plants. Emission filters were installed at the immense Turów power station (Turów) in Bogatynia on the Polish side of Lusatian Neisse. At the same time large-scale reforestation projects were started. 8 February 1990 – West Ham United sign Czech (Czechoslovakia) goalkeeper Ludek Miklosko from Baník Ostrava for £300,000. Miklosko, 28, has been capped 31 times by the Czech national side (Czechoslovakia national football team).

free medical

system of social security under which everyone was entitled to free medical care and medicine, in theory at least. National health planning emphasized preventive medicine. Factory and local health care centers, first aid stations, and a variety of medical clinics supplemented hospitals and other inpatient institutions. The ratio of physicians to inhabitants has improved steadily, climbing from 1 per 745 in 1954 to 1 per 278 in 1985, although there were shortages of doctors in rural areas. The shift in the distribution of health resources in the 1960s and 1970s was dramatic; facilities were improved, and the number of health care personnel in Slovakia and rural areas increased in general. Despite the improvements, about 40 % of all the medical equipment was obsolete, facilities were outdated and in short supply, the bureaucracy was excessive,and small bribery was widespread. Czechoslovakia, of all the East European countries, entered the postwar era with a relatively balanced social structure and an equitable distribution of resources. Despite some poverty, overall it was a country of relatively well-off workers, small-scale producers, farmers, and a substantial middle class. Nearly half the populace was in the middle-income bracket. Ironically, perhaps, it was balanced and relatively prosperous Czechoslovakia that carried nationalization and income redistribution further than any other East European country. By the mid-1960s, the complaint was that leveling had gone too far. The lowest-paid 40% of the population accounted for 60% of national income. Earning differentials between blue-collar and white-collar workers were lower than in any other country in Eastern Europe. Further, equitable income distribution was combined in the late 1970s with relative prosperity. Along with East Germany and Hungary, Czechoslovakia enjoyed one of the highest standards of living of any of the Warsaw Pact countries through the 1980s. In the 1980s, trade unions were the largest of all Czechoslovak (Czechoslovakia) organizations. A single large federation, the Revolutionary Trade Union Movement (Revoluční odborové hnutí, ROH), represented most wage earners (80 percent in 1983); to deny someone trade union membership was to imply extreme censure. In the mid-1980s, Czechoslovakia was the most prosperous country in the Eastern Bloc. Although levels of consumption (consumption (economics)) were well below those common in Western Europe, inhabitants of Czechoslovakia enjoyed a standard of living generally higher than that found in most other East European countries. Heavily dependent on foreign trade (International trade), the country nevertheless had one of the Eastern Bloc's smallest international debts (External debt) to non-communist countries. Basic facts *The total land area of post-war Czechoslovakia was nearly 128,000 km², of which almost 68,000 km² was considered agricultural land. The remaining land was classified as non-agricultural and includes 45,000 km² of forests. *In the mid-1980s, agricultural activity was spread throughout the country. Foreign trade played an important role in the Czechoslovak (Czechoslovakia) national economy (as opposed to the Soviet Union). The '''National Front''' (in Czech (Czech language): ''Národní fronta'', in Slovak (Slovak language): ''Národný front'') was the coalition of parties which headed the re-established Czechoslovakian government from 1945 to 1948. During the Communist era in Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovakia: 1948-1989) (1948 – 1989) it was the vehicle for control of all political and social activity by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (''KSČ''). It was also known in English as the ''National Front of Czechs and Slovaks''. thumb 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia (File:1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia.png) The '''Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic''' (''Ústava Československé socialistické Československej socialistickej republiky'' in Czech Slovak), promulgated on 11 July 1960 as the constitutional law '''100 1960 Sb.''', codified the Communist regime in Czechoslovakia. As the country's second post-war constitution, it replaced the 1948 Ninth-of-May Constitution and remained in force until the split of Czechoslovakia in 1992, though widely changed by Constitutional Law of Federation in 1968 and extensively revised after the Velvet Revolution. The '''Constitutional Law of Federation''' (


'''Czechoslovakia''' (or '''Czecho-Slovakia'''; ) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Austria-Hungary), until its peaceful dissolution (Dissolution of Czechoslovakia) into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not ''de facto'' exist but its government-in-exile (Czechoslovak government-in-exile) continued to operate. On 29 June 1945, a treaty was signed between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, ceding Carpatho-Ukraine to the USSR (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic).

From 1948 to 1990 Czechoslovakia was part of the communist Warsaw Pact and had a command or planned economy (command economy). A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when several other Warsaw Pact countries invaded (Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia). In 1989, as communism was ending all over Europe, Czechoslovakians peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; socialist price controls were removed after a period of preparation. A few years afterwards, in 1993 the country was separated into two sovereign states, again peacefully.

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