from the prevailing climate of McCarthyism in the United States. The remaining 27 years of his life were spent in Orgeval, France where, despite never learning the language, he maintained an impressive creative life, assisted by his third wife, fellow photographer Hazel Kingsbury Strand. thumb right 204px Oldřich Duras (Image:OldrichDuras.jpg) '''Oldřich Duras''' (also '''Důras'''; 30 October 1882, Pchery, Bohemia, then Austria-Hungary – 5 January 1957
made its first step on the football scene, with the friendly match against selection of Zemun that ended 4–2. Florijan Matekalo entered the record books as the first goal scorer in the history of Partizan, while Franjo Glazer was the first manager. Just three weeks later, Partizan went on the first of many international tours, travelling to Czechoslovakia where they beat the selection of Slovak Army (Military of Slovakia) with 3–1. At the time, just months after the WWII in Yugoslavia ended, no organized football competition was yet restored, so Partizan played only friendly games and tournaments both home and abroad. Foundation The Comecon was founded in 1949 by the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. The primary factors in Comecon's formation appear to have been Joseph Stalin's desire to cooperate and strengthen the international socialist relationship at an economic level with the lesser states of Central Europe, and which were now, increasingly, cut off from their traditional markets and suppliers in Western Europe. Bideleux and Jeffries, 1998, p. 536. Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland had remained interested in Marshall aid despite the requirements for a convertible currency and market economies (market economy). These requirements, which would inevitably have resulted in stronger economic ties to Western Europe than to the Soviet Union, were absolutely unacceptable to Stalin, who in July 1947, ordered these communist-dominated governments to pull out of the Paris Conference on the European Recovery Programme. This has been described as "the moment of truth" in the post-World War II division of Europe. Bideleux and Jeffries, 1998, p. 534–5. thumb right 200px Serbian officers in the company of a British nurse on the Salonika front (File:Mihailovic at the Thessaloniki Front.jpg). Second lieutenant Draža Mihailović (kneeling). Born in Ivanjica, Kingdom of Serbia, Mihailović was the son of a Court clerk. Orphaned at seven, he was raised by his paternal uncle in Belgrade. Buisson (1999) (#buisson_1999), p. 13 Both his uncles were military officers and he himself joined the Serbian military academy in October 1910. He fought as a cadet in the Balkan Wars 1912–1913. At the end of the First Balkan War, he was awarded the Silver Medal of valor. Buisson (1999) (#buisson_1999), pp. 26-27 At the end of the Second Balkan War, during which he mainly led operations along the Albanian (Provisional Government of Albania) border, he was given the rank of Second Lieutenant as the top soldier in his class, ranked sixth at the Serbian military academy. Buisson (1999) (#buisson_1999), pp. 26-27 He served in World War I and together with the Serbian Army marched through Albania (Principality of Albania) in 1915 during the long retreat (Serbian Campaign (World War I)). He later received several decorations for his achievements on the Salonica front (Salonika front). He was appointed to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes' Royal guard but had to leave his position in 1920 after taking part in a public argument between Communist and nationalist sympathizers. He was sent to Skopje. In 1921, he was admitted to the Superior Military Academy of Belgrade. In 1923, having finished his studies, he was promoted as an assistant to the military staff (Staff (military)), along with the fifteen other best alumni of his promotion. Buisson (1999) (#buisson_1999), pp. 45-49 In 1930, he was made a Lieutenant Colonel: that same year, he spent three months in Paris, following classes at the École Militaire. Some authors have asserted that he met and befriended Charles de Gaulle during his stay, although there is no proof of this. Buisson (1999) (#buisson_1999), pp. 55-56 He was appointed in 1935 in Sofia, as a military attaché to the Kingdom of Bulgaria. On September 6, 1935, he achieved the rank of Colonel. Mihailović then came in contact with members of Zveno and considered taking part in a plot aiming to provoke Boris III (Boris III of Bulgaria)'s abdication and set up an alliance between Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, but, being untrained as a spy, he was soon identified by Bulgarian authorities and was asked to leave the country. He was then appointed as an attaché in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Buisson (1999) (#buisson_1999), pp. 63-65 After the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945, the town was placed under Polish administration according to the Potsdam Conference. Since then it remains as part of Poland. The German (Germans) inhabitants of the town were expelled (Expulsion of Germans after World War II) and replaced with Poles, many of whom had themselves been expelled from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. Other Polish settlers came from war-devastated central Poland. In May 1945 Czechoslovakia tried to annex the area on behalf of Czech (Czechs) minority (living especially in the western part of the land, called Czech Corner) and historical claims, but on pressure of Soviet union ceased military operations and Czech minority was expelled to Germany and Czechoslovakia. After end of World War II, in June 1945, army of Czechoslovakia briefly entered into the then-German Ratibor and Czechoslovakia officially claimed the area of Racibórz and Głubczyce (''Ratibořsko'' and ''Hlubčicko'') because of having a substantial Czech minority. (See border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia.) At the same time the expulsion of Germans (Expulsion of Germans after World War II) by both Czech and Polish militias started and the region was virtually ethnically cleansed from Germans, as the town, came to lie far into the territory of the post-war Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland) as defined at the Potsdam Conference. The German (Germans) CDU (Christian Democratic Union (Germany)) politician Herbert Hupka at the end of his life promoted reconciliation between the former German inhabitants, including himself, and the new Polish settlers and administration of Racibórz (Ratibor). '''Stanislav Grof''' (born July 1, 1931 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) is a psychiatrist, one of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology and a pioneering researcher into the use of non-ordinary states of consciousness (Altered state of consciousness) for purposes of exploring, healing, and obtaining growth and insights into the human psyche (Psyche (psychology)). Grof received the VISION 97 award granted by the Foundation of Dagmar and Václav Havel in Prague on October 5, 2007. *July 18–August 9 – Canada Post workers represented by the Canadian Union of Postal Workers go on strike *August 20 – Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia to end the "Prague Spring" of political liberalization. Thousands of refugees flee to Canada. *September 26 – Daniel Johnson, Sr, Premier of Quebec, dies in office birth_date
-101_1_czech-national-team title Loyola Recruits 6-10 Player From Czech National Team first Alan last Drooz date August 30, 1990 work Los Angeles Times publisher Tribune Company accessdate October 18, 2010 align "center" Socialist
others in East Germany, Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union and naturally in Poland. Their second, long awaited longplay was released that year. The concept album ''Wyspa dzieci'' (''The Island of Children'') turned out to be another success, including previously known hits "Gwiazda dnia", "Kołysanka matki" and "Na luzie" as well as a popular title song. New arrangements, which included elements of orchestral music, showed a musical progress of 2
regime in Czechoslovakia, he was allowed to emigrate to West Germany. He lived the remainder of his life there, and resumed his chess career with considerable success, including playing in the Interzonal in 1976 and winning the West German Championship (German Chess Championship) in 1978. Career birth_date
from the prevailing climate of McCarthyism in the United States. The remaining 27 years of his life were spent in Orgeval, France where, despite never learning the language, he maintained an impressive creative life, assisted by his third wife, fellow photographer Hazel Kingsbury Strand. thumb right 204px Oldřich Duras (Image:OldrichDuras.jpg) '''Oldřich Duras''' (also '''Důras'''; 30 October 1882, Pchery, Bohemia, then Austria-Hungary – 5 January 1957, Prague, then Czechoslovakia) was a leading Czech (Czech Republic) chess master of the early 20th century. FIDE awarded him the title of International Grandmaster in 1950, when the title was first introduced, in recognition of his achievements in the early twentieth century. Policies His mandate was marked by the signing of the Treaty of Trianon with Hungary, and initial steps leading to the creation of the Little Entente - formed by Romania with Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia). It was also at this stage that Romania and the Second Polish Republic inaugurated their military alliance (''see Polish-Romanian Alliance''). The goal to create a ''cordon sanitaire'' against Bolshevist Russia (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) also brought him and his Minister of the Interior (List of Romanian Ministers of the Interior) Argetoianu to oversee repression measures against the group of Socialist Party of Romania members who voted in favor of joining the Comintern (arrested on suspicion of "attempt against the state's security" on May 12, 1921). Cristina Diac, "La «kilometrul 0» al comunismului românesc. «S-a terminat definitiv cu comunismul in România!»" ("At «Kilometer 0» in Romanian Communism. «Communism in Romania Is Definitely Over!»"), in ''Jurnalul Naţional'', October 6, 2004; retrieved October 16, 2007 Cristian Troncotă, "Siguranţa şi spectrul revoluţiei comuniste" ("Siguranţa (Siguranţa Statului) and the Specter of Communist Revolution"), in ''Dosarele Istoriei'', 4(44) 2000, p.18-19 This came after a long debate in Parliament over the imprisonment of Mihai Gheorghiu Bujor, a Romanian citizen who had joined the Russian Red Army in Bessarabia during the later stages of the October Revolution, and who had been tried for treason. Argetoianu, who proclaimed communism to be "over in Romania", later indicated that Averescu and other members of the cabinet were hesitant about the crackdown, and that he ultimately resorted to taking initiative for the arrests — thus presenting his fellow politicians with a ''fait accompli''. * de-Russification is a process in the post-Soviet countries to reverse the process of Russification. * Slovakisation (Slovakization) refers to the policies of Czechoslovakia then Slovakia against the ethnic Hungarians (Hungarians in Slovakia) there. * Turkification is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something or someone who is not a Turk becomes one, voluntarily or by force. Sugihara served as a Consul General in Prague, Czechoslovakia, from March 1941 to late 1942 in Königsberg, East Prussia and in the legation in Bucharest, Romania from 1942 to 1944. When Soviet troops entered Romania, they imprisoned Sugihara and his family in a POW camp for eighteen months. They were released in 1946 and returned to Japan through the Soviet Union via the Trans-Siberian railroad and Nakhodka port. In 1947, the Japanese foreign office asked him to resign, nominally due to downsizing. Some sources, including his wife Yukiko Sugihara, have said that the Foreign Ministry told Sugihara he was dismissed because of "that incident" in Lithuania. Czechoslovakia Actions against Nazi collaborators in Czechoslovakia, real or alleged, had two significant forms, by judiciary or by mob action. Immediately after liberation of Czechoslovakia by Soviet (Red Army) and American (USA) armies, in an atmosphere of chaos, wild chases began. Individual acts of revenge, mob violence, and simply criminal acts motivated by the possibility to rob or loot targets, occurred. In some places were conducted, by organized groups of self-styled partisan (Partisan (military))s, violence which resembled what is today known as ethnic cleansing. In most places this stopped when the provisional Czech government and local authorities took power. Other forms included legal action, undertaken by the state administration, after the war, until the regular Czech parliament was established. President Beneš (Edvard Beneš) ruled by issuing decrees (Talk:Beneš decrees), which were later ratified by parliament. On its way, the flame passed through Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria and Czechoslovakia; those countries, and Greece itself, would all be under Nazi domination within ten years. Andy McSmith, "Aryan ideals, not ancient Greece, were the inspiration behind flame tradition," ''The Independent'', April 8, 2008 The event was filmed by Hitler's favorite director, Leni Riefenstahl, and branded with the giants of German industry: the lighting-mirrors were made by the Zeiss (Carl Zeiss AG) corporation, and the torches themselves, fueled with magnesium to prevent them from going out in bad weather, were constructed by Krupp, the huge steel and munitions conglomerate that armed Germany for both world wars. "The Olympic torch's shadowy past," by Chris Bowlby, BBC News, April 5, 2008, available at http: news.bbc.co.uk 2 hi europe 7330949.stm Czechoslovakia In the summer of 1938, when Germany was preparing an invasion (German occupation of Czechoslovakia) of Czechoslovakia scheduled for October 1 of that year, the ''Einsatzgruppen'' were founded. The intention was for ''Einsatzgruppen'' to travel in the wake of the German armies as they advanced into Czechoslovakia, and to secure government papers and offices. Unlike the early ''Einsatzkommando'', the ''Einsatzgruppen'' were to be armed and authorized to freely use lethal force to accomplish their mission. The Munich Agreement of 1938 prevented the war for which the ''Einsatzgruppen'' were originally founded, but as the Germans occupied the Sudetenland in the fall of 1938, the ''Einsatzgruppen'' moved into the region to occupy offices formerly belonging to the Czechoslovak state. After the occupation of the rest of the Czech portion of Czechoslovakia on March 15, 1939, the ''Einsatzgruppen'' were re-formed and again used to secure offices formerly belonging to the Czechoslovak government. The ''Einsatzgruppen'' were never a standing formation; rather they were ad hoc units recruited mostly from the ranks of the SS (Schutzstaffel), the SD (Sicherheitsdienst), and various German police forces such as the Ordnungspolizei, the Gendarmerie, the Kripo and the Gestapo. Once the military campaign had ended, the ''Einsatzgruppen'' units were disbanded, though generally the same personnel were recruited again if the need arose for the ''Einsatzgruppen'' units to be re-activated. '''Comenius University in Bratislava''' (
Gottwald , with the help of the Czechoslovak State Security personnel following the László Rajk trial in Budapest in September 1949. The brigade landed in Normandy in August 1944 and was given the mission of Siege of Dunkirk (1944) containing the German-held port
and United States, was banned in the GDR; legend has it this was due to the presence of the American flag, not to the context. The cover was replaced for the domestic release with a simple green cover (the international release on Koch Records was unaltered). The band went on a 20th-anniversary "Farewell Tour," accompanied by Czechoslovak (Czechoslovakia) band Turbo (Turbo (Czech band)) and West German veterans The Lords (The Lords (German band)). http
. While in China, Leger had written his first extended poem ''Anabase'', publishing it in 1924 under the pseudonym "Saint-John Perse", one he employed for the rest of his life. He then published nothing for two decades, not even a re-edition of his debut book, because he believed it inappropriate for a diplomat to publish fiction. After Briand's death in 1932, Leger served as the General Secretary of the French Foreign Office ( Quai d'Orsay
concentrations), and aerial bombing of undefended cities to sap civilian morale. The Polish Army and Air Force had insufficient new equipment to match the onslaught. With Britain and France unwilling to follow on their military commitment to Poland, the Soviet Union, having its own reasons to fear the German expansionism further East, made various offers to Poland of an anti-German alliance, similar to the earlier one made to Czechoslovakia. Regardless of Stalin's true intentions
of the Soviet Union, although nationalistic forces and pressures within the satellite states played a part in causing some deviation from strict Soviet rule. The immediate post-1945 period may have been the historical high point for the popularity of communist ideology. In the late 1940s Communist parties won large shares of the vote in free elections
'''Czechoslovakia''' (or '''Czecho-Slovakia'''; ) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Austria-Hungary), until its peaceful dissolution (Dissolution of Czechoslovakia) into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not ''de facto'' exist but its government-in-exile (Czechoslovak government-in-exile) continued to operate. On 29 June 1945, a treaty was signed between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, ceding Carpatho-Ukraine to the USSR (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic).
From 1948 to 1990 Czechoslovakia was part of the communist Warsaw Pact and had a command or planned economy (command economy). A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when several other Warsaw Pact countries invaded (Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia). In 1989, as communism was ending all over Europe, Czechoslovakians peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; socialist price controls were removed after a period of preparation. A few years afterwards, in 1993 the country was separated into two sovereign states, again peacefully.