Czechoslovakia

What is Czechoslovakia known for?


architecture classical


play written

times. He also gained widespread fame in the German-speaking countries. '''''The White Disease''''' ('''''Bílá nemoc''''' in the original Czech (Czech language)) is a play (Play (theatre)) written by Czech (Czech Republic) novelist Karel Čapek in 1937 (1937 in literature).


famous team

, as the famous team Sparta Prague was called at the time. Slovan lost 0:3. Despite of all its efforts, for a long time Slovan Liberec was unsuccessful in its fight for a place in the premier league. At certain stages of its history, it was even relegated to the regional division or third league. After overcoming the financial crisis that the club found itself in following the 1989 "Velvet Revolution", Slovan Liberec finally had the chance to gain promotion to the top league


wide service

tractor for the ZIS-3 76-mm field gun. It remained in wide service throughout the war. In British and French service M3A1s were used as observation vehicles for field artillery observers, as ambulances, and as scout vehicles. victims 10-15 country Germany Austria Czechoslovakia United States states K-7 set about recruiting young Poles residing in Czechoslovakia, Germany, Lithuania, Latvia and Romania's Bukovina. They were trained in small groups in Poland, to be deployed in wartime. Beginning in May 1938, K-7 conducted courses in Warsaw, Gdynia and several other Polish localities. Andrzej Grzywacz ''et al.'', p. 20.


acclaimed film

as an independent country and as a part of former Czechoslovakia) was a seedbed for many acclaimed film directors. He became famous in 1967, when his first feature film, ''Closely Watched Trains'', won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. ref>


political line

, there was a cultural thaw, and, what was important abroad, he spoke out against the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. While his reputation at home soon paled, he continued to have uncommonly good relations with Western governments and with international capitalist institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and World Bank because of his independent political line. Romania under Ceauşescu maintained and sometimes improved diplomatic and other relations with, among others


performing rock

by Poland. thumb right Smith performing with the Patti Smith Group, in Germany, 1978 (File:Patti Smith in Rosengrten 1978.jpg) By 1974, Patti Smith was performing rock music herself, initially with guitarist, bass (Bass (guitar))ist and rock archivist Lenny Kaye, and later with a full band comprising Kaye, Ivan Kral on guitar and bass (Bass guitar), Jay Dee Daugherty on drums (Drum kit) and Richard Sohl on piano. Ivan Kral was a refugee from Czechoslovakia


track causing

; ref Immigrants from Denmark, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Russia, and Austria quickly dominated the factory jobs. The Choctaw, Oklahoma and Gulf Railway Company laid its track, causing the abandonment of Frisco, which had a population of 1,000 at the time. Beginning in about 1898, Yukon began to attract immigrants from Bohemia. Following World War I and the dissolution of Bohemia


white poems

and writers who had lived in Czechoslovakia. In addition, she tried to make whatever she could from readings and sales of her work. She turned more and more to writing prose because she found it made more money than poetry. Tsvetaeva did not feel at all at home in Paris's predominantly ex-bourgeois circle of Russian émigré writers. Although she had written passionately pro-'White' (White movement) poems during the Revolution, her fellow émigrés thought that she was insufficiently anti-Soviet, and that her criticism of the Soviet régime was altogether too nebulous. She was particularly criticised for writing an admiring letter to the Soviet poet Vladimir Mayakovsky. In the wake of this letter, the émigré paper ''The Latest News'', to which Tsvetaeva had been a frequent contributor, refused point-blank to publish any more of her work. Feinstein (1993) pxi She found solace in her correspondence with other writers, including Boris Pasternak, Rainer Maria Rilke, the Czech poet Anna Teskova, and the critics D. S. Mirsky and Aleksandr Bakhrakh. Her poetry and critical prose of the time, including her autobiographical prose works of 1934–7, is of lasting literary importance. "Consumed by the daily round", resenting the domesticity that left her no time for solitude or writing, her émigré milieu regarded Tsvetaeva as a crude sort who ignored social graces. Describing her misery, she wrote to Teskova "In Paris, with rare personal exceptions, everyone hates me, they write all sorts of nasty things, leave me out in all sorts of nasty ways, and so on". To Pasternak she complained "They don't like poetry and what am I apart from that, not poetry but that from which it is made. I am an inhospitable hostess. An young woman in an old dress." She began to look back at even the Prague times with nostalgia and resent her exiled state more deeply. thumb right Moravia as part of the Moravia-Silesia within Czechoslovakia between 1928–1938 (Image:První Československá republika.SVG) Following the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, Moravia became part of Czechoslovakia. It became one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia. Its autonomy was restricted. In 1928 Moravia ceased to exist as a territorial unity and was merged with Czech Silesia into the Moravian-Silesian Land. After the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II Moravia was divided - part of Moravia formed an administrative unit within the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and part was directly within the German Third Reich. In 1945 the ethnic German minority of Moravia was expelled (Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II) to Germany and Austria and the Moravian-Silesian Land was restored with Moravia being part of it. In 1949 the territorial division of Czechoslovakia was radically changed, the Moravian-Silesian Land was abolished and Lands were replaced by "kraje" (regions). On the breakup of Czechoslovakia in 1993, Moravia remained in the Czech territory as part of the Czech Republic.


major training

a major training base with Americans arriving in 1918 to train for the Western Front, and Canadian and British Squadrons forming. When the RAF started to expand, the aerodrome was re-opened for training purposes. Later, during World War II, many fighter (fighter aircraft) squadrons and the RNAS (Royal Naval Air Service) served at RAF Montrose. Commonwealth (Commonwealth of Nations), Polish (Poland), Czech (Czechoslovakia), American (United States), Russian, Turkish (Turkey), Free French (Free French Forces) and other Allied (Allies of World War II) nationals all trained and served at RAF Montrose during this time. '''Hana Maria Pravda''' (born '''Hana Becková''' on 29 January 1916 Prague − 22 May 2008 Oxford

Czechoslovakia

'''Czechoslovakia''' (or '''Czecho-Slovakia'''; ) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Austria-Hungary), until its peaceful dissolution (Dissolution of Czechoslovakia) into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not ''de facto'' exist but its government-in-exile (Czechoslovak government-in-exile) continued to operate. On 29 June 1945, a treaty was signed between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, ceding Carpatho-Ukraine to the USSR (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic).

From 1948 to 1990 Czechoslovakia was part of the communist Warsaw Pact and had a command or planned economy (command economy). A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when several other Warsaw Pact countries invaded (Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia). In 1989, as communism was ending all over Europe, Czechoslovakians peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; socialist price controls were removed after a period of preparation. A few years afterwards, in 1993 the country was separated into two sovereign states, again peacefully.

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