Cossack Hetmanate

What is Cossack Hetmanate known for?


popular support

hostile to each other. Ukrainian leaders during the period were largely opportunists and men of little vision who could not muster broad popular support for their policies. The disintegration of Ukrainian statehood and general decline - Ruina. The third important state for Ukrainians is Cossack Hetmanate. The Cossacks of Zaporizhia (Zaporizhzhia (region)) since the late 15th century controlled the lower bends of the river Dnieper, between Russia, Poland and the Tatars of Crimea (Crimean Khanate), with the fortified capital, Zaporizhian Sich. Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky is one of the most celebrated and at the same time most controversial political figures in Ukraine's early-modern history. A brilliant military leader, his greatest achievement in the process of national revolution was the formation of the Cossack Hetmanate state of the Zaporozhian Host (1648–1782). Period of the Ruin (The Ruin (Ukrainian history)) in the late 17th century in the history of Ukraine is characterized by the disintegration of Ukrainian statehood and general decline. During the Ruin Ukraine became divided along the Dnieper River into Left-Bank Ukraine and Right-Bank Ukraine, and the two halves became hostile to each other. Ukrainian leaders during the period were largely opportunists and men of little vision who could not muster broad popular support for their policies. The disintegration of Ukrainian statehood and general decline - Ruina. date 27 June 1709 (O.S. (Julian calendar)) 28 June 1709 (Swedish calendar) 8 July 1709 (N.S. (Gregorian calendar)) place Poltava, Cossack Hetmanate (today Ukraine) result Decisive Russian victory Loss of Cossack Hetmanate autonomy In an attempt to finally end the war, Charles ordered a final attack (Charles XII invasion of Russia) on the Russian heartland with a possible assault on Moscow from his campaign base in Poland. The Swedish army of almost 44,000 men left Saxony (Electorate of Saxony) on 22 August 1707 and marched slowly eastwards. When they reached the Vistula River they waited for it to freeze and didn't cross until 30 December, then continued through a hostile Masuria and took Grodno (Hrodna) on 28 January 1708 after the Russians had left without a fight. At that time, the Russians had been dealing with a large rebellion of Don Cossacks, known as Bulavin Rebellion. The mutiny was contained in part by the forces of the Cossack Hetmanate led by Hetman Ivan Mazepa. The Swedes continued to the area around Smorgon (Smarhon) and Minsk where the army went into winter quarters. Left in western Poland were 8,000 dragoons under major-general von Krassow. Christer Kuvaja: ''Karolinska krigare 1660–1721'', p.179. Schildts Förlags AB 2008. ISBN 978-951-50-1823-6. As Charles forces were moving towards Ukraine, Peter sent his Moscow reserves to intercept them at Starodub and asked Mazepa to supply some reinforcements. Lewenhaupt followed south and was attacked while crossing a river near a small village that gave name to the Battle of Lesnaya. His forces met the Russian attack, but they were amazed to find that the new Russian army gave them a serious fight. Lewenhaupt, seeing that he was about to lose, decided to rejoin Charles with all speed, so he abandoned the cannon, the cattle and most of the food, driving the soldiers to mutiny. Stealing all of the alcohol, the soldiers became drunk, and Lewenhaupt was forced to leave about 1,000 men drunk in the woods. By the time they finally reached Charles and the main force in the winter, only 6,000 men without supplies remained. Mazepa was hesitant and gathered the Starshyna Council to decide the further course of actions. The council approved the negotiations with Charles. He left his last Cossack reserves in Baturyn and moved to the Desna River for negotiations with Charles. When Peter heard of that move he sent Aleksandr Menshikov to Baturyn and mercilessly razed the city. A series of repressions spread throughout the Cossack Hetmanate along with claims that Mazepa had deserted to the Swedes in order to subjugate Ukraine to Poland, provide Unia (Union of Brest), and root Orthodoxy out of Ukraine. Tsar decrees were sent to strashyna inviting them to Hlukhiv. In Hlukhiv Mazepa was figuratively dismissed as Hetman and replaced with the Starodub Colonel Ivan Skoropadsky. By the end of the century, Polish Baroque influences crossed the Dnieper into the Cossack Hetmanate, where they gave birth to a particular style of Orthodox architecture, known as the ''Cossack Baroque''. #...that the Ancient Greeks credited '''Broteas''', the ugly son of Tantalus, with an ancient rock-cut cliff-face carving of the Great Mother of the Gods in modern Turkey? (March 13, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 57 #...that the Cossack Hetman and the later Muscovite (Muscovy) voyevoda (Voivod) '''Petro Doroshenko''' signed a treaty with Sultan Mehmed IV recognizing the Cossack Hetmanate as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire? (March 8, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 56 #...that '''the Hood Event (Hood event)''' was an incident following the US invasion of Iraq (2003 Invasion of Iraq) where a group of Turkish (Turkish Armed Forces) special forces operating in northern Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan) was captured and interrogated by the US military (Military of the United States), later becoming the basis for the 2006 (2006 in film) film ''Valley of the Wolves Iraq''? (February 24, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 55


successful military

After many successful military campaigns against the Poles, Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky made a triumphant entry into Kiev on Christmas 1648 where he was hailed liberator of the people from Polish captivity. In February 1649, during negotiations in Pereiaslav (Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi) with a Polish delegation, Khmelnytsky had made it clear to the Poles that he was the Knyaz of Ruthenia that stretches all the way to Lviv, Chelm, Halych, and build with the Tatar's help. J


picturesque landscape

their projects in the picturesque landscape that many Ukrainian cities and regions offered. St. Andrew's Church of Kiev (1747–1754), built by Bartolomeo Rastrelli, is a notable example of Baroque architecture, and its location on top of the Kievan mountain made it a recognizable monument of the city. An equally notable contribution of Rasetrelli was the Mariyinsky Palace, which was built to be a summer residence to Russian Empress Elizabeth (Elizabeth of Russia). During the reign


brilliant military

controlled the lower bends of the river Dnieper, between Russia, Poland and the Tatars of Crimea (Crimean Khanate), with the fortified capital, Zaporizhian Sich. Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky is one of the most celebrated and at the same time most controversial political figures in Ukraine's early-modern history. A brilliant military leader, his greatest achievement in the process of national revolution was the formation of the Cossack Hetmanate state of the Zaporozhian Host (1648–1782

The third important state for Ukrainians is Cossack Hetmanate. The Cossacks of Zaporizhia (Zaporizhzhia (region)) since the late 15th century controlled the lower bends of the river Dnieper, between Russia, Poland and the Tatars of Crimea (Crimean Khanate), with the fortified capital, Zaporizhian Sich. Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky is one of the most celebrated and at the same time most controversial political figures in Ukraine's early-modern history. A brilliant

military leader, his greatest achievement in the process of national revolution was the formation of the Cossack Hetmanate state of the Zaporozhian Host (1648–1782). Period of the Ruin (The Ruin (Ukrainian history)) in the late 17th century in the history of Ukraine is characterized by the disintegration of Ukrainian statehood and general decline. During the Ruin Ukraine became divided along the Dnieper River into Left-Bank Ukraine and Right-Bank Ukraine, and the two halves became


century local

Apostol . Throughout the 18th century, local autonomy was gradually eroded within the Hetmanate. After the Baturyn's tragedy the autonomy was abolished, incorporating it into the Kiev Governorate. After the Battle of Poltava, hetmans elected by the Council of Officers were to be confirmed by the tsar. They served more as a military administrators and have little influence over the domestic policies. The tsar also frequently appointed the colonels of each regimental district. First Little Russian Collegiate #...that the Ancient Greeks credited '''Broteas''', the ugly son of Tantalus, with an ancient rock-cut cliff-face carving of the Great Mother of the Gods in modern Turkey? (March 13, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 57 #...that the Cossack Hetman and the later Muscovite (Muscovy) voyevoda (Voivod) '''Petro Doroshenko''' signed a treaty with Sultan Mehmed IV recognizing the Cossack Hetmanate as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire? (March 8, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 56 #...that '''the Hood Event (Hood event)''' was an incident following the US invasion of Iraq (2003 Invasion of Iraq) where a group of Turkish (Turkish Armed Forces) special forces operating in northern Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan) was captured and interrogated by the US military (Military of the United States), later becoming the basis for the 2006 (2006 in film) film ''Valley of the Wolves Iraq''? (February 24, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 55


translation quot

the latter fell under Russian protection after the Treaty of Pereyaslav (1654). From those times, the official title of Russian Tsars, and later Emperors, gained the wording (literal translation): ''"The Sovereign of all Rus’ (Etymology of Rus and derivatives): the Great (Great Russia), the Little, and the White (White Russia)."'' The area fell under the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1353. The city was burned again by Crimean khan (Crimean Khanate) Meñli I Giray


largest educational'

" Magocsi 1996, p 259. It was the largest educational institution in lands ruled by Moscow. Timothy Snyder. (2003). ''The Reconstruction of Nations.'' New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 120-122 Mazepa established another Collegium in Chernihiv. These schools largely used the Polish and Latin languages and provided a classic western education to their students. Many of those trained in Kiev, such as Feofan Prokopovich would later move to Moscow, so that Ivan Mazepa's patronage not only raised the level of culture in Ukraine but also in Moscow itself. A musical academy was established in 1737 in the Hetmanate's then-capital of Hlukhiv. Among its graduates were Maksym Berezovsky, the first composer from the Russian Empire to be recognized in Europe, and Dmitry Bortniansky. In addition to traditional printing presses in Kiev, new printing shops were established in Novhorod-Siverskyi and Chernihiv. Most of the books published were religious in nature, such as the ''Peternik'', a book about the lives of the monks of the Kiev-Pechersk monasatary. Books on local history were compiled. In a book written by Inokentiy Gizel in 1674, the theory that Moscow was the heir of ancient Kiev was developed and elaborated for the first time Magocsi 1996, p 257. Religion thumb 250px The Mezhyhirskyi Monastery (File:Mezhyhirskyi Monastery, 1843.jpg), located on the right bank of the Dnieper (Dnieper River). Fyodor Solntsev, 1843. In 1686 the Orthodox Church in Ukraine changed from being under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch in Constantinople to being under the authority of the Moscow. Nevertheless, before and after this date local Church leaders pursued a policy of independence. Hetman Ivan Mazepa established very close relations with Metropilitan Varlaam Iasynsky (reigned 1690–1707). Mazepa provided donations of land, money and entire villages to the Church. He also financed the building of numerous churches in Kiev, including the Church of the Epiphany and the cathedral of St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery, and restoration of older churches such as Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev which had deteriorated to the Hetmanate of near ruin by the mid-17th century, in a style known as Ukrainian Baroque. Magocsi 1996, p 258. Society The social structure of the Hetmanate consisted of five groups: the nobility, the Cossacks, the clergy, the townspeople, and the peasants. Nobles As had been the case under Poland, the nobility continued to be the dominant social class during the Hetmanate, although its composition and source of legitimacy within the new society had changed radically. During the Khmelnytsky Uprising the Polish nobles (Szlachta) and Polonized Ruthenian magnates fled the territory of the Hetmanate. As a result, the noble estate now consisted of a merger between the nobility that had stayed in the territory of the Hetmanate (old noble families that did not succumb to Polonization and lesser nobles who had participated in the uprising on the side of the Cossacks against Poland) with members of the emergent Cossack officer class. Unlike the Polish nobles whose lands were redistributed, the nobles loyal to the Hetmanate retained their privileges, their lands, and the services of the peasants. Together, the old nobles and the new Cossack officers became known as the Distinguished Military Fellows (''Znachni Viiskovi Tovaryshi''). Thus, the nature of noble status was fundamentally changed. It no longer depended on ancient heredity, but instead on loyalty to the Hetmanate. Magocsi 1996, p 250. Over time, however, Cossack officer lands and privileges too became hereditary and the Cossack noble and officer class acquired huge landed estates comparable to those of the Polish magnates whom they had replaced and emulated. Timothy Snyder. (2003). ''The Reconstruction of Nations.'' New Haven: Yale University Press. pp 116-119. File:08. Shlahetna ukr panna.jpg Noble girl File:06. Shlahetna panna z starshinskogo rodu.jpg Noble lady File:17. Znatna ukr pani.jpg Noble lady File:18. Ukr shlachtych.jpg Nobleman Cossacks Most Cossacks failed to enter the noble estate and continued their role as free soldiers. The lower rank Cossacks often resented their wealthier brethren and were responsible for frequent rebellions, particularly during the Ruin (The Ruin (Ukrainian history)), a period of instability and civil war in the 17th century. These resentments were frequently exploited by Moscow. The Zaporizhian Sich served as a refuge for Cossacks fleeing the Hetmanate as it had been prior to Khmelnytsky's uprising. File:04. Polkovnik ukr polku.jpg Cossack colonel File:09. Sotnyk.jpg Cossack captain (sotnyk) File:05. Pysar.jpg Cossack secretary File:12. Ukr kozak.jpg Cossack private Clergy During the Hetmanate, the Roman Catholic Church and Uniate (Eastern Catholic Churches) Clergy were driven from Ukraine. The Black, or monastic (Monk), Orthodox (Eastern Orthodox Church) clergy enjoyed a very high status in the Hetmanate, controlling 17% of the Hetmanate's land. Monasteries were exempt from taxes and at no times were peasants bound to monasteries allowed to forgo their duties. The Orthodox hierarchy became as wealthy and powerful as the most powerful nobles. Magocsi 1996, p 252. The white, or married, Orthodox clergy were also exempt from paying taxes. Priests' sons often entered the clergy or the Cossack civil service. It was not uncommon for nobles or Cossacks to become priests and vice versa. Townspeople Twelve cities within the Hetmanate enjoyed Magdeburg rights, in which they were self-governing and controlled their own courts, finances and taxes. Wealthy townsmen were able to hold office within the Hetmanate or even to buy titles of nobility. Because the towns were generally small (the largest towns of Kiev and Nizhyn had no more than 15,000 inhabitants) this social group was not very significant relative to other social groups. File:11. Ukr divchyna-mischanka.jpg City girl File:13. Ukr mischanka.jpg City woman File:14. Ukr mischanyn.jpg Townsman Peasants Peasants comprised the majority of the Hetmanate's population. Although the institution of forced labor by the peasants was reduced significantly by the Khmelnytsky Uprising, in which the Polish landlords and magnates were expelled from the territory controlled by the Hetman, those nobles loyal to the Hetman as well as the Orthodox Church expected the peasants under their control to continue to provide their services. Thus as a result of the Uprising, approximately 50% of the territory consisted of lands given to Cossack officers or free self-governing villages controlled by the peasants, 33% of the land was owned by Cossack officers and nobles, and 17% of the land was owned by the Church. With time, the amount of territory owned by the nobles and officers gradually grew at the expense of the lands owned by peasants and rank-and-file Cossacks, and the peasants were forced to work increasingly more days for their landlords. Nevertheless, their obligations remained lighter than they had been prior to the Uprising and until the end of the Hetmanate peasants were never fully enserfed and retained the right to move. Magocsi 1996, p 253. File:01. Divchyna selanka.jpg Peasant girl File:10. Ukr divchyna selanka.jpg Peasant girl File:16. Ukr selanka .jpg Peasant woman File:19. Ukr selanyn.jpg Peasant Organization Administration The Hetmanate was divided into military-administrative districts known as regimental districts (''polki'') whose number fluctuated with the size of the Hetmanate's territory. In 1649, when the Hetmanate controlled the Right and the Left Banks, it included 16 such districts. After the loss of the Right Bank, this number was reduced to ten. The regimental districts were further divided into companies (''sotnias''), which were administered by captains (sotnyk). Magocsi 1996, p 235. Companies were named either by a toponym of their origin or their leader and greatly varied in numbers up to 16. It is known that the first who introduced the regimental division was Prince Ostafiy Ruzhynsky (:uk:Остафій Ружинський) in 1515. Sementovsky, N. ''Old times of Little Russia, Zaporizhia, Don''. Saint Petersburg, 1846 Initially created 20 regiments consisting of 2,000 Cossacks each, were reduced by the King of Poland Stephen Báthory in 1576 to 10. List of regiments class "wikitable" - ! Regiment !! Coat of Arms !! Years of formation !! Fate !! Other formation !! Notes - Chyhyryn Regiment 25px (File:Chyhyryn polk.svg) 1625-1678 1704-1712 - Cherkasy Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1625-1686 merged with Pereyaslav - Korsun Regiment 25px (File:Korsun polk.svg) 1625-1712 - Bila Tserkva Regiment 25px (File:Bila Cerkva polk.svg) 1625-1712 - Kaniv Regiment 25px (File:Kaniv polk.svg) 1625-1712 - Pereyaslav Regiment 25px (File:Pereyaslav polk.svg) 1625-1782 - Kiev Regiment 25px (File:Kyiv polk.svg) 1625-1782 - Myrhorod Regiment 25px (File:Myrhorod polk.svg) 1625-1782 - Ovruch Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-???? - Irkliyiv Regiment 25px (File:Irakliiv polk.svg) 1648-1648 merged with Kropyvna 1658-1659 - Sosnytsia Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1648 merged with Chernihiv 1663-1668 merged with Chernihiv - Chornobyl Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1649 1651-1651 - Borzna Regiment 25px (File:Borzna polk.svg) 1648-1649 merged with Chernihiv 1654-1655 merged with Nizhyn - Zhyvotiv Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1649 merged with Vinnytsia - Ichnya Regiment 25px (File:Ichnia polk.svg) 1648-1649 merged with Pryluky - Hadiach Regiment 25px (File:Hadyach polk.svg) 1648-1649 merged with Poltava - Zvyahel Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1649 - Ostropil Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1649 1657-1658 - Podillya Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1649 1657-1676 - Lyubartiv Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1649 - Lysyanka Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1657 split among others - Bratslav Regiment 25px (File:Braclav polk.svg) 1648-1667 merged with Vinnytsia 1685-1712 - Vinnytsia Regiment 25px (File:Vinnytsia polk.svg) 1648-1667 (Kalnyk) merged with Chechelnyk - Uman Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1675 - Pavoloch Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1675 - Poltava Regiment 25px (File:Poltava polk.svg) 1648-1675 - Lubny Regiment 25px (File:Lubny polk.svg) 1648-1781 - Nizhyn Regiment 25px (File:Nizhyn polk.svg) 1648-1782 - Pryluky Regiment 25px (File:Pryluky polk.svg) 1648-1782 - Chernihiv Regiment 25px (File:Chernihiv polk.svg) 1648-1782 - Kropyvna Regiment 25px (File:Kropyvna polk.svg) 1649-1658 split Lubny Pereyaslav - Chechelnyk Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1650-1673 - Novhorod Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1653-1654 merged with Nizhyn 1668-1668 merged with Starodub - Belarus Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1654-1659 - Pinsk-Turov Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1654-1659 - Starodub Regiment 25px (File:Starodub polk.svg) 1654-1782 - Kremenchuk Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1661-1666 - Hlukhiv Regiment 25px (File:Hlukhiv polk.svg) 1663-1665 merged with Nizhyn - Zinkiv Regiment 25px (File:Zinkiv polk.svg) 1671-1782 name change to Hadiach - Fastiv Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1684-1712 merged with Bila Tserkva - Bohuslav Regiment 25px (File:Bohuslav polk.svg) 1685-1712 #...that the Ancient Greeks credited '''Broteas''', the ugly son of Tantalus, with an ancient rock-cut cliff-face carving of the Great Mother of the Gods in modern Turkey? (March 13, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 57 #...that the Cossack Hetman and the later Muscovite (Muscovy) voyevoda (Voivod) '''Petro Doroshenko''' signed a treaty with Sultan Mehmed IV recognizing the Cossack Hetmanate as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire? (March 8, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 56 #...that '''the Hood Event (Hood event)''' was an incident following the US invasion of Iraq (2003 Invasion of Iraq) where a group of Turkish (Turkish Armed Forces) special forces operating in northern Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan) was captured and interrogated by the US military (Military of the United States), later becoming the basis for the 2006 (2006 in film) film ''Valley of the Wolves Iraq''? (February 24, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 55


conducting friendly

was transferred to Chyhyryn away from Kiev. An agitation against Moscow was conducted where the Ukrainian government informed the population of possible national repressions, similar to those being conducted in the neighboring lands of Belarus that were recently secured by Muscovy in the its conflict with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. A manifest of nullifying the union with Moscow was sent throughout Europe, mainly because it was conducting friendly relationships with Poland and supporting internal opposition within Hetmanate. Due to negotiations with Sweden have frozen, while having a military support from the Crimean Khanate Vyhovsky decided to renegotiate with Poland with whom talks continued for quite some time. thumb 250px To war! (Mykola Pymonenko (File:Pymonenko U pohid 1902.jpg), 1902) On September 16, 1658 in Hadyach an official document (Treaty of Hadiach) was signed between representatives of the Cossack Hetmanate and Poland (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth). Under the conditions of the treaty, Ukraine would become a third and autonomous component of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, under the ultimate sovereignty of the King of Poland, but with its own military, courts, and treasury. But the treaty, although ratified by the Diet in May 1659, was never implemented because it was unpopular among the lower classes of the Ruthenian society where more rebellions occurred. Eventually Vyhovsky surrendered the office of hetman, and fled to Poland. The newly installed Yurii Khmelnytsky signed the newly composed Pereyaslav Articles that were increasingly unfavorable for the Hetmanate and later led to introduction of the serfdom rights. During the Ruin in 1667, the Russo-Polish war ended with the Treaty of Andrusovo which split the Cossack Hetmanate along the Dnieper River into Left-bank Ukraine, enjoyed a degree of autonomy within the Tsardom of Russia, and Right-bank Ukraine remained part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, temporarily occupied by the Ottoman Empire (the Treaty of Buchach, the Treaty of Karlowitz) in the period of 1672-1699. For a short time, Petro Doroshenko became the hetman of both banks. Finally, the right-bank Ukraine, except for the city of Kiev, was reincorporated back into their respective voivodeships of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth while all the Hetmanate administration was abolished, between 1699 and 1704. The time of Mazepa thumb 250px The St. Michael's Golden-Domed Cathedral (File:St. Michael's Catheral view.JPG) in Kiev, built with funds from Hetman Ivan Mazepa. The period of the Ruin was effectively over when Ivan Mazepa was elected hetman, and brought stability to the Hetmanate. Mazepa was hetman of the Hetmanate from 1687 to 1708. He united Ukraine which, once again, was under the rule of one hetman. The Hetmanate flourished under his rule, particularly in literature, and architecture. The architectural style that developed during his reign was called the Cossack Baroque style. During his reign, the Great Northern War broke out between Russia (Tsardom of Russia) and Sweden (Swedish Empire). And Mazepa's alliance with Peter I (Peter I of Russia) caused heavy losses of cossacks, and Russian interference in the Hetmanate's internal affairs. When the Tsar refused to defend Ukraine against the Polish King Stanislaus Leszczynski, an ally of Charles XII of Sweden, Mazepa with a part of Zaporozhian Cossacks allied themselves with the Swedes on October 28, 1708. The decisive battle took place in June 1709 in Poltava (battle of Poltava) where it was won by Russia, which put an end to Mazepa's goal of independence, promised in an earlier treaty with Sweden independence. Following the Battle of Poltava, the Hetmanate's autonomy became nominal and the governorate of Kiev (Kiev Governorate) was established. The Russian Empire also began to purge all suspected allies of Mazepa, culminating in the executions of Cossacks in Lebedin. This resulted in the death of over 900 cossack officials, accused of treason. End of the Zaporozhian Host #...that the Ancient Greeks credited '''Broteas''', the ugly son of Tantalus, with an ancient rock-cut cliff-face carving of the Great Mother of the Gods in modern Turkey? (March 13, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 57 #...that the Cossack Hetman and the later Muscovite (Muscovy) voyevoda (Voivod) '''Petro Doroshenko''' signed a treaty with Sultan Mehmed IV recognizing the Cossack Hetmanate as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire? (March 8, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 56 #...that '''the Hood Event (Hood event)''' was an incident following the US invasion of Iraq (2003 Invasion of Iraq) where a group of Turkish (Turkish Armed Forces) special forces operating in northern Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan) was captured and interrogated by the US military (Military of the United States), later becoming the basis for the 2006 (2006 in film) film ''Valley of the Wolves Iraq''? (February 24, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 55


largest educational

" Magocsi 1996, p 259. It was the largest educational institution in lands ruled by Moscow. Timothy Snyder. (2003). ''The Reconstruction of Nations.'' New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 120-122 Mazepa established another Collegium in Chernihiv. These schools largely used the Polish and Latin languages and provided a classic western education to their students. Many of those trained in Kiev, such as Feofan Prokopovich would later move to Moscow, so that Ivan Mazepa's patronage not only raised the level of culture in Ukraine but also in Moscow itself. A musical academy was established in 1737 in the Hetmanate's then-capital of Hlukhiv. Among its graduates were Maksym Berezovsky, the first composer from the Russian Empire to be recognized in Europe, and Dmitry Bortniansky. In addition to traditional printing presses in Kiev, new printing shops were established in Novhorod-Siverskyi and Chernihiv. Most of the books published were religious in nature, such as the ''Peternik'', a book about the lives of the monks of the Kiev-Pechersk monasatary. Books on local history were compiled. In a book written by Inokentiy Gizel in 1674, the theory that Moscow was the heir of ancient Kiev was developed and elaborated for the first time Magocsi 1996, p 257. Religion thumb 250px The Mezhyhirskyi Monastery (File:Mezhyhirskyi Monastery, 1843.jpg), located on the right bank of the Dnieper (Dnieper River). Fyodor Solntsev, 1843. In 1686 the Orthodox Church in Ukraine changed from being under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch in Constantinople to being under the authority of the Moscow. Nevertheless, before and after this date local Church leaders pursued a policy of independence. Hetman Ivan Mazepa established very close relations with Metropilitan Varlaam Iasynsky (reigned 1690–1707). Mazepa provided donations of land, money and entire villages to the Church. He also financed the building of numerous churches in Kiev, including the Church of the Epiphany and the cathedral of St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery, and restoration of older churches such as Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev which had deteriorated to the Hetmanate of near ruin by the mid-17th century, in a style known as Ukrainian Baroque. Magocsi 1996, p 258. Society The social structure of the Hetmanate consisted of five groups: the nobility, the Cossacks, the clergy, the townspeople, and the peasants. Nobles As had been the case under Poland, the nobility continued to be the dominant social class during the Hetmanate, although its composition and source of legitimacy within the new society had changed radically. During the Khmelnytsky Uprising the Polish nobles (Szlachta) and Polonized Ruthenian magnates fled the territory of the Hetmanate. As a result, the noble estate now consisted of a merger between the nobility that had stayed in the territory of the Hetmanate (old noble families that did not succumb to Polonization and lesser nobles who had participated in the uprising on the side of the Cossacks against Poland) with members of the emergent Cossack officer class. Unlike the Polish nobles whose lands were redistributed, the nobles loyal to the Hetmanate retained their privileges, their lands, and the services of the peasants. Together, the old nobles and the new Cossack officers became known as the Distinguished Military Fellows (''Znachni Viiskovi Tovaryshi''). Thus, the nature of noble status was fundamentally changed. It no longer depended on ancient heredity, but instead on loyalty to the Hetmanate. Magocsi 1996, p 250. Over time, however, Cossack officer lands and privileges too became hereditary and the Cossack noble and officer class acquired huge landed estates comparable to those of the Polish magnates whom they had replaced and emulated. Timothy Snyder. (2003). ''The Reconstruction of Nations.'' New Haven: Yale University Press. pp 116-119. File:08. Shlahetna ukr panna.jpg Noble girl File:06. Shlahetna panna z starshinskogo rodu.jpg Noble lady File:17. Znatna ukr pani.jpg Noble lady File:18. Ukr shlachtych.jpg Nobleman Cossacks Most Cossacks failed to enter the noble estate and continued their role as free soldiers. The lower rank Cossacks often resented their wealthier brethren and were responsible for frequent rebellions, particularly during the Ruin (The Ruin (Ukrainian history)), a period of instability and civil war in the 17th century. These resentments were frequently exploited by Moscow. The Zaporizhian Sich served as a refuge for Cossacks fleeing the Hetmanate as it had been prior to Khmelnytsky's uprising. File:04. Polkovnik ukr polku.jpg Cossack colonel File:09. Sotnyk.jpg Cossack captain (sotnyk) File:05. Pysar.jpg Cossack secretary File:12. Ukr kozak.jpg Cossack private Clergy During the Hetmanate, the Roman Catholic Church and Uniate (Eastern Catholic Churches) Clergy were driven from Ukraine. The Black, or monastic (Monk), Orthodox (Eastern Orthodox Church) clergy enjoyed a very high status in the Hetmanate, controlling 17% of the Hetmanate's land. Monasteries were exempt from taxes and at no times were peasants bound to monasteries allowed to forgo their duties. The Orthodox hierarchy became as wealthy and powerful as the most powerful nobles. Magocsi 1996, p 252. The white, or married, Orthodox clergy were also exempt from paying taxes. Priests' sons often entered the clergy or the Cossack civil service. It was not uncommon for nobles or Cossacks to become priests and vice versa. Townspeople Twelve cities within the Hetmanate enjoyed Magdeburg rights, in which they were self-governing and controlled their own courts, finances and taxes. Wealthy townsmen were able to hold office within the Hetmanate or even to buy titles of nobility. Because the towns were generally small (the largest towns of Kiev and Nizhyn had no more than 15,000 inhabitants) this social group was not very significant relative to other social groups. File:11. Ukr divchyna-mischanka.jpg City girl File:13. Ukr mischanka.jpg City woman File:14. Ukr mischanyn.jpg Townsman Peasants Peasants comprised the majority of the Hetmanate's population. Although the institution of forced labor by the peasants was reduced significantly by the Khmelnytsky Uprising, in which the Polish landlords and magnates were expelled from the territory controlled by the Hetman, those nobles loyal to the Hetman as well as the Orthodox Church expected the peasants under their control to continue to provide their services. Thus as a result of the Uprising, approximately 50% of the territory consisted of lands given to Cossack officers or free self-governing villages controlled by the peasants, 33% of the land was owned by Cossack officers and nobles, and 17% of the land was owned by the Church. With time, the amount of territory owned by the nobles and officers gradually grew at the expense of the lands owned by peasants and rank-and-file Cossacks, and the peasants were forced to work increasingly more days for their landlords. Nevertheless, their obligations remained lighter than they had been prior to the Uprising and until the end of the Hetmanate peasants were never fully enserfed and retained the right to move. Magocsi 1996, p 253. File:01. Divchyna selanka.jpg Peasant girl File:10. Ukr divchyna selanka.jpg Peasant girl File:16. Ukr selanka .jpg Peasant woman File:19. Ukr selanyn.jpg Peasant Organization Administration The Hetmanate was divided into military-administrative districts known as regimental districts (''polki'') whose number fluctuated with the size of the Hetmanate's territory. In 1649, when the Hetmanate controlled the Right and the Left Banks, it included 16 such districts. After the loss of the Right Bank, this number was reduced to ten. The regimental districts were further divided into companies (''sotnias''), which were administered by captains (sotnyk). Magocsi 1996, p 235. Companies were named either by a toponym of their origin or their leader and greatly varied in numbers up to 16. It is known that the first who introduced the regimental division was Prince Ostafiy Ruzhynsky (:uk:Остафій Ружинський) in 1515. Sementovsky, N. ''Old times of Little Russia, Zaporizhia, Don''. Saint Petersburg, 1846 Initially created 20 regiments consisting of 2,000 Cossacks each, were reduced by the King of Poland Stephen Báthory in 1576 to 10. List of regiments class "wikitable" - ! Regiment !! Coat of Arms !! Years of formation !! Fate !! Other formation !! Notes - Chyhyryn Regiment 25px (File:Chyhyryn polk.svg) 1625-1678 1704-1712 - Cherkasy Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1625-1686 merged with Pereyaslav - Korsun Regiment 25px (File:Korsun polk.svg) 1625-1712 - Bila Tserkva Regiment 25px (File:Bila Cerkva polk.svg) 1625-1712 - Kaniv Regiment 25px (File:Kaniv polk.svg) 1625-1712 - Pereyaslav Regiment 25px (File:Pereyaslav polk.svg) 1625-1782 - Kiev Regiment 25px (File:Kyiv polk.svg) 1625-1782 - Myrhorod Regiment 25px (File:Myrhorod polk.svg) 1625-1782 - Ovruch Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-???? - Irkliyiv Regiment 25px (File:Irakliiv polk.svg) 1648-1648 merged with Kropyvna 1658-1659 - Sosnytsia Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1648 merged with Chernihiv 1663-1668 merged with Chernihiv - Chornobyl Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1649 1651-1651 - Borzna Regiment 25px (File:Borzna polk.svg) 1648-1649 merged with Chernihiv 1654-1655 merged with Nizhyn - Zhyvotiv Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1649 merged with Vinnytsia - Ichnya Regiment 25px (File:Ichnia polk.svg) 1648-1649 merged with Pryluky - Hadiach Regiment 25px (File:Hadyach polk.svg) 1648-1649 merged with Poltava - Zvyahel Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1649 - Ostropil Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1649 1657-1658 - Podillya Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1649 1657-1676 - Lyubartiv Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1649 - Lysyanka Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1657 split among others - Bratslav Regiment 25px (File:Braclav polk.svg) 1648-1667 merged with Vinnytsia 1685-1712 - Vinnytsia Regiment 25px (File:Vinnytsia polk.svg) 1648-1667 (Kalnyk) merged with Chechelnyk - Uman Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1675 - Pavoloch Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1648-1675 - Poltava Regiment 25px (File:Poltava polk.svg) 1648-1675 - Lubny Regiment 25px (File:Lubny polk.svg) 1648-1781 - Nizhyn Regiment 25px (File:Nizhyn polk.svg) 1648-1782 - Pryluky Regiment 25px (File:Pryluky polk.svg) 1648-1782 - Chernihiv Regiment 25px (File:Chernihiv polk.svg) 1648-1782 - Kropyvna Regiment 25px (File:Kropyvna polk.svg) 1649-1658 split Lubny Pereyaslav - Chechelnyk Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1650-1673 - Novhorod Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1653-1654 merged with Nizhyn 1668-1668 merged with Starodub - Belarus Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1654-1659 - Pinsk-Turov Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1654-1659 - Starodub Regiment 25px (File:Starodub polk.svg) 1654-1782 - Kremenchuk Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1661-1666 - Hlukhiv Regiment 25px (File:Hlukhiv polk.svg) 1663-1665 merged with Nizhyn - Zinkiv Regiment 25px (File:Zinkiv polk.svg) 1671-1782 name change to Hadiach - Fastiv Regiment 25px (File:No image available.svg) 1684-1712 merged with Bila Tserkva - Bohuslav Regiment 25px (File:Bohuslav polk.svg) 1685-1712 #...that the Ancient Greeks credited '''Broteas''', the ugly son of Tantalus, with an ancient rock-cut cliff-face carving of the Great Mother of the Gods in modern Turkey? (March 13, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 57 #...that the Cossack Hetman and the later Muscovite (Muscovy) voyevoda (Voivod) '''Petro Doroshenko''' signed a treaty with Sultan Mehmed IV recognizing the Cossack Hetmanate as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire? (March 8, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 56 #...that '''the Hood Event (Hood event)''' was an incident following the US invasion of Iraq (2003 Invasion of Iraq) where a group of Turkish (Turkish Armed Forces) special forces operating in northern Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan) was captured and interrogated by the US military (Military of the United States), later becoming the basis for the 2006 (2006 in film) film ''Valley of the Wolves Iraq''? (February 24, 2006) Wikipedia:Recent additions 55


food+driving

. Lewenhaupt, seeing that he was about to lose, decided to rejoin Charles with all speed, so he abandoned the cannon, the cattle and most of the food, driving the soldiers to mutiny. Stealing all of the alcohol, the soldiers became drunk, and Lewenhaupt was forced to leave about 1,000 men drunk in the woods. By the time they finally reached Charles and the main force in the winter, only 6,000 men without supplies remained. Mazepa was hesitant and gathered the Starshyna Council to decide

Cossack Hetmanate

The '''Cossack Hetmanate''' ( in the Central Ukraine (Ukraine) between 1649 and 1764. The Hetmanate was founded by the Ukrainian (Ukrainians) hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky during the Uprising of 1648–57 (Khmelnytsky Uprising).

In 1654, it signed a military alliance with the Tsardom of Russia during the Council of Pereyaslav (Treaty of Pereyaslav), while being a constituency of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Later the documents of the treaty (articles) were rewritten numerous times for reorganization purposes at every election of the new hetman. A regional referendum concluded the fall of the region under the protection of the Russian monarchy that guaranteed the sovereignty of the region in the fight against the Polish Crown. The Treaty of Andrusovo of 1667, however, was conducted without any representation from the Cossack Hetmanate and concluded the borders between the Polish and Russian states, dividing the Hetmanate in half along the Dnieper. This division caused a civil war (The Ruin (Ukrainian history)) in the Ukraine between various parties of Cossacks that lasted till the end of the 17th century. Already in December of 1662 the government of Russia established the Little Russian prikaz as part a department of the Polish prikaz.

In the 18th century the territory of the Hetmanate was limited to Left-bank Ukraine with its capital in Baturyn. Russian forces sacked Baturyn (Sack of Baturyn) during the Great Northern War and redesignated the new hetman residence to Hlukhiv, while the whole area was included into the Government of Kiev (Kiev Governorate). Catherine II of Russia officially abolished the autonomy of the Zaporizhian Host, as well as the Volgian Cossacks Host, in 1764. The Cossack Hetmanate was subsequently split between the Governments of Kiev and Malorossiya.

The Hetmanate consisted of the territory of the modern-day central Ukraine and a small part of Russia (former Starodub region of Chernigov Governorate). Specifically, its territory included provinces of Chernihiv (Chernihiv Oblast), Poltava (Poltava Oblast), and Sumy (Sumy Oblast) (without the southeastern portion), the left-bank territories of Kiev (Kiev Oblast) and Cherkasy (Cherkasy Oblast), as well as the western portion of Bryansk Oblast of Russia. The lands of the Zaporizhian Host had a certain degree of self-government with their own administration.

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