Colchis

What is Colchis known for?


amp presence

: penelope.uchicago.edu holland pliny3.html Pliny on Colchis * Golden graves, archeological evidences * Colchis (Category:Colchis) Category:Former countries in Asia Category:Former monarchies


people speaking

. Under him, the realm of Pontus included not only Pontic Cappadocia but also the seaboard from the Bithynian (Bithynia) frontier to Colchis, part of inland Paphlagonia, and Lesser Armenia. Hereafter the simple name Pontus without qualification was regularly employed to denote the half of this dual province, especially by Romans and people speaking from the Roman point of view; it is so used almost always in the New Testament. The eastern half of the old kingdom was administered as a client kingdom together with Colchis. Its last king was Polemon II (Polemon (Cilicia)). , "gate") is the simplest form of Georgian (Georgia (country)) folk architecture with a long history behind. It is a rustic house, the central feature of which is a pyramidal cupola-shaped, stepped vault (''gvirgvini'') – made of hewn logs and beams – on pillars, with a central opening at the top which serves as both a window and smoke flue. The Roman (Ancient Rome) authority Vitruvius (1st century BC) includes in his ''De architectura'' a description of a Colchian (Colchis) dwelling, the ancient prototype of a Georgian ''darbazi''. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1966), ''The Georgians'', pp. 119-123. Praeger Publishers. Repulsed by the Assyrians, a subdivision of the Kaska might have passed north-eastwards to the Caucasus, where they probably blended with the Proto-Colchian (Colchians) or Lazo (Laz people)-Zan (Zan people) autochthons, forming a polity which was known as the Qulhi to the Urartians (Urartu) and later as the Colchi (Colchis) of the Greeks (Ancient Greeks). Another branch might have established themselves in Cappadocia which in the 8th century BC became a vassal of Assyria. It is named after the ancient geographic region of Colchis, which covered a large area along the Black Sea coast. The author of the encyclopedia evaluates his work of 1260 pages: "I don’t know why no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why no excavations have been made in such a region that has a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis (w:Anabasis) of Xenophon (w:Xenophon) (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic experience to see that less excavations have been made here than in Crimea (w:Crimea) and Colchis (w:Colchis). Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."


natural landscapes

4,000 mm, which is the absolute maximum for the continental western Eurasia. The dominating natural landscapes of Colchis are temperate rainforests, yet degraded in the plain part of the region; wetlands (along the coastal parts of Colchis Plain); subalpine and alpine meadows. The Colchis has a high proportion of Tertiary relict plants and animals, with the closest relatives in distant parts of the world: five species of Rhododendrons and other evergreen shrubs, Wingnut


presence+ancient

: penelope.uchicago.edu holland pliny3.html Pliny on Colchis * Golden graves, archeological evidences * Colchis (Category:Colchis) Category:Former countries in Asia Category:Former monarchies


title classical

Biography and Mythology" It was said to never sleep, rest, or lower its vigilance. According to Ovid's ''Metamorphoses'', the monster had a crest and three tongues. When Jason went to retrieve the Fleece, the witch Medea put the dragon to sleep with her magic and drugs, ref


century traditional

. Christianity began to spread in the early 1st century. Traditional accounts relate the event with Saint Andrew, Saint Simon the Zealot, and Saint Matata (Matata (religious figure)). The Hellenistic (Hellenistic civilization), local pagan (paganism) and Mithraic (Mithraic Mysteries) religious beliefs would however remain widespread until the 4th century. By the 130s, the kingdoms of Machelones, Heniochi, Egrisi, Apsilia, Abasgia (Kingdom of Abkhazia), and Sanigs


progressive+agricultural

of Colchis, the process of urbanization seems to have been well advanced by the end of the 2nd millennium BC, centuries before Greek (Ancient Greece) settlement. The Colchian Late Bronze Age (15th to 8th century BC) saw the development of significant skill in the smelting and casting of metals. Sophisticated farming implements were made, and fertile, well-watered lowlands and a mild climate promoted the growth of progressive agricultural techniques. Colchis was inhabited by a number


period shows

with circumcised penises, and one relief from this period shows the rite being performed on a standing adult male. The Egyptian hieroglyph for "penis" depicts either a circumcised or an erect organ. The examination of Egyptian mummies has found some with foreskins and others who were circumcised. Circumcision was common, although not universal, among ancient Semitic peoples. The book of Genesis records circumcision as God's covenant command to Abraham


literary criticism

Rustaveli State Prize in 1962. Gamsakhurdia also wrote a biographical novel about Goethe, and literary criticism of Georgian and foreign authors. Publication of his memoirs, ''Flirting with Ghosts'' (ლანდებთან ლაციცი, 1963) and of his testament (1959) was aborted at that time. He died in 1975 and was interred at his mansion which he called a "Colchian (Colchis) Tower", refusing to be buried in the Mtatsminda Pantheon because he detested that Jesus and Judas Iscariot


influential role

'' in Georgian (Georgian language). According to Georgian historians, Berdzenishvili, N., Dondua V., Dumbadze, M., Melikishvili G., Meskhia, Sh., Ratiani, P., ''History of Georgia (Vol. 1)'', Tbilisi, 1958, pp. 34-36 the Cimmerians played an influential role in the development of both the Colchian and Iberian (Caucasian Iberia) cultures. The modern-day Georgian word for hero, , "gate") is the simplest form of Georgian (Georgia (country)) folk architecture with a long history behind. It is a rustic house, the central feature of which is a pyramidal cupola-shaped, stepped vault (''gvirgvini'') – made of hewn logs and beams – on pillars, with a central opening at the top which serves as both a window and smoke flue. The Roman (Ancient Rome) authority Vitruvius (1st century BC) includes in his ''De architectura'' a description of a Colchian (Colchis) dwelling, the ancient prototype of a Georgian ''darbazi''. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1966), ''The Georgians'', pp. 119-123. Praeger Publishers. Repulsed by the Assyrians, a subdivision of the Kaska might have passed north-eastwards to the Caucasus, where they probably blended with the Proto-Colchian (Colchians) or Lazo (Laz people)-Zan (Zan people) autochthons, forming a polity which was known as the Qulhi to the Urartians (Urartu) and later as the Colchi (Colchis) of the Greeks (Ancient Greeks). Another branch might have established themselves in Cappadocia which in the 8th century BC became a vassal of Assyria. It is named after the ancient geographic region of Colchis, which covered a large area along the Black Sea coast. The author of the encyclopedia evaluates his work of 1260 pages: "I don’t know why no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why no excavations have been made in such a region that has a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis (w:Anabasis) of Xenophon (w:Xenophon) (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic experience to see that less excavations have been made here than in Crimea (w:Crimea) and Colchis (w:Colchis). Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."

Colchis

thumb Colchis and Caucasian Iberia Iberia (File:Colchis and Iberia, VI-III centuries B.C..jpg) in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC thumb Central and southern parts of Colchis, 3rd to 1st centuries BC - 1st century AD (File:Central and southern parts of Colchis and part of Iberia.jpg) thumb Colchis between the Black Sea Black (File:Colchis between the Black and Caspian Seas.jpg) and Caspian Seas (Caspian Sea). London, 1529

In Greco-Roman geography, '''Colchis''' ( ''Kolkhis'', presumably from Kartvelian (Kartvelian languages) ''ḳolkheti'' or ''ḳolkha'') was the name for a region in the Southern Caucasus. Colchis was located on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, centered on present-day western Georgia (Georgia (country)). Around the 1st centuries BC and AD the land south of the Greater Caucasus and north of the Lesser Caucasus was divided between Kolchis in the west, Caucasian Iberia in the center and Caucasian Albania in the east. To the southwest was Armenia and to the southeast Atropatene.

The '''Colchians''' were the population native to Colchis. They are assumed to have been early Kartvelian-speaking (Kartvelian languages) tribes, ancestral to the contemporary groups of Svans, Mingrelians and Lazs. Antiquity 1994. p. 359. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia:Значение слова "Колхи" в Большой Советской Энциклопедии; ''The Cambridge Ancient History'', John Anthony Crook, Elizabeth Rawson, p. 255 Ancestors of the Colchians were probably established on the Black Sea coast from as early as the Middle Bronze Age. David Marshal Lang, the Georgians, Frederich A. Praeger Publishers, New York, p 59

For centuries, until its annexation by Pontus in 164 BC, Colchis was an independent kingdom. This kingdom has been described in modern scholarship as "the earliest Georgian (political) formation". CToumanoff. Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69,84 Colchis (also known in late Antiquity as Lazica, or Egrisi) would later contribute significantly to the development of medieval Georgian statehood (kingdom of Georgia), alongside Iberia (Principate of Iberia). David Braund, Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562, Oxford University Press, USA (September 8, 1994) W.E.D. Allen, A history of the Georgian people (1932), p. 123

Colchis is also an important land in Greco-Roman mythology, most notably as the kingdom of Medea and the Golden fleece, destination of the Argonauts.

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