Colchis

What is Colchis known for?


progressive agricultural

of Colchis, the process of urbanization seems to have been well advanced by the end of the 2nd millennium BC, centuries before Greek (Ancient Greece) settlement. The Colchian Late Bronze Age (15th to 8th century BC) saw the development of significant skill in the smelting and casting of metals. Sophisticated farming implements were made, and fertile, well-watered lowlands and a mild climate promoted the growth of progressive agricultural techniques. Colchis was inhabited by a number


amp+presence

: penelope.uchicago.edu holland pliny3.html Pliny on Colchis * Golden graves, archeological evidences * Colchis (Category:Colchis) Category:Former countries in Asia Category:Former monarchies


significant+skill

of Colchis, the process of urbanization seems to have been well advanced by the end of the 2nd millennium BC, centuries before Greek (Ancient Greece) settlement. The Colchian Late Bronze Age (15th to 8th century BC) saw the development of significant skill in the smelting and casting of metals. Sophisticated farming implements were made, and fertile, well-watered lowlands and a mild climate promoted the growth of progressive agricultural techniques. Colchis was inhabited by a number of related but distinct tribes whose settlements lay along the shore of the Black Sea. Chief among those were the Machelones, Heniochi, Zydretae, Lazi (Egrisi), Chalybes, Tabal Tibareni Tubal, Mossynoeci, Macrones, Moschi (Meskheti), Marres, Apsilae, Abasci (Kingdom of Abkhazia), According to some scholars, ancient tribes such as the Absilae (mentioned by Pliny, 1st century CE) and Abasgoi (mentioned by Arrian, 2nd century CE) correspond to the modern Abkhazians (Chirikba, V., "On the etymology of the ethnonym 'apswa' "Abkhaz", in ''The Annual of the Society for the Study of Caucasia'', 3, 13-18, Chicago, 1991; Hewitt, B. G., "The valid and non-valid application of philology to history", in ''Revue des Etudes Georgiennes et Caucasiennes'', 6-7, 1990-1991, 247-263; Grand Dictionnaire Encyclopédique Larousse, tome 1, 1985, p. 20). However, this claim is controversial and no academic consensus has yet been reached. Other scholars suggest that these ethnonyms instead reflect a common regional origin, rather than emphasizing a distinct and separate ethnic and cultural identity in antiquity. For example, Tariel Putkaradze, a Georgian scholar, suggests, "In the 3rd-2nd millennia BC the Kartvelian, Abhaz-Abaza, Circassian-Adyghe and Vaynakh tribes must have been part of a great Ibero-Caucasian ethnos. Therefore, it is natural that several tribes or ethnoses descending from them have the names derived from a single stem. The Kartvelian Aphaz, Apsil, Apšil and north Caucasian Apsua, Abazaha, Abaza, existing in the 1st millennium, were the names denoting different tribes of a common origin. Some of these tribes (Apsils, Apshils) disappeared, others mingled with kindred tribes, and still others have survived to the present day." (Putkaradze, T. ''The Kartvelians'', 2005, translated by Irene Kutsia) Sanigae (Sanigs), Coraxi, Coli (Coli (tribe)), Melanchlaeni, Geloni (Gelonians) and Soani (Suani) (Svaneti). These Kartvelian (Georgian people) tribes differed so completely in language and appearance from the surrounding Indo-European nations that the ancients provided various wild theories to account for the phenomenon. Herodotus regarded the Colchians as Ancient Egyptian Approaching Chaos: Could an Ancient Archetype Save 21st Century Civilization? Lucy Wyatt p208 The Blessing of Africa: The Bible and African Christianity, Keith Augustus Burton p73 African Presence in Early Asia, Runoko Rashidi, Ivan Van Sertima p59 Letters of certain Jews to Monsieur Voltaire, containing an apology for their own people, and for the Old Testament: Antoine Guénée p464 race. Herodotus states that the Colchians, with the Ancient Egyptians and the Ethiopians, were the first to practice circumcision, a custom which he claims (without historical proof) that the Colchians inherited from remnants of the army of Pharaoh Sesostris. Apollonius of Rhodes states that the Egyptians of Colchis preserved as heirlooms a number of wooden tablets, which show, with considerable accuracy, seas and highways. According to Pliny the Elder: , "gate") is the simplest form of Georgian (Georgia (country)) folk architecture with a long history behind. It is a rustic house, the central feature of which is a pyramidal cupola-shaped, stepped vault (''gvirgvini'') – made of hewn logs and beams – on pillars, with a central opening at the top which serves as both a window and smoke flue. The Roman (Ancient Rome) authority Vitruvius (1st century BC) includes in his ''De architectura'' a description of a Colchian (Colchis) dwelling, the ancient prototype of a Georgian ''darbazi''. Lang, David Marshall (David Marshall Lang) (1966), ''The Georgians'', pp. 119-123. Praeger Publishers. Repulsed by the Assyrians, a subdivision of the Kaska might have passed north-eastwards to the Caucasus, where they probably blended with the Proto-Colchian (Colchians) or Lazo (Laz people)-Zan (Zan people) autochthons, forming a polity which was known as the Qulhi to the Urartians (Urartu) and later as the Colchi (Colchis) of the Greeks (Ancient Greeks). Another branch might have established themselves in Cappadocia which in the 8th century BC became a vassal of Assyria. It is named after the ancient geographic region of Colchis, which covered a large area along the Black Sea coast. The author of the encyclopedia evaluates his work of 1260 pages: "I don’t know why no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why no excavations have been made in such a region that has a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis (w:Anabasis) of Xenophon (w:Xenophon) (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic experience to see that less excavations have been made here than in Crimea (w:Crimea) and Colchis (w:Colchis). Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."


phrase books

, the Guidebook contains information on lost treasure, a complete survival guide (Survival skills), extensive historical and technical information and phrase books for various more or less common languages (like a minimal lizard phrase book), and many more. However, it does not contain information that a Junior Woodchuck is already supposed to know, such as the location of Cape of Good Hope nor does it contain information on allegedly non-existent things. (In one episode of Duck Tales, the three


quot wide

Wells first1 John C. authorlink1 John C. Wells title Longman Pronunciation Dictionary chapter Pasiphae, Pasiphaë publisher Pearson Longman year 2009 location London accessdate 2011-06-07 isbn 9781405881180 ; ''Pasipháē),'' "wide-shining" An attribute of the Moon, as Pausanias (Pausanias (geographer)) remarked in passing (i.43.96): compare Euryphaessa; if Pasipháē is an ancient conventional Minoan epithet

sent by Poseidon. Pseudo-Apollodorus, ''Bibliotheke'' 3.1.4 "The Bull was the old pre-Olympian Poseidon," Ruck and Staples remark. Ruck and Staples 1994:213. In the Greek literalistic understanding of a Minoan myth, Specific astrological or calendrical interpretations of the mystic mating (Mystical marriage) of the "wide-shining" daughter of the Sun with a Bull


realistic analysis

. Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is why a realistic analysis of the original names of villages and quarters, used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era, is not been made in works on the region’s culture and history, including studies in Turkish (w:Turkish). Limiting myself to cities as Ordu (w:Ordu), Giresun (w:Giresun), Trabzon (w:Trabzon), Rize (w:Rize) and Artvin (w:Artvin), I worked on original words, idioms and toponyms used by Turkish dialect speakers, independent from their native language. I made comparisons with vernaculars from surrounding cities including Samsun (w:Samsun), Erzurum (w:Erzurum) and Gümüşhane (w:Gümüşhane), Anatolia, and from some surrounding countries. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with equivalents from Anatolia, Greece (w:Greece) Hellas (w:Hellas), Armenia (w:Armenia), Georgia (w:Georgia), Azerbaijan (w:Azerbaijan) and other Turkish states could be useful for those interested in regional history, and influential for researchers."


modern scholarship

Marshal Lang, the Georgians, Frederich A. Praeger Publishers, New York, p 59 For centuries, until its annexation by Pontus in 164 BC, Colchis was an independent kingdom. This kingdom has been described in modern scholarship as "the earliest Georgian (political) formation". CToumanoff. Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69,84 Colchis (also known in late Antiquity as Lazica, or Egrisi


ancient red

) at the eastern end of the Black Sea around the coast of Asia Minor to Phoenicia. The second runs from Phoenicia to the Red Sea (the ancient Red Sea comprised also the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean) and from there to India, after which "no man can say what sort of region it is." ''Histories'', Book IV, Articles 37-40. In ancient times, the region was a part of the Kingdom of Colchis. In the Middle Ages, this region was a part


sense quot

applied to the Land of Israel in the wider sense." and


line+episode

'' and ''after'' in myth or dream, the aspect of myth that Ruck and Staples (1994:9) call "the suspension of linear chronology", a feature which is remarked upon in all introductions to Greek myth. Pasiphaë appeared in Virgil's ''Eclogue VI (Eclogues)'' (45–60), in Silenus' list of suitable mythological subjects, on which Virgil lingers in such detail that he gives the sixteen-line episode the weight of a brief inset myth. Armstrong 2006:171. In Ovid's '' Ars

Colchis

thumb Colchis and Caucasian Iberia Iberia (File:Colchis and Iberia, VI-III centuries B.C..jpg) in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC thumb Central and southern parts of Colchis, 3rd to 1st centuries BC - 1st century AD (File:Central and southern parts of Colchis and part of Iberia.jpg) thumb Colchis between the Black Sea Black (File:Colchis between the Black and Caspian Seas.jpg) and Caspian Seas (Caspian Sea). London, 1529

In Greco-Roman geography, '''Colchis''' ( ''Kolkhis'', presumably from Kartvelian (Kartvelian languages) ''ḳolkheti'' or ''ḳolkha'') was the name for a region in the Southern Caucasus. Colchis was located on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, centered on present-day western Georgia (Georgia (country)). Around the 1st centuries BC and AD the land south of the Greater Caucasus and north of the Lesser Caucasus was divided between Kolchis in the west, Caucasian Iberia in the center and Caucasian Albania in the east. To the southwest was Armenia and to the southeast Atropatene.

The '''Colchians''' were the population native to Colchis. They are assumed to have been early Kartvelian-speaking (Kartvelian languages) tribes, ancestral to the contemporary groups of Svans, Mingrelians and Lazs. Antiquity 1994. p. 359. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia:Значение слова "Колхи" в Большой Советской Энциклопедии; ''The Cambridge Ancient History'', John Anthony Crook, Elizabeth Rawson, p. 255 Ancestors of the Colchians were probably established on the Black Sea coast from as early as the Middle Bronze Age. David Marshal Lang, the Georgians, Frederich A. Praeger Publishers, New York, p 59

For centuries, until its annexation by Pontus in 164 BC, Colchis was an independent kingdom. This kingdom has been described in modern scholarship as "the earliest Georgian (political) formation". CToumanoff. Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69,84 Colchis (also known in late Antiquity as Lazica, or Egrisi) would later contribute significantly to the development of medieval Georgian statehood (kingdom of Georgia), alongside Iberia (Principate of Iberia). David Braund, Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562, Oxford University Press, USA (September 8, 1994) W.E.D. Allen, A history of the Georgian people (1932), p. 123

Colchis is also an important land in Greco-Roman mythology, most notably as the kingdom of Medea and the Golden fleece, destination of the Argonauts.

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