Classical Athens

What is Classical Athens known for?


ancient school

; ref History "Lyceum" is a Latin rendering of the Ancient Greek Λύκειον ("Lykeion"), the name of a ''gymnasium (gymnasium (ancient Greece))'' in Classical Athens dedicated to Apollo Lyceus. This original Lyceum (Lyceum (Classical)) is remembered as the location of the peripatetic school of Aristotle. Some countries derive the name for their modern schools from the Latin but use the Greek name for the ancient school: for example, Dutch has


legal term

for a number of reasons the legal term metic should be associated with Classical Athens. At Athens, the largest city in the Greek world at the time, they amounted to roughly half the free population. The status applied to two main groups of people—immigrants and former slaves (slavery). As slaves were almost always of foreign origin they can be thought of as involuntary immigrants, drawn almost exclusively from non-Greek speaking areas, while free metics were usually of Greek


lively natural

under the general amnesty that followed the restoration of the democracy (403 BC), and filled some important offices. In 391 BC he was one of the ambassadors sent to Sparta to discuss peace terms, but the negotiations failed. Oligarchical in his sympathies, he offended his own party and was distrusted by the democrats. Andocides was no professional orator; his style is simple and lively, natural but inartistic. '''Athenian democracy''' developed in the Ancient Greece


genre dramatic

centuries, Cyclades joined the rest of Greece in 1821. series subject Athenian (Classical Athens) tragedy, the Apollonian Dionysian opposition (Apollonian and Dionysian) genre Dramatic theory Other great festivals As a result of the rise of the Greek cities of the classic period, other great festivals emerged in Asia Minor, Magna Graecia, and the mainland providing the opportunity for athletes to gain fame and riches. Apart from the Olympics


liberal education

and induced the other Locrian cities to do the same; the first of them were their neighbours, the Myonians, who held the most difficult of the passes. Thucydides, ''History of the Peloponnesian War'', 3.101 History Definitions of a liberal education may be broad, generalized, and sometimes even contradictory. , ''Ichneutai'', "trackers"), also known as the ''Searchers'', ''Trackers'' or ''Tracking Satyrs'', is a fragmentary satyr play by the fifth-century Athenian (Classical Athens) dramatist (Theatre of ancient Greece) Sophocles. Three nondescript quotations in ancient authors were all that was known of the play until 1912, Hunt (1912) 31. when the extensive remains of a second-century CE papyrus roll of the ''Ichneutae'' were published among the ''Oxyrhynchus Papyri''. With more than four hundred lines surviving in their entirety or in part, the ''Ichneutae'' is now the best preserved ancient satyr play after Euripides' ''Cyclops (Cyclops (play))'', the only fully extant example of the genre. thumb right As for me, all I know is that I know nothing. (File:Socrates Louvre.jpg) '''Socrates (w:Socrates)''' (Σωκράτης; c. 470 BC – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (w:Classical Greece) (Athenian (w:Classical Athens)) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy (w:Western philosophy). Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics (w:ethics), and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method (w:Socratic method), or ''elenchus''. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy (w:pedagogy) in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. * '''He''' Socrates, in an earlier dialogue, the ''Crito (w:Crito)'' contended that he had been condemned by due process of law, and that it would be wrong to do anything illegal to avoid punishment. He '''first proclaimed the principle which we associate with the Sermon on the Mount (w:Sermon_on_the_Mount),''' that "we ought not retaliate evil for evil to any one, whatever evil may be suffered from him." He then imagines himself engaged in a dialogue with the laws of Athens (w:Classical Athens), in which they point out that he owes them the kind of respect that a son owes to a father or a slave to his master, but in an even higher degree; and that, moreover, every Athenian citizen is free to emigrate if he dislikes the Athenian State (w:Athenian_democracy). ** Book One, Part II, Chapter XVI, Plato's Theory of Immortality, p. 133. * '''There is every reason to believe that the later Pythagoreans exercised a strong influence on the study and development of mathematics at Athens (w:Classical Athens). The Sophists (w:Sophist) acquired geometry from Pythagorean sources. Plato bought the works of Philolaus and had a warm friend in Archytas.''' ** p. 23. The Sophist School (w:Sophism) * '''Athens (w:Classical Athens)... became the richest and most beautiful city of antiquity.''' All menial work was performed by slaves. ...The citizen of Athens was well to do and enjoyed a large amount of leisure. The government being purely democratic, every citizen was a politician. To make his influence felt among his fellow-men he must, first of all, be educated. Thus '''there arose a demand for teachers. The supply came principally from Sicily (w:Sicily#Greek_and_Roman_period), where Pythagorean doctrines had spread. These teachers were called ''Sophists'' (w:Sophist), or "wise men." Unlike the Pythagoreans, they accepted pay for their teaching. Although rhetoric was the principal feature of their instruction, they also taught geometry, astronomy, and philosophy.''' ** p. 24.


classical

conventional_long_name Athens common_name Athens continent Europe region Mediterranean country Greece era Classical antiquity government_type Direct democracy (Athenian democracy) year_start 508 BC year_end 322 BC event_start Cleisthenes establishes Athenian democracy

title_leader Strategos legislature Ecclesia (Ecclesia (ancient Athens)) stat_year1 5th century BC 1 stat_area1 stat_pop1 250000 (men with civil rights: 30,000) footnotes 1 BBC History The city of '''Athens''' during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) ''Democracy

and knowledge: innovation and learning in classical Athens'' by Josiah OberClassical+Athens#v onepage&q 508%20322%20BC%20Classical%20Athens&f false Page 40 ISBN 0-691-13347-6 (2008) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece (Ancient Greece), leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta


famous works

of Cnidus''' was one of the most famous works of the ancient Greek (ancient Greece) sculptor (Sculpture) Praxiteles of Athens (Classical Athens) (4th century BC). It and its copies are often referred to as the ''Venus Pudica'' ("modest Venus") type, on account of her covering her naked vulva with her right hand. Variants of the ''Venus Pudica'' (suggesting an action to cover the breasts) are the Venus de' Medici or the Capitoline Venus. Ivanov proposed the creation of a new type of mass theatre, which he called a "collective action," that would be modelled on ancient religious rituals, Athenian (Classical Athens) tragedy, and the medieval mystery play. Writing in an essay on the mask ("Poèt i Čern") that was published in the magazine ''Vesy'' (''Libra'' or ''The Scales'') in 1904, Ivanov argued for a revival of the ancient relationship between the poet and the masses. Carlson (1993, 314-315). Inspired by ''The Birth of Tragedy'' and Wagner's theories of theatre, Ivanov sought to provide a philosophical foundation for his proposals by linking Nietzsche's analysis with Leo Tolstoy's Christian moralising, and ancient cultic performance with later Christian mysteries. Carlson (1993, 315), Golub (1998, 552), and Rudninsky (1988, 9). The idea that the Dionysian (Apollonian and Dionysian) could be associated with a concept of universal brotherhood would have been completely alien to Nietzsche, who had stressed the fundamental differences between the two traditions. Golub (1998, 552) and Rudninsky (1988, 9). Ivanov, however, understood Dionysus as an avatar for Christ. Carlson (315). By means of the mask, he argued, the tragic hero appears not as an individual character (Character (arts)) but rather as the embodiment of a fundamental Dionysian reality, "the one all-human I." By means of hero's example, therefore, staged myth would give the people access to its sense of the "total unity of suffering." subject Trojan War genre Athenian (Classical Athens) tragedy playbill '''''Rhesus''''' ( , ''Ichneutai'', "trackers"), also known as the ''Searchers'', ''Trackers'' or ''Tracking Satyrs'', is a fragmentary satyr play by the fifth-century Athenian (Classical Athens) dramatist (Theatre of ancient Greece) Sophocles. Three nondescript quotations in ancient authors were all that was known of the play until 1912, Hunt (1912) 31. when the extensive remains of a second-century CE papyrus roll of the ''Ichneutae'' were published among the ''Oxyrhynchus Papyri''. With more than four hundred lines surviving in their entirety or in part, the ''Ichneutae'' is now the best preserved ancient satyr play after Euripides' ''Cyclops (Cyclops (play))'', the only fully extant example of the genre. thumb right As for me, all I know is that I know nothing. (File:Socrates Louvre.jpg) '''Socrates (w:Socrates)''' (Σωκράτης; c. 470 BC – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (w:Classical Greece) (Athenian (w:Classical Athens)) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy (w:Western philosophy). Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics (w:ethics), and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method (w:Socratic method), or ''elenchus''. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy (w:pedagogy) in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. * '''He''' Socrates, in an earlier dialogue, the ''Crito (w:Crito)'' contended that he had been condemned by due process of law, and that it would be wrong to do anything illegal to avoid punishment. He '''first proclaimed the principle which we associate with the Sermon on the Mount (w:Sermon_on_the_Mount),''' that "we ought not retaliate evil for evil to any one, whatever evil may be suffered from him." He then imagines himself engaged in a dialogue with the laws of Athens (w:Classical Athens), in which they point out that he owes them the kind of respect that a son owes to a father or a slave to his master, but in an even higher degree; and that, moreover, every Athenian citizen is free to emigrate if he dislikes the Athenian State (w:Athenian_democracy). ** Book One, Part II, Chapter XVI, Plato's Theory of Immortality, p. 133. * '''There is every reason to believe that the later Pythagoreans exercised a strong influence on the study and development of mathematics at Athens (w:Classical Athens). The Sophists (w:Sophist) acquired geometry from Pythagorean sources. Plato bought the works of Philolaus and had a warm friend in Archytas.''' ** p. 23. The Sophist School (w:Sophism) * '''Athens (w:Classical Athens)... became the richest and most beautiful city of antiquity.''' All menial work was performed by slaves. ...The citizen of Athens was well to do and enjoyed a large amount of leisure. The government being purely democratic, every citizen was a politician. To make his influence felt among his fellow-men he must, first of all, be educated. Thus '''there arose a demand for teachers. The supply came principally from Sicily (w:Sicily#Greek_and_Roman_period), where Pythagorean doctrines had spread. These teachers were called ''Sophists'' (w:Sophist), or "wise men." Unlike the Pythagoreans, they accepted pay for their teaching. Although rhetoric was the principal feature of their instruction, they also taught geometry, astronomy, and philosophy.''' ** p. 24.


bright light

show the head of Artemis with bow and quiver, and feature a crescent with what appears to be a six-rayed star on the reverse. According to accounts which vary in some of the details, in 340 BC the Byzantines and their allies the Athenians (Classical Athens) were under siege by the troops of Philip of Macedon (Philip II of Macedon). On a particularly dark and wet night Philip attempted a surprise attack but was thwarted by the appearance of a bright light in the sky. This light is occasionally described by subsequent interpreters as a meteor, sometimes as the moon, and some accounts also mention the barking of dogs. However, the original accounts mention only a light in the sky, without specifying the moon. "In 340 BC, however, the Byzantines, with the aid of the Athenians, withstood a siege successfully, an occurrence the more remarkable as they were attacked by the greatest general of the age, Philip of Macedon. In the course of this beleaguerment, it is related, on a certain wet and moonless night the enemy attempted a surprise, but were foiled by reason of a bright light which, appearing suddenly in the heavens, startled all the dogs in the town and thus roused the garrison to a sense of their danger. To commemorate this timely phenomenon, which was attributed to Hecate, they erected a public statue to that goddess ... " William Gordon Holmes, ''The Age of Justinian and Theodora'', 2003 p5-6; "If any goddess had a connection with the walls in Constantinople, it was Hecate. Hecate had a cult in Byzantium from the time of its founding. Like Byzas in one legend, she had her origins in Thrace. Since Hecate was the guardian of "liminal places," in Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. Hecate's importance to Byzantium was above all as deity of protection. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city, according to he legend she alerted the townspeople with her ever-present torches, and with her pack of dogs, which served as her constant companions. Her mythic qualities thenceforth forever entered the fabric of Byzantine history. A statue known as the 'Lampadephoros' was erected on the hill above the Bosphorous to commemorate Hecate's defensive aid." Vasiliki Limberis, ''Divine Heiress'', Routledge, 1994, p126-127 To commemorate the event the Byzantines erected a statue of Hecate ''lampadephoros'' (light-bearer or bringer). This story survived in the works of Hesychius of Miletus, who in all probability lived in the time of Justinian I. His works survive only in fragments preserved in Photius and the tenth century lexicographer Suidas (Suda). The tale is also related by Stephanus of Byzantium, and Eustathius , ''Ichneutai'', "trackers"), also known as the ''Searchers'', ''Trackers'' or ''Tracking Satyrs'', is a fragmentary satyr play by the fifth-century Athenian (Classical Athens) dramatist (Theatre of ancient Greece) Sophocles. Three nondescript quotations in ancient authors were all that was known of the play until 1912, Hunt (1912) 31. when the extensive remains of a second-century CE papyrus roll of the ''Ichneutae'' were published among the ''Oxyrhynchus Papyri''. With more than four hundred lines surviving in their entirety or in part, the ''Ichneutae'' is now the best preserved ancient satyr play after Euripides' ''Cyclops (Cyclops (play))'', the only fully extant example of the genre. thumb right As for me, all I know is that I know nothing. (File:Socrates Louvre.jpg) '''Socrates (w:Socrates)''' (Σωκράτης; c. 470 BC – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (w:Classical Greece) (Athenian (w:Classical Athens)) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy (w:Western philosophy). Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics (w:ethics), and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method (w:Socratic method), or ''elenchus''. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy (w:pedagogy) in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. * '''He''' Socrates, in an earlier dialogue, the ''Crito (w:Crito)'' contended that he had been condemned by due process of law, and that it would be wrong to do anything illegal to avoid punishment. He '''first proclaimed the principle which we associate with the Sermon on the Mount (w:Sermon_on_the_Mount),''' that "we ought not retaliate evil for evil to any one, whatever evil may be suffered from him." He then imagines himself engaged in a dialogue with the laws of Athens (w:Classical Athens), in which they point out that he owes them the kind of respect that a son owes to a father or a slave to his master, but in an even higher degree; and that, moreover, every Athenian citizen is free to emigrate if he dislikes the Athenian State (w:Athenian_democracy). ** Book One, Part II, Chapter XVI, Plato's Theory of Immortality, p. 133. * '''There is every reason to believe that the later Pythagoreans exercised a strong influence on the study and development of mathematics at Athens (w:Classical Athens). The Sophists (w:Sophist) acquired geometry from Pythagorean sources. Plato bought the works of Philolaus and had a warm friend in Archytas.''' ** p. 23. The Sophist School (w:Sophism) * '''Athens (w:Classical Athens)... became the richest and most beautiful city of antiquity.''' All menial work was performed by slaves. ...The citizen of Athens was well to do and enjoyed a large amount of leisure. The government being purely democratic, every citizen was a politician. To make his influence felt among his fellow-men he must, first of all, be educated. Thus '''there arose a demand for teachers. The supply came principally from Sicily (w:Sicily#Greek_and_Roman_period), where Pythagorean doctrines had spread. These teachers were called ''Sophists'' (w:Sophist), or "wise men." Unlike the Pythagoreans, they accepted pay for their teaching. Although rhetoric was the principal feature of their instruction, they also taught geometry, astronomy, and philosophy.''' ** p. 24.


people amp

, ''Ichneutai'', "trackers"), also known as the ''Searchers'', ''Trackers'' or ''Tracking Satyrs'', is a fragmentary satyr play by the fifth-century Athenian (Classical Athens) dramatist (Theatre of ancient Greece) Sophocles. Three nondescript quotations in ancient authors were all that was known of the play until 1912, Hunt (1912) 31. when the extensive remains of a second-century CE papyrus roll of the ''Ichneutae'' were published among the ''Oxyrhynchus Papyri''. With more than four hundred lines surviving in their entirety or in part, the ''Ichneutae'' is now the best preserved ancient satyr play after Euripides' ''Cyclops (Cyclops (play))'', the only fully extant example of the genre. thumb right As for me, all I know is that I know nothing. (File:Socrates Louvre.jpg) '''Socrates (w:Socrates)''' (Σωκράτης; c. 470 BC – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (w:Classical Greece) (Athenian (w:Classical Athens)) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy (w:Western philosophy). Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics (w:ethics), and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method (w:Socratic method), or ''elenchus''. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy (w:pedagogy) in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. * '''He''' Socrates, in an earlier dialogue, the ''Crito (w:Crito)'' contended that he had been condemned by due process of law, and that it would be wrong to do anything illegal to avoid punishment. He '''first proclaimed the principle which we associate with the Sermon on the Mount (w:Sermon_on_the_Mount),''' that "we ought not retaliate evil for evil to any one, whatever evil may be suffered from him." He then imagines himself engaged in a dialogue with the laws of Athens (w:Classical Athens), in which they point out that he owes them the kind of respect that a son owes to a father or a slave to his master, but in an even higher degree; and that, moreover, every Athenian citizen is free to emigrate if he dislikes the Athenian State (w:Athenian_democracy). ** Book One, Part II, Chapter XVI, Plato's Theory of Immortality, p. 133. * '''There is every reason to believe that the later Pythagoreans exercised a strong influence on the study and development of mathematics at Athens (w:Classical Athens). The Sophists (w:Sophist) acquired geometry from Pythagorean sources. Plato bought the works of Philolaus and had a warm friend in Archytas.''' ** p. 23. The Sophist School (w:Sophism) * '''Athens (w:Classical Athens)... became the richest and most beautiful city of antiquity.''' All menial work was performed by slaves. ...The citizen of Athens was well to do and enjoyed a large amount of leisure. The government being purely democratic, every citizen was a politician. To make his influence felt among his fellow-men he must, first of all, be educated. Thus '''there arose a demand for teachers. The supply came principally from Sicily (w:Sicily#Greek_and_Roman_period), where Pythagorean doctrines had spread. These teachers were called ''Sophists'' (w:Sophist), or "wise men." Unlike the Pythagoreans, they accepted pay for their teaching. Although rhetoric was the principal feature of their instruction, they also taught geometry, astronomy, and philosophy.''' ** p. 24.


critical history

existed; in all, at the end of Cleisthenes' reforms, Attica was divided into 139 demes. The establishment of demes as the fundamental units of the state weakened the gene (genos), or aristocratic family groups, that had dominated the phratries. J.V. Fine, ''The Ancient Greeks: A Critical History'' thumb 300px Classical Athens Attic (Image:Relief flute player Glyptothek Munich.jpg) relief (4th century BCE

Classical Athens

The city of '''Athens''' during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) ''Democracy and knowledge: innovation and learning in classical Athens'' by Josiah Ober Page 40 ISBN 0-691-13347-6 (2008) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece (Ancient Greece), leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League. Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny (Athenian tyranny) of Isagoras. This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War). The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles.

In the classical period (Classical Greece), Athens was a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Akademia (Platonic Academy) and Aristotle's Lyceum (Lyceum (Classical)), largely due to the impact of its cultural and political achievements during the 5th and 4th centuries BC on the rest of the then known European continent. Encarta: Ancient Greece—Retrieved on 26 January 2007. Archived 2009-10-31.

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