Classical Athens

What is Classical Athens known for?


opposition+genre

centuries, Cyclades joined the rest of Greece in 1821. series subject Athenian (Classical Athens) tragedy, the Apollonian Dionysian opposition (Apollonian and Dionysian) genre Dramatic theory Other great festivals As a result of the rise of the Greek cities of the classic period, other great festivals emerged in Asia Minor, Magna Graecia, and the mainland providing the opportunity for athletes to gain fame and riches. Apart from the Olympics


including classical

; as such, the play is also notable for being the only extant Greek tragedy that is based on contemporary events. place Mainland Greece, Thrace, Aegean Islands, Asia Minor, Cyprus and Egypt (Ancient Egypt) combatant1 Greek city states including Athens (Classical Athens) and Sparta combatant2 Achaemenid Empire of Persia (Achaemenid Empire) Summary of events In 499 BC, the then tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras, embarked on an Siege of Naxos (499 BC


world historical

, ''Ichneutai'', "trackers"), also known as the ''Searchers'', ''Trackers'' or ''Tracking Satyrs'', is a fragmentary satyr play by the fifth-century Athenian (Classical Athens) dramatist (Theatre of ancient Greece) Sophocles. Three nondescript quotations in ancient authors were all that was known of the play until 1912, Hunt (1912) 31. when the extensive remains of a second-century CE papyrus roll of the ''Ichneutae'' were published among the ''Oxyrhynchus Papyri''. With more than four hundred lines surviving in their entirety or in part, the ''Ichneutae'' is now the best preserved ancient satyr play after Euripides' ''Cyclops (Cyclops (play))'', the only fully extant example of the genre. thumb right As for me, all I know is that I know nothing. (File:Socrates Louvre.jpg) '''Socrates (w:Socrates)''' (Σωκράτης; c. 470 BC – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (w:Classical Greece) (Athenian (w:Classical Athens)) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy (w:Western philosophy). Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics (w:ethics), and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method (w:Socratic method), or ''elenchus''. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy (w:pedagogy) in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. * '''He''' Socrates, in an earlier dialogue, the ''Crito (w:Crito)'' contended that he had been condemned by due process of law, and that it would be wrong to do anything illegal to avoid punishment. He '''first proclaimed the principle which we associate with the Sermon on the Mount (w:Sermon_on_the_Mount),''' that "we ought not retaliate evil for evil to any one, whatever evil may be suffered from him." He then imagines himself engaged in a dialogue with the laws of Athens (w:Classical Athens), in which they point out that he owes them the kind of respect that a son owes to a father or a slave to his master, but in an even higher degree; and that, moreover, every Athenian citizen is free to emigrate if he dislikes the Athenian State (w:Athenian_democracy). ** Book One, Part II, Chapter XVI, Plato's Theory of Immortality, p. 133. * '''There is every reason to believe that the later Pythagoreans exercised a strong influence on the study and development of mathematics at Athens (w:Classical Athens). The Sophists (w:Sophist) acquired geometry from Pythagorean sources. Plato bought the works of Philolaus and had a warm friend in Archytas.''' ** p. 23. The Sophist School (w:Sophism) * '''Athens (w:Classical Athens)... became the richest and most beautiful city of antiquity.''' All menial work was performed by slaves. ...The citizen of Athens was well to do and enjoyed a large amount of leisure. The government being purely democratic, every citizen was a politician. To make his influence felt among his fellow-men he must, first of all, be educated. Thus '''there arose a demand for teachers. The supply came principally from Sicily (w:Sicily#Greek_and_Roman_period), where Pythagorean doctrines had spread. These teachers were called ''Sophists'' (w:Sophist), or "wise men." Unlike the Pythagoreans, they accepted pay for their teaching. Although rhetoric was the principal feature of their instruction, they also taught geometry, astronomy, and philosophy.''' ** p. 24.


play

and acknowledged by influential contemporaries Plato ''The Apology'' translated by Benjamin Jowett, section 4 (s:Apology (Plato)#4) Apology, Greek text, edited J. Burnet, section 19c singled out Aristophanes' play ''The Clouds'' as slander contributing to the trial and execution of Socrates

although other satirical playwrights (Socrates#Satirical playwrights) ''Lysistrata, The Acharnians, The Clouds'' Alan Sommerstein, Penguin Books 1973, p16 had also caricatured the philosopher. His second play, ''The Babylonians'' (now lost), was denounced by the demagogue Cleon as a slander against the Athenian polis. It is possible that the case was argued in court but details of the trial are not recorded and Aristophanes caricatured Cleon mercilessly in his

subsequent plays, especially ''The Knights'', the first of many plays that he directed himself. "In my opinion," he says through the Chorus in that play, "the author-director of comedies has the hardest job of all." ( , ''Athína


vast number

of the gods, on the west side of the Agora. Besides these, there was a vast number of other temples in all parts of the city. *The ''Bouleuterion'' (Senate House), at the west side of the Agora. *The ''Tholos (Prytaneion)'', a round building close to the Bouleuterion, built c. 470 BC by Cimon, which served as the Prytaneion, in which the Prytaneis took their meals and offered their sacrifices. *''Stoae'', or Colonnades, supported by pillars, and used as places of resort


actions quot

to their characters, but happy or the opposite according to their actions. So the actors do not act in order to represent the characters, but they include the characters for the sake of their actions" (1450a15-23). Janko (1987, 8). '''''The Bacchae''''' ( , ''Bakchai''; also known as ''The Bacchantes'') is an ancient Greek (Classical Greece) tragedy by the Athenian (Classical Athens) playwright Euripides, during his final years in Macedon


508

conventional_long_name Athens common_name Athens continent Europe region Mediterranean country Greece era Classical antiquity government_type Direct democracy (Athenian democracy) year_start 508 BC year_end 322 BC event_start Cleisthenes establishes Athenian democracy

title_leader Strategos legislature Ecclesia (Ecclesia (ancient Athens)) stat_year1 5th century BC 1 stat_area1 stat_pop1 250000 (men with civil rights: 30,000) footnotes 1 BBC History The city of '''Athens''' during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) ''Democracy

and knowledge: innovation and learning in classical Athens'' by Josiah Ober508+322+BC+Classical+Athens#v onepage&q 508%20322%20BC%20Classical%20Athens&f false Page 40 ISBN 0-691-13347-6 (2008) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece (Ancient Greece), leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta


producing plays

and Hildy (2003, 16–17, 37). Its ambiguous (Ambiguity), tragicomic (Tragicomedy) tone (Tone (fiction))—which may be "cheerfully romantic" or "bitterly ironic"—has earned it the label of a "problem play." Banham (1998, 353) and Brockett and Hildy (2003, 37). ''Alcestis'' is, possibly excepting the Rhesus, the oldest surviving work by Euripides, although at the time of its first performance he had been producing plays for 17


genre

playwright of ancient Athens (Classical Athens). Eleven of his 40 plays survive virtually complete. These, together with fragments of some of his other plays, provide the only real examples of a genre of comic drama known as Old Comedy (Ancient Greek comedy), and they are in fact used to define the genre. ''Aristophanes: Clouds'' K.J.Dover (ed), Oxford University Press 1970, Intro. page X. Also known as ''the Father of Comedy'' ''Aristophanes

), tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, whether at the scale of poetry in general (where the tragic divides against epic (Epic poetry) and lyric (Lyric poetry)) or at the scale of the drama (where tragedy is opposed to comedy (Comedy (drama))). In the modern (Modernity) era, tragedy has also been defined against drama, melodrama, the tragicomic (Tragicomedy), and epic theatre. See Carlson (1993), Pfister (1977), Elam (1980) and Taxidou (2004). Drama

, in the narrow sense, cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti- or a-generic (Genre) deterritorialization from the mid-19th century (Nineteenth century theatre) onwards. Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects (Non-Aristotelian drama and Theatre of the Oppressed respectively) against models of tragedy. Taxidou, however, reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments


gold rich

he had conquered or confiscated from his enemies, these 'personal clients' then also served in the Companion cavalry. After taking control of the gold-rich mines of Mount Pangaeus, and the city of Amphipolis that dominated the region, he obtained the wealth to support a large army, moreover it was a professional army imbued with a national spirit. By the time of his death Philip's army had pushed the Macedonian frontier into southern Illyria, conquered the Paeonians and Thracians, destroyed the power of Phocis (Phocis (ancient region)) and defeated and humbled Athens (Classical Athens) and Thebes (Ancient Thebes (Boeotia)). All the states of Greece, with the exception of Sparta, Epirus and Crete, had become subservient allies of Macedon (League of Corinth) and Philip was laying the foundations of an invasion of the Persian Empire, an invasion that his son would successfully undertake. Bury, J.B., (1913) ''A History of Greece.'' London, pp. 685-687. The Myonians are also mentioned by Thucydides in his work ''History of the Peloponnesian War''. Eurylochus, the Spartan general, had to pass through the land of the Ozolian Locrians on his road to Naupactus. For this reason and because he also wanted to detach the Amfissians from Athens (Classical Athens), Eurylochus sent a herald to Amfissa as long as he had arrived at Delphi. The Amfissians, who were alarmed at the hostility of the Phocians (Phocis), gave hostages to him and induced the other Locrian cities to do the same; the first of them were their neighbours, the Myonians, who held the most difficult of the passes. Thucydides, ''History of the Peloponnesian War'', 3.101 History Definitions of a liberal education may be broad, generalized, and sometimes even contradictory. , ''Ichneutai'', "trackers"), also known as the ''Searchers'', ''Trackers'' or ''Tracking Satyrs'', is a fragmentary satyr play by the fifth-century Athenian (Classical Athens) dramatist (Theatre of ancient Greece) Sophocles. Three nondescript quotations in ancient authors were all that was known of the play until 1912, Hunt (1912) 31. when the extensive remains of a second-century CE papyrus roll of the ''Ichneutae'' were published among the ''Oxyrhynchus Papyri''. With more than four hundred lines surviving in their entirety or in part, the ''Ichneutae'' is now the best preserved ancient satyr play after Euripides' ''Cyclops (Cyclops (play))'', the only fully extant example of the genre. thumb right As for me, all I know is that I know nothing. (File:Socrates Louvre.jpg) '''Socrates (w:Socrates)''' (Σωκράτης; c. 470 BC – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (w:Classical Greece) (Athenian (w:Classical Athens)) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy (w:Western philosophy). Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics (w:ethics), and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method (w:Socratic method), or ''elenchus''. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy (w:pedagogy) in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. * '''He''' Socrates, in an earlier dialogue, the ''Crito (w:Crito)'' contended that he had been condemned by due process of law, and that it would be wrong to do anything illegal to avoid punishment. He '''first proclaimed the principle which we associate with the Sermon on the Mount (w:Sermon_on_the_Mount),''' that "we ought not retaliate evil for evil to any one, whatever evil may be suffered from him." He then imagines himself engaged in a dialogue with the laws of Athens (w:Classical Athens), in which they point out that he owes them the kind of respect that a son owes to a father or a slave to his master, but in an even higher degree; and that, moreover, every Athenian citizen is free to emigrate if he dislikes the Athenian State (w:Athenian_democracy). ** Book One, Part II, Chapter XVI, Plato's Theory of Immortality, p. 133. * '''There is every reason to believe that the later Pythagoreans exercised a strong influence on the study and development of mathematics at Athens (w:Classical Athens). The Sophists (w:Sophist) acquired geometry from Pythagorean sources. Plato bought the works of Philolaus and had a warm friend in Archytas.''' ** p. 23. The Sophist School (w:Sophism) * '''Athens (w:Classical Athens)... became the richest and most beautiful city of antiquity.''' All menial work was performed by slaves. ...The citizen of Athens was well to do and enjoyed a large amount of leisure. The government being purely democratic, every citizen was a politician. To make his influence felt among his fellow-men he must, first of all, be educated. Thus '''there arose a demand for teachers. The supply came principally from Sicily (w:Sicily#Greek_and_Roman_period), where Pythagorean doctrines had spread. These teachers were called ''Sophists'' (w:Sophist), or "wise men." Unlike the Pythagoreans, they accepted pay for their teaching. Although rhetoric was the principal feature of their instruction, they also taught geometry, astronomy, and philosophy.''' ** p. 24.

Classical Athens

The city of '''Athens''' during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) ''Democracy and knowledge: innovation and learning in classical Athens'' by Josiah Ober Page 40 ISBN 0-691-13347-6 (2008) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece (Ancient Greece), leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League. Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny (Athenian tyranny) of Isagoras. This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War). The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles.

In the classical period (Classical Greece), Athens was a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Akademia (Platonic Academy) and Aristotle's Lyceum (Lyceum (Classical)), largely due to the impact of its cultural and political achievements during the 5th and 4th centuries BC on the rest of the then known European continent. Encarta: Ancient Greece—Retrieved on 26 January 2007. Archived 2009-10-31.

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