Cao Wei

What is Cao Wei known for?


military skills

away from Shouchun, where Zhuge was being sieged by Sima, and did nothing. When Sun Chen instead ordered the general Zhu Yi (Zhu Yi (Three Kingdoms)) to try to relieve Shouchun with tired and unfed troops, Zhu refused—and Sun Chen executed him, bringing anger from the people, who had admired Zhu's military skills and integrity. With Sun Chen unable to do anything, Zhuge's rebellion failed in 258, and Wen's troops became captives of Cao Wei. ''Records of the Three Kingdoms'', p. 1447<


works called

grid system in Chinese cartography. Robert Temple writes that Zhang not only presented a map to the emperor in 116 CE, but his now lost works called ''Discourse on New Calculations'' and ''Bird's-Eye Map'' "laid the groundwork for the mathematical use of the grid with maps." Temple (1986), 30. Moreover, the ''Book of Later Han'' hints that Zhang was the first to make a mathematical grid reference, stating that he "cast a network of coordinates about heaven and earth, and reckoned on the basis of it." Historian Florian C. Reiter notes that Zhang's narrative "Guitian fu" contains a phrase about applauding the maps and documents of Confucius of the Zhou Dynasty, which Reiter suggests places maps (''tu'') on a same level of importance with documents (''shu''). Reiter (1990), 320. Posthumous honors Zhang was given great honors in life and in death. The philosopher and poet Fu Xuan (217–278) of the Wei (Cao Wei) and Jin (Jin Dynasty (265–420)) dynasties once lamented in an essay over the fact that Zhang Heng was never placed in the Ministry of Works (Nine Ministers). Writing highly of Zhang and the 3rd-century mechanical engineer Ma Jun, Fu Xuan wrote, "Neither of them was ever an official of the Ministry of Works, and their ingenuity did not benefit the world. When (authorities) employ personnel with no regard to special talent, and having heard of genius neglect even to test it—is this not hateful and disastrous?" Needham (1986), Volume 4, 42. * Yang Chou (d. 198) * Lady Bian (Empress Dowager Bian), second wife of Cao Cao, mother of Cao Wei's first emperor, Cao Pi (d. 230) * Liu Shan, last Emperor of the Kingdom of Shu (Shu Han) (b. 207) * Pei Xiu, minister and cartographer (cartography) of the Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 224) * Sima Wang, general of the Jin Dynasty (b. 205) * Origen, Christian (Christianity) apologist (approximate date) * Wang Xiang, minister of Wei (Cao Wei) (d. 269) * Lu Su, advisor to Sun Quan, sympathetic to Liu Bei (b. 172) * Wang Can, Chinese poet, scholar, and statesman of Cao Wei (b. 177) * Sima Lang, official of Han Dynasty (b. 171) * Wu Zhi, adviser under Cao Pi of the Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei) * Zhong Yao, minister of the Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 151) * Zhang Yi (Zhang Yi (Early Shu Han)), officer of the Kingdom of Shu (b. 167) China * Future Emperor of Cao Wei, Cao Fang, is instated as the Prince of Qi. * Ke Bineng (b. 172) * Empress Wende (Empress Guo Nüwang), empress of Cao Wei (b. 184) * Origen (possible date) * Sima Yi, strategist of Wei (Cao Wei) and rival of Zhuge Liang (b. 179) * Empress Zhen (Empress Zhen (Cao Fang)), wife of Cao Fang * Li Feng (Li Feng (Cao Wei)) * Xiahou Xuan, minister of Wei (Cao Wei) and son of Xiahou Shang (b. 209) The Three Kingdoms Period (Three Kingdoms) consisted of the kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei), Shu (Shu Han), and Wu (Eastern Wu). It began when the ruler of Wei, Cao Cao, was defeated by Liu Bei and Sun Quan at the Battle of Red Cliffs. After Cao Cao's death in AD 220, his son Cao Pi became emperor of Wei. Liu Bei and Sun Quan declared themselves emperor of Shu and Wu respectively. Many famous personages in Chinese history were born during this period, including Hua Tuo and the great military strategist Zhuge Liang. Buddhism, which was introduced during the Han Dynasty, also became popular in this period. Two years after Wei conquered Shu (Conquest of Shu by Wei) in AD 263, Sima Yan, Wei's Imperial Chancellor, overthrew Wei and started the Western Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (265–420)). The conquest of Wu by the Western Jin Dynasty ended the Three Kingdoms period, and China was unified again. However, the Western Jin did not last long. Following the death of Sima Yan, the War of the Eight Princes began. This war weakened the Jin Dynasty, and it soon fell to the kingdom of Han Zhao. This ushered in the Sixteen Kingdoms. The magnetic compass was invented during the Chinese Cao Wei Dynasty between the 3nd century CE and 4th century AD, '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. Later life and death In Pan's later years, he was tasked with the defense against the state of Cao Wei. Once, the Wei emperor, Cao Pi sent Zhang He, Xu Huang, Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang to invade Nan Commandery with the immediate goal to capture Jiangling city, which Zhu Ran guarded with 5,000 troops. Wei vanguard of 30,000 led by Xiahou built wooden bridges to cross a stream to land the Hundred Miles Island (百里洲), while none of the Wu generals could locate the crossing points of the Wei troops. Pan then told his comrades that the Wei troops were highly spirited and the water level was low, so they'd better avoid battles with them at the moment. Following the river upstream, Pan ordered his soldiers to collect a few hundred million bundles of reeds, and attached them atop some large rafts and set them on fire. He then sent the rafts downstream so that they would burn the wooden bridges being used by Wei. Sensing the danger of being isolated, Xiahou withdrew from the island before his retreat route would be destroyed. For his effort in the siege, Pan was promoted to the rank of General of the Right (右将軍). The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.


history part

Northern Expedition against Cao Wei. During the Battle of Wuzhang Plains, he falls sick and sends secret orders for his army to retreat. * Wei Yan is executed for treason after refusing to accept orders from Zhuge Liang. '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. Later life and death In Pan's later years, he was tasked with the defense against the state of Cao Wei. Once, the Wei emperor, Cao Pi sent Zhang He, Xu Huang, Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang to invade Nan Commandery with the immediate goal to capture Jiangling city, which Zhu Ran guarded with 5,000 troops. Wei vanguard of 30,000 led by Xiahou built wooden bridges to cross a stream to land the Hundred Miles Island (百里洲), while none of the Wu generals could locate the crossing points of the Wei troops. Pan then told his comrades that the Wei troops were highly spirited and the water level was low, so they'd better avoid battles with them at the moment. Following the river upstream, Pan ordered his soldiers to collect a few hundred million bundles of reeds, and attached them atop some large rafts and set them on fire. He then sent the rafts downstream so that they would burn the wooden bridges being used by Wei. Sensing the danger of being isolated, Xiahou withdrew from the island before his retreat route would be destroyed. For his effort in the siege, Pan was promoted to the rank of General of the Right (右将軍). The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.


leading military

of the leading military families at the time, but defected to the rival state of Shu Han (which is the regime responsible for his father's death) due to political instability at the capital Luoyang. *Nagamasa makes appearances as a general in the Main Campaign and in various Historical Battles and Historical Campaigns in the PC game ''Shogun Total War''. Additionally, Nagamasa returns as an Heir to the Azai Clan in the fan created Samurai Warlords Mod (aka the Shogun Mod) for the PC game Medieval Total War (Medieval: Total War). *Nagamasa is a featured playable character within the video game series ''Samurai Warriors'', in which he is depicted as an extremely honorable man who will stop at nothing to ensure that his notions of justice are enforced. As like in history, Nagamasa decides to collaborate with his erstwhile allies, the Asakura, and fight against Nobunaga at Anegawa; he also expresses a more dramatized showing of love towards his respective wife, Oichi, and cares deeply for her welfare. In appearance, Nagamasa is depicted with his traditional kabuto helmet and carries a lance as his weapon of choosing. This version of the character also appears in the spin-off series ''Warriors Orochi'' as an unlockable character for the Cao Wei storyline. Cao Pi and Mitsunari Ishida attack Nagamasa's forces, including his wife Oichi and Gan Ning of Wu (Wu (kingdom)). Instead of death, as they wanted, Cao Pi enlists the three of them into his army against Orochi. *Nagamasa is an NPC in ''Sengoku Basara 2'', along with Oichi, but becomes playable in the expansion ''Sengoku Basara 2: Heroes''. He wields a long sword and carries a shield with him and is portrayed as a justice loving man. Life prior to ascension Sima Zhong was born to Sima Yan and his wife Yang Yan (Empress Yang Yan) in 259, while Sima Yan was still the assistant to his father, the Cao Wei regent Sima Zhao. He was their second son, but as his older brother Sima Gui (司馬軌) died early, he became the oldest surviving son. It is not known when it became apparent that he was developmentally disabled, but in any case, after Sima Zhao died in 265 and Sima Yan subsequently forced the Cao Wei emperor Cao Huan to abdicate to him, ending Cao Wei and starting Jin (as Emperor Wu), he created Prince Zhong crown prince in 267, at age seven. '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. Later life and death In Pan's later years, he was tasked with the defense against the state of Cao Wei. Once, the Wei emperor, Cao Pi sent Zhang He, Xu Huang, Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang to invade Nan Commandery with the immediate goal to capture Jiangling city, which Zhu Ran guarded with 5,000 troops. Wei vanguard of 30,000 led by Xiahou built wooden bridges to cross a stream to land the Hundred Miles Island (百里洲), while none of the Wu generals could locate the crossing points of the Wei troops. Pan then told his comrades that the Wei troops were highly spirited and the water level was low, so they'd better avoid battles with them at the moment. Following the river upstream, Pan ordered his soldiers to collect a few hundred million bundles of reeds, and attached them atop some large rafts and set them on fire. He then sent the rafts downstream so that they would burn the wooden bridges being used by Wei. Sensing the danger of being isolated, Xiahou withdrew from the island before his retreat route would be destroyed. For his effort in the siege, Pan was promoted to the rank of General of the Right (右将軍). The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.


made including

family excessive wealth or titles, setting an example for the rest of Cao Wei's history. One incident that in which she engaged herself happened in 226, when Cao Pi wanted to execute Cao Cao's cousin Cao Hong due to grudges that they had previously. She, remembering the contributions that Cao Hong madeincluding one occasion when he personally saved Cao Cao's life—rebuked Cao Pi sufficiently that he spared Cao Hong's life, although Cao Hong's offices and titles were still stripped from him


independent history

of the future Northern Wei Dynasty and was thus posthumously honored as Emperor Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. The Khitan tribe formed part of the Yuwen Xianbei (Yuwen) under Yuwen Mohuai (reigned 260-293). They separated from the Yuwen along with the Kumo Xi in 344 and finally separated from the Kumo Xi in 388 beginning their independent history. The Khitan later established the Dahe Confederation (History of the Khitans) (618-730), the List of the Khitan rulers Yaonian Khaganate


works+writing

; Posthumous honors Zhang was given great honors in life and in death. The philosopher and poet Fu Xuan (217–278) of the Wei (Cao Wei) and Jin (Jin Dynasty (265–420)) dynasties once lamented in an essay over the fact that Zhang Heng was never placed in the Ministry of Works (Nine Ministers). Writing highly of Zhang and the 3rd-century mechanical engineer Ma Jun, Fu Xuan wrote, "Neither of them was ever an official of the Ministry of Works, and their ingenuity did not benefit the world. When (authorities) employ personnel with no regard to special talent, and having heard of genius neglect even to test it—is this not hateful and disastrous?" Needham (1986), Volume 4, 42. * Yang Chou (d. 198) * Lady Bian (Empress Dowager Bian), second wife of Cao Cao, mother of Cao Wei's first emperor, Cao Pi (d. 230) * Liu Shan, last Emperor of the Kingdom of Shu (Shu Han) (b. 207) * Pei Xiu, minister and cartographer (cartography) of the Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 224) * Sima Wang, general of the Jin Dynasty (b. 205) * Origen, Christian (Christianity) apologist (approximate date) * Wang Xiang, minister of Wei (Cao Wei) (d. 269) * Lu Su, advisor to Sun Quan, sympathetic to Liu Bei (b. 172) * Wang Can, Chinese poet, scholar, and statesman of Cao Wei (b. 177) * Sima Lang, official of Han Dynasty (b. 171) * Wu Zhi, adviser under Cao Pi of the Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei) * Zhong Yao, minister of the Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 151) * Zhang Yi (Zhang Yi (Early Shu Han)), officer of the Kingdom of Shu (b. 167) China * Future Emperor of Cao Wei, Cao Fang, is instated as the Prince of Qi. * Ke Bineng (b. 172) * Empress Wende (Empress Guo Nüwang), empress of Cao Wei (b. 184) * Origen (possible date) * Sima Yi, strategist of Wei (Cao Wei) and rival of Zhuge Liang (b. 179) * Empress Zhen (Empress Zhen (Cao Fang)), wife of Cao Fang * Li Feng (Li Feng (Cao Wei)) * Xiahou Xuan, minister of Wei (Cao Wei) and son of Xiahou Shang (b. 209) The Three Kingdoms Period (Three Kingdoms) consisted of the kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei), Shu (Shu Han), and Wu (Eastern Wu). It began when the ruler of Wei, Cao Cao, was defeated by Liu Bei and Sun Quan at the Battle of Red Cliffs. After Cao Cao's death in AD 220, his son Cao Pi became emperor of Wei. Liu Bei and Sun Quan declared themselves emperor of Shu and Wu respectively. Many famous personages in Chinese history were born during this period, including Hua Tuo and the great military strategist Zhuge Liang. Buddhism, which was introduced during the Han Dynasty, also became popular in this period. Two years after Wei conquered Shu (Conquest of Shu by Wei) in AD 263, Sima Yan, Wei's Imperial Chancellor, overthrew Wei and started the Western Jin Dynasty (Jin Dynasty (265–420)). The conquest of Wu by the Western Jin Dynasty ended the Three Kingdoms period, and China was unified again. However, the Western Jin did not last long. Following the death of Sima Yan, the War of the Eight Princes began. This war weakened the Jin Dynasty, and it soon fell to the kingdom of Han Zhao. This ushered in the Sixteen Kingdoms. The magnetic compass was invented during the Chinese Cao Wei Dynasty between the 3nd century CE and 4th century AD, '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. Later life and death In Pan's later years, he was tasked with the defense against the state of Cao Wei. Once, the Wei emperor, Cao Pi sent Zhang He, Xu Huang, Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang to invade Nan Commandery with the immediate goal to capture Jiangling city, which Zhu Ran guarded with 5,000 troops. Wei vanguard of 30,000 led by Xiahou built wooden bridges to cross a stream to land the Hundred Miles Island (百里洲), while none of the Wu generals could locate the crossing points of the Wei troops. Pan then told his comrades that the Wei troops were highly spirited and the water level was low, so they'd better avoid battles with them at the moment. Following the river upstream, Pan ordered his soldiers to collect a few hundred million bundles of reeds, and attached them atop some large rafts and set them on fire. He then sent the rafts downstream so that they would burn the wooden bridges being used by Wei. Sensing the danger of being isolated, Xiahou withdrew from the island before his retreat route would be destroyed. For his effort in the siege, Pan was promoted to the rank of General of the Right (右将軍). The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.


large single

are similar to ones on ''Haniwa'' statues, such men with braided hair, tattooing and women wearing large, single-piece clothing. Births * Wei Guan, general of the Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei) (d. 291) Deaths * Cao Ren, general of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 168) * Cao Zhang, son of Cao Cao and general of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 189) * Cao Ren, general of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 168) * Cao Zhang, son of Cao Cao and general of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 189

, Zhuge Liang developed the vehicle of the wooden ox and used it as a transport for military supplies in a campaign against Cao Wei. Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 260. Further annotations of the text by Pei Songzhi (430 AD) described the design in detail as a large single central wheel and axle around which a wooden frame was constructed in representation of an ox. ref name "needham volume 4 part 2 260" >


wearing+large

are similar to ones on ''Haniwa'' statues, such men with braided hair, tattooing and women wearing large, single-piece clothing. Births * Wei Guan, general of the Kingdom of Wei (Cao Wei) (d. 291) Deaths * Cao Ren, general of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 168) * Cao Zhang, son of Cao Cao and general of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 189) * Cao Ren, general of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 168) * Cao Zhang, son of Cao Cao and general of Wei (Cao Wei) (b. 189


main campaign

of the leading military families at the time, but defected to the rival state of Shu Han (which is the regime responsible for his father's death) due to political instability at the capital Luoyang. *Nagamasa makes appearances as a general in the Main Campaign and in various Historical Battles and Historical Campaigns in the PC game ''Shogun Total War''. Additionally, Nagamasa returns as an Heir to the Azai Clan in the fan created Samurai Warlords Mod (aka the Shogun Mod) for the PC game Medieval Total War (Medieval: Total War). *Nagamasa is a featured playable character within the video game series ''Samurai Warriors'', in which he is depicted as an extremely honorable man who will stop at nothing to ensure that his notions of justice are enforced. As like in history, Nagamasa decides to collaborate with his erstwhile allies, the Asakura, and fight against Nobunaga at Anegawa; he also expresses a more dramatized showing of love towards his respective wife, Oichi, and cares deeply for her welfare. In appearance, Nagamasa is depicted with his traditional kabuto helmet and carries a lance as his weapon of choosing. This version of the character also appears in the spin-off series ''Warriors Orochi'' as an unlockable character for the Cao Wei storyline. Cao Pi and Mitsunari Ishida attack Nagamasa's forces, including his wife Oichi and Gan Ning of Wu (Wu (kingdom)). Instead of death, as they wanted, Cao Pi enlists the three of them into his army against Orochi. *Nagamasa is an NPC in ''Sengoku Basara 2'', along with Oichi, but becomes playable in the expansion ''Sengoku Basara 2: Heroes''. He wields a long sword and carries a shield with him and is portrayed as a justice loving man. Life prior to ascension Sima Zhong was born to Sima Yan and his wife Yang Yan (Empress Yang Yan) in 259, while Sima Yan was still the assistant to his father, the Cao Wei regent Sima Zhao. He was their second son, but as his older brother Sima Gui (司馬軌) died early, he became the oldest surviving son. It is not known when it became apparent that he was developmentally disabled, but in any case, after Sima Zhao died in 265 and Sima Yan subsequently forced the Cao Wei emperor Cao Huan to abdicate to him, ending Cao Wei and starting Jin (as Emperor Wu), he created Prince Zhong crown prince in 267, at age seven. '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. Later life and death In Pan's later years, he was tasked with the defense against the state of Cao Wei. Once, the Wei emperor, Cao Pi sent Zhang He, Xu Huang, Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang to invade Nan Commandery with the immediate goal to capture Jiangling city, which Zhu Ran guarded with 5,000 troops. Wei vanguard of 30,000 led by Xiahou built wooden bridges to cross a stream to land the Hundred Miles Island (百里洲), while none of the Wu generals could locate the crossing points of the Wei troops. Pan then told his comrades that the Wei troops were highly spirited and the water level was low, so they'd better avoid battles with them at the moment. Following the river upstream, Pan ordered his soldiers to collect a few hundred million bundles of reeds, and attached them atop some large rafts and set them on fire. He then sent the rafts downstream so that they would burn the wooden bridges being used by Wei. Sensing the danger of being isolated, Xiahou withdrew from the island before his retreat route would be destroyed. For his effort in the siege, Pan was promoted to the rank of General of the Right (右将軍). The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.

Cao Wei

'''Wei''' or '''Cao Wei''' (220–265) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). With its capital at Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations laid by his father, Cao Cao, towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty (End of the Han dynasty). Its name originated as such: In 213, Cao Cao's feudal holdings were given the name "Wei" by the Eastern Han government. Historians often add the prefix "Cao" to distinguish it from other Chinese states known as "Wei", such as Wei (Wei (state)) of the Warring States period and Northern Wei of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The authority of the ruling Cao family gradually weakened after the death of the second Wei emperor, Cao Rui, and eventually fell into the hands of Sima Yi, a Wei regent, and his family, in 249. Cao Rui's successors remained as puppet rulers under the control of the Simas until Sima Yi's grandson, Sima Yan (Emperor Wu of Jin), forced the last Wei ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate the throne and established the Jin dynasty (Jin dynasty (265–420)).

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