Burma

What is Burma known for?


called year

: www.latimes.com news local la-scientology062890,0,6570814.story work Los Angeles Times date June 28, 1990 accessdate 2008-10-26 *B.E. (Buddhist calendar) — for the Buddhist Era (Buddhist calendar), introduced by Vajiravudh in 1912, which has an epoch (epoch (reference date)) (origin) of 544 BC. This year is called year 1 in Sri Lanka and Burma, but year 0 in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. Thus the year 2500 B.E. occurred in 1956 in the former countries, but in 1957 in the latter. In Thailand in 1888 King Chulalongkorn decreed a National Thai Era, dating from the founding of Bangkok on April 6, 1782. In 1912 New Year's Day was shifted to April 1. In 1941 Prime Minister Phibunsongkhram (Plaek Pibulsonggram) decided to count the years since 543 BC. This is the Thai solar calendar using the Thai Buddhist Era aligned to the western solar calendar. *B.E. (Bahai calendar) — The Bahá'í calendar dates from the year of the declaration of the Báb. Years are counted in the Bahá'í Era (BE), which starts its year 1 from March 21, 1844. The '''Indian Pond Heron''' or '''Paddybird''' (''Ardeola grayii'') is a small heron. It is of Old World origins, breeding in southern Iran and east to India, Burma, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. They are widespread and common but can be easily missed when they stalk prey at the edge of small water-bodies or even when they roost close to human habitations. They are however distinctive when put to flight, the bright white wings flashing in contrast to the cryptic streaked olive and brown colours of the body. The camouflage is so excellent that they will often allow humans to approach very close before taking to flight, and this has resulted in folk names and beliefs that the birds are short-sighted or blind. . The Hmong are known in China as the ''Miao'', a designation that embraces several different ethnic groups. There is debate about usage of this term, especially amongst Hmong living in the West, as it is believed by some to be derogatory, although Hmong living in China still call themselves by this name. Chinese scholars have recorded contact with the Miao as early as the 3rd century BCE, and wrote of them that they were a proud and independent people. However, after the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty attempted to impose several new taxation systems and continued expansion of their empire, the Hmong are reported to have rebelled. Many wars were randomness fought, and eventually many Hmong were pushed from China into Burma (Myanmar), Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. The history of the Hmong people is difficult to trace; they have an oral tradition, but there are no written records except where other people have encountered them. Hmong history has been passed down through legends and ritual ceremonies from one generation to another. Najmul Millat was a contemporary of Ziauddin al-Iraqi, Kazim Tabatabai Yazdi and Abul Hasan Isfehani. He was a Faqih of the highest rank and trained several Ulama like Sibte Hasan, Adeel Akhtar and Kitayat Husain. CHAPTER 2 THE FUQAHA He will always be remembered for his services to the Shi'a (Shia Islam) of Tibet, Burma, Africa and countries in the West rendered through the missionaries trained in his Jamia Nazmia. He wrote several books. * Three novels effectively tell the story of Burma (w:Burma)'s recent history. The link begins with Burmese Days (w:Burmese Days), which chronicles the country's history under British colonialism. Not long after Burma became independent from Britain in 1948, a military dictator sealed off the country from the outside world, launched 'The Burmese Way to Socialism', and turned Burma into one of the poorest countries in Asia. The same story is told in ''Animal Farm (w:Animal farm)''. Finally in ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' Orwell's description of a horrifying and soulless dystopia paints a chillingly accurate picture of Burma today, a country ruled by one of the world's most brutal and tenacious dictatorships. In Burma there is a joke that Orwell wrote not just one novel about the country, but three: a trilogy comprised of ''Burmese Days'', ''Animal Farm'' and ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''. ** Emma Larkin (w:Emma Larkin), ''Finding George Orwell in Burma'', p. 3. *My attitude to peace is rather based on the Burmese (w:Burma) definition of peace - it really means removing all the negative factors that destroy peace in this world. So peace does not mean just putting an end to violence or to war, but to all other factors that threaten peace, such as discrimination, such as inequality (w:inequality), poverty. **Aung San Suu Kyi, in Suu Kyi gives Nobel speech in Norway, 21 years later *Ahoms, a tribe from Burma (w:Burma), who controlled the region from thirteenth to eighteenth centuries, who absorbed Hindu culture (w:Hindu culture), were the original builders of Guwahati’ most famous site, a shrine to the goddess Sati (w:Sati), also known as Kali (w:Kali), consort of Shiva (w:Shiva). **Anthony Levi, Trudy Ring, in Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda, "International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania", p. 308. *Experimental gardens Tree that bears Qunine were opened on the Nilgiri Mountains (w:Nilgiri mountains) of Southern India (w:South India), the Himalayas on the north of Bengal (w:Bengal), the hills of Assam (w:Assam) and the Northwest Provinces, and on the highlands of Burma (w:Burma). With the exception of the Nilgiri and Himalayas, these localities were found to be unfavorable. At Darjeeling (w:Darjeeling) in the Himalayas, four hundred miles north of Calcutta, near which the cinchona (w:Cinchona)-gardens are located, … Cinchona alkaloid (w:Qunine) is now largely used throughout the country, with a proportionate reduction in the demand for quinine (w:Qunine). **Quinine (w:Quinine) in “The Tree That Bears Quinine” by Otis Robinson Bacheler quoted in: Science Monthly Volume 21 May 1882 , Wikisource. right thumb Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge is worthy of eulogisation - Sama Veda (File:Mysore_Painting.jpg). '''Saraswati (w:Saraswati)''' (Sanskrit (w;Sankrit language): सरस्वती, Sarasvatī ?) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, arts, wisdom and nature. She is a part of the trinity of Saraswati, Lakshmi and Parvati. All the three forms help the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in the creation, maintenance and destruction of the Universe. The Goddess is also revered by believers of the Jain religion (w:Jain religion )of west and central India. She is known in Burmese (w:Burma) as Thurathadi or Tipitaka Medaw , in Chinese (w:Chinese language) as Biàncáitiān (辯才天), in Japanese as Benzaiten (弁才天 弁財天) and in Thai (w:Thai language) as Surasawadee (สุรัสวดี). Of the countries ratifying the treaty, the largest are (in order of decreasing population) India (w:India), Pakistan (w:Pakistan), Bangladesh (w:Bangladesh), Japan (w:Japan), Mexico (w:Mexico), Thailand (w:Thailand), France (w:France), and Burma (w:Burma). Nations that have signed but not yet ratified include China (w:China), USA (w:USA), Brazil (w:Brazil), Nigeria (w:Nigeria), Philippines (w:Philippines), Viet Nam (w:Vietnam), Germany (w:Germany), and Egypt (w:Egypt). The largest non-signers are Indonesia (w:Indonesia), Russia (w:Russia), Colombia (w:Colombia), Tanzania (w:Tanzania), and Uzbekistan (w:Uzbekistan). The Himalayan (w:Himalayas) kingdom of Bhutan (w:Bhutan) went beyond the treaty requirements when on December 17 it became the first country in the world to completely ban the sale of tobacco. Prominent guests included Viscount Slim (w:Viscount Slim) (son of the late Field Marshal Slim (w:William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim), commander of the British Fourteenth Army (w:British Fourteenth Army) in Burma (w:Burma)), Countess Mountbatten of Burma (w:Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma) (daughter of the late Lord Louis Mountbatten (w:Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma), Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Theatre), and Dame Vera Lynn (w:Vera Lynn). The report comes just days ahead of an Asian political summit, where the foreign ministers of many of the countries already affected by the H5N1 (w:H5N1) virus are expected to agree to even closer co-operative measures to help stall the advance of the virus. The foreign ministers of Cambodia (w:Cambodia), Laos (w:Laos), Burma (w:Burma), Thailand (w:Thailand) and Vietnam (w:Vietnam) have already agreed to closer co-operation to contain the virus and develop a vaccine. Aung San Suu Kyi sentenced to another three years of house arrest Aung San Suu Kyi (w:Aung San Suu Kyi) has been sentenced by a court in Burma (w:Burma) to a further three years of house arrest (w:House arrest) for violating the terms of her previous sentence. However her sentence was immediately commuted to 18 months on the orders of Burmese head of state (w:Head of state) Senior-General Than Shwe (w:Than Shwe) out of respect for her father General Aung San (w:Aung San) and out of a desire for "national reconciliation".


charity event

. Retrieved 10 October 2007 Player refused to withdraw as he personally built the event from scratch and issued a statement rebutting these claims via his website. The event is now annually staged at the Fancourt Resort as the Gary Player Invitational and is South Africa's largest and most successful charity event, having raised a record amount of over R250 million for various children's charities. Player has hosted the Nelson

and statements on Burma. Burmese diplomat quits London Embassy ''Telegraph'' 10 October 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2007 Player refused to withdraw as he personally built the event from scratch and issued a statement rebutting these claims via his website. The event is now annually staged at the Fancourt Resort as the Gary Player Invitational and is South Africa's largest and most successful charity

event, having raised a record amount of over R250 million for various children's charities. Roe received his next commission on 2 February 1824. His instructions were to return to Australia on board the ''Tamar (Tamar (ship))''. The ''Tamar'' arrived in Sydney in July, and the following month was sent to help establish a settlement at Melville Island (Melville Island (Northern Territory)). The Melville Island settlement


research association

Leaded Petrol is Possibly Still Sold for Road Use date 2011-06-17 author Robert Taylor publisher The LEAD Group Lead-replacement additives were scientifically tested and some were approved by the Federation of British Historic Vehicle Clubs at the UK's Motor Industry Research Association (MIRA) in 1999. In Europe, Professor Derek Bryce-Smith was among the first to highlight the potential dangers of TEL and became a leading campaigner for removal of lead additives


national amp

it was reported that Dr. Pwint San, Deputy Minister for Commerce, had announced that the country was preparing to adopt the International System of Units.


work line

Burmese Buddhists for nearly two centuries. At the top of the hill is the Sutaungpyei (literally wish-fulfilling) Pagoda. A panoramic view of Mandalay from the top of Mandalay Hill alone makes it worthwhile to attempt a climb up its stairways. There are four covered stairways called ''saungdan'' leading up the hill from the south, southeast, west and north, and convenient seats of masonry work line these stairways all the way up. A one-way motor road today saves time and also makes


giving+de

. Throughout the 1950s, Zhou worked to tighten economic and political relations between China and other Communist states, coordinating China's foreign policy with Soviet policies promoting solidarity among political allies. In 1952, Zhou signed an economic and cultural agreement with the Mongolian People's Republic, giving ''de facto'' recognition of the independence of what had been known as "Outer Mongolia" in Qing times. Zhou also worked to conclude an agreement with Kim Il Sung


cultural architectural

inhabitants of Burma of whom records are extant, from present-day Yunnan. Hall 1960: 8–10 Moore 2007: 236 The Pyu culture was heavily influenced by trade with India, importing Buddhism as well as other cultural, architectural and political concepts which would have an enduring influence on later Burmese culture and political organisation. Myint-U 2006: 51–52 By the 9th


writing technical

Burmese opposition leader and Nobel Peace laureate (Nobel Peace Prize) Aung San Suu Kyi in 1999, Hammersley simultaneously moved toward war correspondence (war reporter) and technological innovation - reporting from war zones and writing technical book for publishers such as O'Reilly Media. He is credited with inventing the word 'podcasting', leading on to 'podcast' and 'podcasts', in 2004. Berry, R. (2006). Will the ipod kill the radio star? Profiling podcasting as radio. Convergence: The International Journal of Research Into New Media Technologies, 12(2), 143 He has also previously been Director of Digital at Six Creative, . The Hmong are known in China as the ''Miao'', a designation that embraces several different ethnic groups. There is debate about usage of this term, especially amongst Hmong living in the West, as it is believed by some to be derogatory, although Hmong living in China still call themselves by this name. Chinese scholars have recorded contact with the Miao as early as the 3rd century BCE, and wrote of them that they were a proud and independent people. However, after the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty attempted to impose several new taxation systems and continued expansion of their empire, the Hmong are reported to have rebelled. Many wars were randomness fought, and eventually many Hmong were pushed from China into Burma (Myanmar), Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. The history of the Hmong people is difficult to trace; they have an oral tradition, but there are no written records except where other people have encountered them. Hmong history has been passed down through legends and ritual ceremonies from one generation to another. Najmul Millat was a contemporary of Ziauddin al-Iraqi, Kazim Tabatabai Yazdi and Abul Hasan Isfehani. He was a Faqih of the highest rank and trained several Ulama like Sibte Hasan, Adeel Akhtar and Kitayat Husain. CHAPTER 2 THE FUQAHA He will always be remembered for his services to the Shi'a (Shia Islam) of Tibet, Burma, Africa and countries in the West rendered through the missionaries trained in his Jamia Nazmia. He wrote several books. * Three novels effectively tell the story of Burma (w:Burma)'s recent history. The link begins with Burmese Days (w:Burmese Days), which chronicles the country's history under British colonialism. Not long after Burma became independent from Britain in 1948, a military dictator sealed off the country from the outside world, launched 'The Burmese Way to Socialism', and turned Burma into one of the poorest countries in Asia. The same story is told in ''Animal Farm (w:Animal farm)''. Finally in ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' Orwell's description of a horrifying and soulless dystopia paints a chillingly accurate picture of Burma today, a country ruled by one of the world's most brutal and tenacious dictatorships. In Burma there is a joke that Orwell wrote not just one novel about the country, but three: a trilogy comprised of ''Burmese Days'', ''Animal Farm'' and ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''. ** Emma Larkin (w:Emma Larkin), ''Finding George Orwell in Burma'', p. 3. *My attitude to peace is rather based on the Burmese (w:Burma) definition of peace - it really means removing all the negative factors that destroy peace in this world. So peace does not mean just putting an end to violence or to war, but to all other factors that threaten peace, such as discrimination, such as inequality (w:inequality), poverty. **Aung San Suu Kyi, in Suu Kyi gives Nobel speech in Norway, 21 years later *Ahoms, a tribe from Burma (w:Burma), who controlled the region from thirteenth to eighteenth centuries, who absorbed Hindu culture (w:Hindu culture), were the original builders of Guwahati’ most famous site, a shrine to the goddess Sati (w:Sati), also known as Kali (w:Kali), consort of Shiva (w:Shiva). **Anthony Levi, Trudy Ring, in Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda, "International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania", p. 308. *Experimental gardens Tree that bears Qunine were opened on the Nilgiri Mountains (w:Nilgiri mountains) of Southern India (w:South India), the Himalayas on the north of Bengal (w:Bengal), the hills of Assam (w:Assam) and the Northwest Provinces, and on the highlands of Burma (w:Burma). With the exception of the Nilgiri and Himalayas, these localities were found to be unfavorable. At Darjeeling (w:Darjeeling) in the Himalayas, four hundred miles north of Calcutta, near which the cinchona (w:Cinchona)-gardens are located, … Cinchona alkaloid (w:Qunine) is now largely used throughout the country, with a proportionate reduction in the demand for quinine (w:Qunine). **Quinine (w:Quinine) in “The Tree That Bears Quinine” by Otis Robinson Bacheler quoted in: Science Monthly Volume 21 May 1882 , Wikisource. right thumb Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge is worthy of eulogisation - Sama Veda (File:Mysore_Painting.jpg). '''Saraswati (w:Saraswati)''' (Sanskrit (w;Sankrit language): सरस्वती, Sarasvatī ?) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, arts, wisdom and nature. She is a part of the trinity of Saraswati, Lakshmi and Parvati. All the three forms help the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in the creation, maintenance and destruction of the Universe. The Goddess is also revered by believers of the Jain religion (w:Jain religion )of west and central India. She is known in Burmese (w:Burma) as Thurathadi or Tipitaka Medaw , in Chinese (w:Chinese language) as Biàncáitiān (辯才天), in Japanese as Benzaiten (弁才天 弁財天) and in Thai (w:Thai language) as Surasawadee (สุรัสวดี). Of the countries ratifying the treaty, the largest are (in order of decreasing population) India (w:India), Pakistan (w:Pakistan), Bangladesh (w:Bangladesh), Japan (w:Japan), Mexico (w:Mexico), Thailand (w:Thailand), France (w:France), and Burma (w:Burma). Nations that have signed but not yet ratified include China (w:China), USA (w:USA), Brazil (w:Brazil), Nigeria (w:Nigeria), Philippines (w:Philippines), Viet Nam (w:Vietnam), Germany (w:Germany), and Egypt (w:Egypt). The largest non-signers are Indonesia (w:Indonesia), Russia (w:Russia), Colombia (w:Colombia), Tanzania (w:Tanzania), and Uzbekistan (w:Uzbekistan). The Himalayan (w:Himalayas) kingdom of Bhutan (w:Bhutan) went beyond the treaty requirements when on December 17 it became the first country in the world to completely ban the sale of tobacco. Prominent guests included Viscount Slim (w:Viscount Slim) (son of the late Field Marshal Slim (w:William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim), commander of the British Fourteenth Army (w:British Fourteenth Army) in Burma (w:Burma)), Countess Mountbatten of Burma (w:Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma) (daughter of the late Lord Louis Mountbatten (w:Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma), Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Theatre), and Dame Vera Lynn (w:Vera Lynn). The report comes just days ahead of an Asian political summit, where the foreign ministers of many of the countries already affected by the H5N1 (w:H5N1) virus are expected to agree to even closer co-operative measures to help stall the advance of the virus. The foreign ministers of Cambodia (w:Cambodia), Laos (w:Laos), Burma (w:Burma), Thailand (w:Thailand) and Vietnam (w:Vietnam) have already agreed to closer co-operation to contain the virus and develop a vaccine. Aung San Suu Kyi sentenced to another three years of house arrest Aung San Suu Kyi (w:Aung San Suu Kyi) has been sentenced by a court in Burma (w:Burma) to a further three years of house arrest (w:House arrest) for violating the terms of her previous sentence. However her sentence was immediately commuted to 18 months on the orders of Burmese head of state (w:Head of state) Senior-General Than Shwe (w:Than Shwe) out of respect for her father General Aung San (w:Aung San) and out of a desire for "national reconciliation".


historic people

; * Indo-Aryan (Indo-Aryans) – speakers of Indo-Aryan languages originating from Northern India, eastern Pakistan, Bangladesh and southern and central Sri Lanka. * Indo-Caribbean – Caribbean people (found mostly in Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica) and South American people (found mostly in Guyana, Suriname)of South Asian origins India, Nepal, Burma, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka * Indo-Europeans (Proto-Indo-Europeans) – hypothetical pre-historic

people that spoke the hypothetical Proto-Indo-European language. **Nuristani people in Afghanistan also of Indo-Iranian origins. * Indo-Trinidadian – Trinidad and Tobago people of South Asian origins: India, Pakistan, Nepal, Burma, Bangladesh, Maldives, Sri Lanka and former British colonies of Guyana in South America. * Ingessana – an ethnic minority group in Ethiopia. * Molise Croats. * Mon (Mon (ethnic group)) – southeast Asia, particularly Burma


leadership personal

of the Congress leadership. Personal life Hicks was born in Uganda, the son of a homemaker and a civil engineer. He lived in Kenya , just outside Nairobi, until the age of ten. His family then moved, first to England and, when he was 14, on to Adelaide, South Australia. Though British citizens, his father and grandfather were born in Burma and the West Indies (Caribbean) respectively

Burma

capital Naypyidaw business capital Yangon (Yangon) largest_city Yangon (Yangon) latd 19 latm 45 latNS N longd 96 longm 6 longEW E government_type Unitary (Unitary state) presidential (Presidential system) republic leader_title1 President (President of Burma) leader_name1 Thein Sein leader_title2 Vice-President (Vice President of Burma)s leader_name2 sovereignty_type Formation (History of Burma) established_event1 Pagan Dynasty (Pagan Kingdom) established_date1 23 December 849 established_event2 Toungoo Dynasty (Taungoo dynasty) established_date2 16 October 1510 established_event3 Konbaung Dynasty established_date3 29 February 1752 established_event4 established_date4 4 January 1948 established_event5 Coup d'état (1962 Burmese coup d'état) established_date5 2 March 1962 established_event6 New constitution (Constitution of Burma) established_date6 30 March 2011 legislature Assembly of the Union upper_house House of Nationalities lower_house area_rank 40th area_magnitude 1 E11 area_km2 676,578 area_sq_mi 261,227 percent_water 3.06 population_census_rank 25th population_census 51,419,420 population_census_year 2014 population_density_km2 76 population_density_sq_mi population_density_rank 125th GDP_PPP_year 2013 GDP_PPP $221.479 billion GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_per_capita $4,344.503 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $56.759 billion GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2013 GDP_nominal_per_capita $1,113.368 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year Gini_change Gini Gini_ref Gini_rank HDI_year 2013 HDI_change steady HDI 0.524 HDI_ref HDI_rank 150th FSI FSI_year 2007 FSI_rank 14th FSI_category Alert currency Kyat (Burmese kyat) (K) currency_code MMK Official exchange rate 6 Kyats Exchange rate 954 Kyats FEC Exchange rate 954 Kyats time_zone MST (Myanmar Standard Time) utc_offset +06:30 drives_on right b calling_code +95 (Telephone numbers in Burma) cctld .mm iso3166code MM footnote_a Some governments recognise Yangon (Rangoon) (Yangon) as the footnote_b Road infrastructure is still for driving on the left.

'''Burma''' ( Burma is 676,578 square kilometres (261,227 sq mi) in size. Burma's capital city is Naypyidaw and its largest city is Yangon.

Early civilisations in Burma included the Tibeto-Burman (Tibeto-Burman languages)-speaking Pyu (Pyu people) in Upper Burma and the Mon (Mon kingdoms) in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Burmans (Bamar) of the Kingdom of Nanzhao entered the upper Irrawaddy (Irrawaddy River) valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Empire in the 1050s, the Burmese language, culture (Culture of Burma) and Theravada Buddhism slowly became dominant in the country. The Pagan Empire fell due to the Mongol invasions (Mongol invasion of Burma) and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo Dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia. Lieberman 2003: 152 The early 19th century Konbaung Dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Burma and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British conquered Burma after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony (British rule in Burma). Burma became an independent nation in 1948 (Independence Day (Burma)), initially as a democratic nation (Post-independence Burma, 1948–62) and then, following a coup in 1962 (1962 Burmese coup d'état), a military dictatorship (Burma Socialist Programme Party) which formally ended in 2011.

For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and a myriad of Burma's ethnic groups (List of ethnic groups in Burma) have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars (List of ongoing armed conflicts). During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights (Human rights in Burma) violations in the country.

Burma is a country rich in jade and gems (Gemstone), oil, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP (Gross Domestic Product) (nominal) stood at US$56.759 billion and its GDP (PPP (Purchasing power parity)) at US$221.479 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government. As of 2013, according to the Human Development Index (HDI), Burma had a low level of human development, ranking 150 out of 187 countries.

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