Burma

What is Burma known for?


unusual ability

. There was an ancient Chinese harp called ''konghou''; the name is also now used for a modern Chinese instrument which is being revived. This double bridge harp has the unusual ability to pitch bend the notes while playing. The paired strings are joined at opposite ends of freely moving short levers so that while playing, manually tensioning one of the strings raises the pitch of its linked pair. At present, opium poppies are mostly grown in Afghanistan


artistic tradition

a Buddhist state. *1287: The Theravada kingdom at Pagan, Myanmar falls to the Mongols and is overshadowed by the Shan (Shan people) capital at Ava (Inwa). *c. 1279–1298: Sukhothai (Sukhothai kingdom)'s third and most famous ruler, Ram Khamhaeng (Ram Khamhaeng the Great) (Rama the Bold), reigns and makes vassals of Laos, much of modern Thailand, Pegu (Burma), and parts of the Malay Peninsula, thus giving rise to Sukhothai artistic tradition. After


small nearby

. The Hmong are known in China as the ''Miao'', a designation that embraces several different ethnic groups. There is debate about usage of this term, especially amongst Hmong living in the West, as it is believed by some to be derogatory, although Hmong living in China still call themselves by this name. Chinese scholars have recorded contact with the Miao as early as the 3rd century BCE, and wrote of them that they were a proud and independent people. However, after the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty attempted to impose several new taxation systems and continued expansion of their empire, the Hmong are reported to have rebelled. Many wars were randomness fought, and eventually many Hmong were pushed from China into Burma (Myanmar), Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. The history of the Hmong people is difficult to trace; they have an oral tradition, but there are no written records except where other people have encountered them. Hmong history has been passed down through legends and ritual ceremonies from one generation to another. Najmul Millat was a contemporary of Ziauddin al-Iraqi, Kazim Tabatabai Yazdi and Abul Hasan Isfehani. He was a Faqih of the highest rank and trained several Ulama like Sibte Hasan, Adeel Akhtar and Kitayat Husain. CHAPTER 2 THE FUQAHA He will always be remembered for his services to the Shi'a (Shia Islam) of Tibet, Burma, Africa and countries in the West rendered through the missionaries trained in his Jamia Nazmia. He wrote several books. * Three novels effectively tell the story of Burma (w:Burma)'s recent history. The link begins with Burmese Days (w:Burmese Days), which chronicles the country's history under British colonialism. Not long after Burma became independent from Britain in 1948, a military dictator sealed off the country from the outside world, launched 'The Burmese Way to Socialism', and turned Burma into one of the poorest countries in Asia. The same story is told in ''Animal Farm (w:Animal farm)''. Finally in ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' Orwell's description of a horrifying and soulless dystopia paints a chillingly accurate picture of Burma today, a country ruled by one of the world's most brutal and tenacious dictatorships. In Burma there is a joke that Orwell wrote not just one novel about the country, but three: a trilogy comprised of ''Burmese Days'', ''Animal Farm'' and ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''. ** Emma Larkin (w:Emma Larkin), ''Finding George Orwell in Burma'', p. 3. *My attitude to peace is rather based on the Burmese (w:Burma) definition of peace - it really means removing all the negative factors that destroy peace in this world. So peace does not mean just putting an end to violence or to war, but to all other factors that threaten peace, such as discrimination, such as inequality (w:inequality), poverty. **Aung San Suu Kyi, in Suu Kyi gives Nobel speech in Norway, 21 years later *Ahoms, a tribe from Burma (w:Burma), who controlled the region from thirteenth to eighteenth centuries, who absorbed Hindu culture (w:Hindu culture), were the original builders of Guwahati’ most famous site, a shrine to the goddess Sati (w:Sati), also known as Kali (w:Kali), consort of Shiva (w:Shiva). **Anthony Levi, Trudy Ring, in Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda, "International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania", p. 308. *Experimental gardens Tree that bears Qunine were opened on the Nilgiri Mountains (w:Nilgiri mountains) of Southern India (w:South India), the Himalayas on the north of Bengal (w:Bengal), the hills of Assam (w:Assam) and the Northwest Provinces, and on the highlands of Burma (w:Burma). With the exception of the Nilgiri and Himalayas, these localities were found to be unfavorable. At Darjeeling (w:Darjeeling) in the Himalayas, four hundred miles north of Calcutta, near which the cinchona (w:Cinchona)-gardens are located, … Cinchona alkaloid (w:Qunine) is now largely used throughout the country, with a proportionate reduction in the demand for quinine (w:Qunine). **Quinine (w:Quinine) in “The Tree That Bears Quinine” by Otis Robinson Bacheler quoted in: Science Monthly Volume 21 May 1882 , Wikisource. right thumb Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge is worthy of eulogisation - Sama Veda (File:Mysore_Painting.jpg). '''Saraswati (w:Saraswati)''' (Sanskrit (w;Sankrit language): सरस्वती, Sarasvatī ?) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, arts, wisdom and nature. She is a part of the trinity of Saraswati, Lakshmi and Parvati. All the three forms help the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in the creation, maintenance and destruction of the Universe. The Goddess is also revered by believers of the Jain religion (w:Jain religion )of west and central India. She is known in Burmese (w:Burma) as Thurathadi or Tipitaka Medaw , in Chinese (w:Chinese language) as Biàncáitiān (辯才天), in Japanese as Benzaiten (弁才天 弁財天) and in Thai (w:Thai language) as Surasawadee (สุรัสวดี). Of the countries ratifying the treaty, the largest are (in order of decreasing population) India (w:India), Pakistan (w:Pakistan), Bangladesh (w:Bangladesh), Japan (w:Japan), Mexico (w:Mexico), Thailand (w:Thailand), France (w:France), and Burma (w:Burma). Nations that have signed but not yet ratified include China (w:China), USA (w:USA), Brazil (w:Brazil), Nigeria (w:Nigeria), Philippines (w:Philippines), Viet Nam (w:Vietnam), Germany (w:Germany), and Egypt (w:Egypt). The largest non-signers are Indonesia (w:Indonesia), Russia (w:Russia), Colombia (w:Colombia), Tanzania (w:Tanzania), and Uzbekistan (w:Uzbekistan). The Himalayan (w:Himalayas) kingdom of Bhutan (w:Bhutan) went beyond the treaty requirements when on December 17 it became the first country in the world to completely ban the sale of tobacco. Prominent guests included Viscount Slim (w:Viscount Slim) (son of the late Field Marshal Slim (w:William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim), commander of the British Fourteenth Army (w:British Fourteenth Army) in Burma (w:Burma)), Countess Mountbatten of Burma (w:Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma) (daughter of the late Lord Louis Mountbatten (w:Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma), Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Theatre), and Dame Vera Lynn (w:Vera Lynn). The report comes just days ahead of an Asian political summit, where the foreign ministers of many of the countries already affected by the H5N1 (w:H5N1) virus are expected to agree to even closer co-operative measures to help stall the advance of the virus. The foreign ministers of Cambodia (w:Cambodia), Laos (w:Laos), Burma (w:Burma), Thailand (w:Thailand) and Vietnam (w:Vietnam) have already agreed to closer co-operation to contain the virus and develop a vaccine. Aung San Suu Kyi sentenced to another three years of house arrest Aung San Suu Kyi (w:Aung San Suu Kyi) has been sentenced by a court in Burma (w:Burma) to a further three years of house arrest (w:House arrest) for violating the terms of her previous sentence. However her sentence was immediately commuted to 18 months on the orders of Burmese head of state (w:Head of state) Senior-General Than Shwe (w:Than Shwe) out of respect for her father General Aung San (w:Aung San) and out of a desire for "national reconciliation".


works work

; ref During the medieval period, Sri Lanka was divided to three sub-territories, namely Ruhunu (Kingdom of Ruhuna), Pihiti and Maya (Maya Rata). Peoples and languages The most numerous of the Sino-Tibetan-speaking peoples are the Han Chinese numbering 1.3 billion people. The Hui


study+population

if it is bordering primary tropical forests. It is distributed from North-Eastern India and Southern China into the North-West tip of West Malaysia on the Malay Peninsula. It is also found in Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, and far Eastern Bangladesh. A study population was introduced to Tanaxpillo, an uninhabited island in Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico in 1974


products construction

Rights Abuse Concerns publisher Blouin ARTINFO accessdate 15 May 2013 Other industries include agricultural goods, textiles, wood products, construction materials, gems, metals, oil and natural gas. Tourism thumb 250px Stilt houses at Inle Lake (File:Inle Lake Burma Resort 1.jpg). Since 1992, the government has encouraged tourism in the country; however, fewer than 270,000 tourists entered the country in 2006 according to the Myanmar Tourism


commercial military

into an extensive, dependable and robust network providing connectivity to almost all parts of India, Burma, the Straits Settlements and other areas controlled by the British East India Company (EIC). Based on the model postal system introduced in England by the reformer, Rowland Hill (Rowland Hill (postal reformer)), efficient postal services were provided at a low cost and enabled the smooth commercial, military and administrative functioning of the EIC and its successor


agricultural projects

relief teams that serve in natural disasters and war zones. It also supports preschools and orphanages in poor communities, runs primary health care programs, and is also involved in building and construction, water and agricultural projects. In recent years ARMS has launched the Buzz Off campaign against malaria and the Donna McDermid memorial fund which addresses gender injustice and sexual abuse in the developing world. Christian Aid


temple year

. <


vivid red

vivid

red reflections. The stone was mined from the Mogok region of Burma (now Myanmar) in the 1930s. . The Hmong are known in China as the ''Miao'', a designation that embraces several different ethnic groups. There is debate about usage of this term, especially amongst Hmong living in the West, as it is believed by some to be derogatory, although Hmong living in China still call themselves by this name. Chinese scholars have recorded contact with the Miao as early as the 3rd century BCE, and wrote of them that they were a proud and independent people. However, after the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty attempted to impose several new taxation systems and continued expansion of their empire, the Hmong are reported to have rebelled. Many wars were randomness fought, and eventually many Hmong were pushed from China into Burma (Myanmar), Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. The history of the Hmong people is difficult to trace; they have an oral tradition, but there are no written records except where other people have encountered them. Hmong history has been passed down through legends and ritual ceremonies from one generation to another. Najmul Millat was a contemporary of Ziauddin al-Iraqi, Kazim Tabatabai Yazdi and Abul Hasan Isfehani. He was a Faqih of the highest rank and trained several Ulama like Sibte Hasan, Adeel Akhtar and Kitayat Husain. CHAPTER 2 THE FUQAHA He will always be remembered for his services to the Shi'a (Shia Islam) of Tibet, Burma, Africa and countries in the West rendered through the missionaries trained in his Jamia Nazmia. He wrote several books. * Three novels effectively tell the story of Burma (w:Burma)'s recent history. The link begins with Burmese Days (w:Burmese Days), which chronicles the country's history under British colonialism. Not long after Burma became independent from Britain in 1948, a military dictator sealed off the country from the outside world, launched 'The Burmese Way to Socialism', and turned Burma into one of the poorest countries in Asia. The same story is told in ''Animal Farm (w:Animal farm)''. Finally in ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' Orwell's description of a horrifying and soulless dystopia paints a chillingly accurate picture of Burma today, a country ruled by one of the world's most brutal and tenacious dictatorships. In Burma there is a joke that Orwell wrote not just one novel about the country, but three: a trilogy comprised of ''Burmese Days'', ''Animal Farm'' and ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''. ** Emma Larkin (w:Emma Larkin), ''Finding George Orwell in Burma'', p. 3. *My attitude to peace is rather based on the Burmese (w:Burma) definition of peace - it really means removing all the negative factors that destroy peace in this world. So peace does not mean just putting an end to violence or to war, but to all other factors that threaten peace, such as discrimination, such as inequality (w:inequality), poverty. **Aung San Suu Kyi, in Suu Kyi gives Nobel speech in Norway, 21 years later *Ahoms, a tribe from Burma (w:Burma), who controlled the region from thirteenth to eighteenth centuries, who absorbed Hindu culture (w:Hindu culture), were the original builders of Guwahati’ most famous site, a shrine to the goddess Sati (w:Sati), also known as Kali (w:Kali), consort of Shiva (w:Shiva). **Anthony Levi, Trudy Ring, in Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda, "International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania", p. 308. *Experimental gardens Tree that bears Qunine were opened on the Nilgiri Mountains (w:Nilgiri mountains) of Southern India (w:South India), the Himalayas on the north of Bengal (w:Bengal), the hills of Assam (w:Assam) and the Northwest Provinces, and on the highlands of Burma (w:Burma). With the exception of the Nilgiri and Himalayas, these localities were found to be unfavorable. At Darjeeling (w:Darjeeling) in the Himalayas, four hundred miles north of Calcutta, near which the cinchona (w:Cinchona)-gardens are located, … Cinchona alkaloid (w:Qunine) is now largely used throughout the country, with a proportionate reduction in the demand for quinine (w:Qunine). **Quinine (w:Quinine) in “The Tree That Bears Quinine” by Otis Robinson Bacheler quoted in: Science Monthly Volume 21 May 1882 , Wikisource. right thumb Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge is worthy of eulogisation - Sama Veda (File:Mysore_Painting.jpg). '''Saraswati (w:Saraswati)''' (Sanskrit (w;Sankrit language): सरस्वती, Sarasvatī ?) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, arts, wisdom and nature. She is a part of the trinity of Saraswati, Lakshmi and Parvati. All the three forms help the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in the creation, maintenance and destruction of the Universe. The Goddess is also revered by believers of the Jain religion (w:Jain religion )of west and central India. She is known in Burmese (w:Burma) as Thurathadi or Tipitaka Medaw , in Chinese (w:Chinese language) as Biàncáitiān (辯才天), in Japanese as Benzaiten (弁才天 弁財天) and in Thai (w:Thai language) as Surasawadee (สุรัสวดี). Of the countries ratifying the treaty, the largest are (in order of decreasing population) India (w:India), Pakistan (w:Pakistan), Bangladesh (w:Bangladesh), Japan (w:Japan), Mexico (w:Mexico), Thailand (w:Thailand), France (w:France), and Burma (w:Burma). Nations that have signed but not yet ratified include China (w:China), USA (w:USA), Brazil (w:Brazil), Nigeria (w:Nigeria), Philippines (w:Philippines), Viet Nam (w:Vietnam), Germany (w:Germany), and Egypt (w:Egypt). The largest non-signers are Indonesia (w:Indonesia), Russia (w:Russia), Colombia (w:Colombia), Tanzania (w:Tanzania), and Uzbekistan (w:Uzbekistan). The Himalayan (w:Himalayas) kingdom of Bhutan (w:Bhutan) went beyond the treaty requirements when on December 17 it became the first country in the world to completely ban the sale of tobacco. Prominent guests included Viscount Slim (w:Viscount Slim) (son of the late Field Marshal Slim (w:William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim), commander of the British Fourteenth Army (w:British Fourteenth Army) in Burma (w:Burma)), Countess Mountbatten of Burma (w:Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma) (daughter of the late Lord Louis Mountbatten (w:Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma), Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Theatre), and Dame Vera Lynn (w:Vera Lynn). The report comes just days ahead of an Asian political summit, where the foreign ministers of many of the countries already affected by the H5N1 (w:H5N1) virus are expected to agree to even closer co-operative measures to help stall the advance of the virus. The foreign ministers of Cambodia (w:Cambodia), Laos (w:Laos), Burma (w:Burma), Thailand (w:Thailand) and Vietnam (w:Vietnam) have already agreed to closer co-operation to contain the virus and develop a vaccine. Aung San Suu Kyi sentenced to another three years of house arrest Aung San Suu Kyi (w:Aung San Suu Kyi) has been sentenced by a court in Burma (w:Burma) to a further three years of house arrest (w:House arrest) for violating the terms of her previous sentence. However her sentence was immediately commuted to 18 months on the orders of Burmese head of state (w:Head of state) Senior-General Than Shwe (w:Than Shwe) out of respect for her father General Aung San (w:Aung San) and out of a desire for "national reconciliation".

Burma

capital Naypyidaw business capital Yangon (Yangon) largest_city Yangon (Yangon) latd 19 latm 45 latNS N longd 96 longm 6 longEW E government_type Unitary (Unitary state) presidential (Presidential system) republic leader_title1 President (President of Burma) leader_name1 Thein Sein leader_title2 Vice-President (Vice President of Burma)s leader_name2 sovereignty_type Formation (History of Burma) established_event1 Pagan Dynasty (Pagan Kingdom) established_date1 23 December 849 established_event2 Toungoo Dynasty (Taungoo dynasty) established_date2 16 October 1510 established_event3 Konbaung Dynasty established_date3 29 February 1752 established_event4 established_date4 4 January 1948 established_event5 Coup d'état (1962 Burmese coup d'état) established_date5 2 March 1962 established_event6 New constitution (Constitution of Burma) established_date6 30 March 2011 legislature Assembly of the Union upper_house House of Nationalities lower_house area_rank 40th area_magnitude 1 E11 area_km2 676,578 area_sq_mi 261,227 percent_water 3.06 population_census_rank 25th population_census 51,419,420 population_census_year 2014 population_density_km2 76 population_density_sq_mi population_density_rank 125th GDP_PPP_year 2013 GDP_PPP $221.479&nbsp;billion GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_per_capita $4,344.503 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $56.759&nbsp;billion GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2013 GDP_nominal_per_capita $1,113.368 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year Gini_change Gini Gini_ref Gini_rank HDI_year 2013 HDI_change steady HDI 0.524 HDI_ref HDI_rank 150th FSI FSI_year 2007 FSI_rank 14th FSI_category Alert currency Kyat (Burmese kyat) (K) currency_code MMK Official exchange rate 6 Kyats Exchange rate 954 Kyats FEC Exchange rate 954 Kyats time_zone MST (Myanmar Standard Time) utc_offset +06:30 drives_on right b calling_code +95 (Telephone numbers in Burma) cctld .mm iso3166code MM footnote_a Some governments recognise Yangon (Rangoon) (Yangon) as the footnote_b Road infrastructure is still for driving on the left.

'''Burma''' ( Burma is 676,578&nbsp;square&nbsp;kilometres (261,227&nbsp;sq&nbsp;mi) in size. Burma's capital city is Naypyidaw and its largest city is Yangon.

Early civilisations in Burma included the Tibeto-Burman (Tibeto-Burman languages)-speaking Pyu (Pyu people) in Upper Burma and the Mon (Mon kingdoms) in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Burmans (Bamar) of the Kingdom of Nanzhao entered the upper Irrawaddy (Irrawaddy River) valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Empire in the 1050s, the Burmese language, culture (Culture of Burma) and Theravada Buddhism slowly became dominant in the country. The Pagan Empire fell due to the Mongol invasions (Mongol invasion of Burma) and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo Dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia. Lieberman 2003: 152 The early 19th century Konbaung Dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Burma and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British conquered Burma after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony (British rule in Burma). Burma became an independent nation in 1948 (Independence Day (Burma)), initially as a democratic nation (Post-independence Burma, 1948–62) and then, following a coup in 1962 (1962 Burmese coup d'état), a military dictatorship (Burma Socialist Programme Party) which formally ended in 2011.

For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and a myriad of Burma's ethnic groups (List of ethnic groups in Burma) have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars (List of ongoing armed conflicts). During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights (Human rights in Burma) violations in the country.

Burma is a country rich in jade and gems (Gemstone), oil, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP (Gross Domestic Product) (nominal) stood at US$56.759 billion and its GDP (PPP (Purchasing power parity)) at US$221.479 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government. As of 2013, according to the Human Development Index (HDI), Burma had a low level of human development, ranking 150 out of 187 countries.

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