. '''Calamis''' (fl. 5th century BC) was a sculptor (sculpture) of ancient Greece. He was possibly from Boeotia, but nothing certain is known of his life. He is known to have worked in marble, bronze, gold, and ivory, and was famed for statues of horses. According to Pausanias (Pausanias (geographer)) (9.16.1), Calamis produced a statue of Zeus Ammon for Pindar, and mentions a Hermes Criophorus for Tanagra (9.22.1), which was later depicted
and Turkey. Common flavours are ''slivovica'', produced from plums, ''Kajsijevaca'', produced from apricots and ''lozovaca'', made from grapes. Fruits less commonly used are peaches, apples, pears, cherry, figs (ficus), blackberries (Blackberry), and quince. Similar spirits are produced in Romania, Russia and the Caucasus. A popular home-made variant in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Serbia is rakia produced from mixed fruits
. Bogišić's civil code for Montenegro, The General Property Code (Opšti imovinski zakonik), was proclaimed not until 1888. During that time, Bogišić, who was still a Russian professor, established his residence in Paris and engaged in other assignments such as writing a constitution for the Serbian revolutionaries in Herzegovina and establishing state and legal order in Bulgaria which just gained independence from the Ottoman Empire. In 1878 he published his famous collection
; By the beginning of the 19th century, only the royal houses of Bourbon (House of Bourbon) and Savoy (House of Savoy) among Europe's historic national dynasties continued to exclude women from succession. Later, the new monarchies or dynasties of France (under the Bonapartes (House of Bonaparte)), Belgium, Denmark (from 1853), Sweden (from 1810), and the Balkan realms of Albania, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia introduced Salic law. During this era, Spain
tens of countries the Balkan region has extensive natural features and diversity and further diverse history, starting from the Primeval Era and passing through the steps of most European civilizations and empires, as well as some Asian and African, still preserving various historical monuments. ) in the Rila mountain (Rila) in Bulgaria is the highest. Many linguistic families meet
. The countries from which the most international students come are Turkey, China, Bulgaria, Germany, and India. Bulgaria chose not to have the Pan-Slavic colours in its flag (Flag of Bulgaria), instead having a flag very similar to that of Russia but with the central blue strip replaced by a green one. Southern Dobruja was part of the autonomous Bulgarian principality from the time of the liberation of Bulgaria from Ottoman (Ottoman empire) rule in 1878 until the Balkan Wars. After the defeat of Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War, the region was included in Romania under the 1913 Treaty of Bucharest (Treaty of Bucharest, 1913). '''SBB''' (first known as ''Silesian Blues Band'', later as ''Szukaj, Burz, Buduj'' – Polish (Polish language) for "Search, Break up, Build") is a Polish (Poland) progressive rock band formed in 1971 in Siemianowice (Siemianowice Śląskie), Upper Silesia by multi-instrumentalist and vocalist Józef Skrzek. It was one of the most popular super-groups in Poland in the seventies (1970s); they also toured Czechoslovakia, East (East Germany) and West Germany, Bulgaria, Sweden, Denmark and United States. The band split up in 1980 but was briefly re-activated in 1991, 1993, 1998 and finally in 2000. '''Dobrich''' (
. M. Dimitrov ''' helped found the first Bulgarian NATO company (Company (military unit))? *... that '''Edith Killgore Kirkpatrick''' published a short book of favorite songs titled ''Louisiana Let's Sing'' in honor of her husband Claude (Claude Kirkpatrick)'s unsuccessful candidacy for Governor of Louisiana in 1963? '''LWS-3B Mewa''' variant powered with a Fiat R74 860 hp (640 kW) engine for Bulgaria was being developed as well as a floatplane '''LWS-3H
Austria–Hungary drafted 9 million (fighting forces: 7.8 million) soldiers in World War I (over 4 million from the Kingdom of Hungary) on the side of Germany, Bulgaria and Turkey. The Central Powers conquered Serbia. Romania declared war. The Central Powers conquered Southern Romania and the Romanian capital Bucharest. In 1916 Emperor Franz Joseph died, and the new monarch Charles IV (Charles IV of Hungary) sympathized with the pacifists. With great difficulty, the Central powers stopped and repelled the attacks of the Russian Empire. thumb The Second Arab siege of Constantinople from the 14th-century Bulgaria (File:47-manasses-chronicle.jpg)n translation of the Manasses Chronicle (Constantine Manasses). Sulayman's successor Umar II strictly enforced Sharia. Umar II pushing to end drinking and bathhouses where men and women would mix freely. Umar is considered one of the finest rulers in Muslim history, second only to the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. He continued the welfare programs of the last few Umayyad caliphs, expanding them and including special programs for orphans and the destitute. ref>
. Bulgarian and Macedonian (Republic of Macedonia)) and Greek (Greece) and Albanian bagpipe with one drone and one chanter *Istarski mih (Piva d'Istria): a double chantered, droneless Croatian bagpipe whose side by side chanters are cut from a single rectangular piece of wood. They are typically single reed instruments, using the Istrian scale. *Gaida (also the large ''kaba gaida'' from the Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria): Southern
'''Bulgaria''' , Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country (List of European countries by area).
Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period. Its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians and later the Greeks (Ancient Greece) and Romans (Roman Empire). The emergence of a unified Bulgarian state dates back to the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 CE, which dominated most of the Balkans and functioned as a cultural hub for Slavs during the Middle Ages. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State. The following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 it became a single-party socialist state (People's Republic of Bulgaria) as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. In December 1989 (Revolutions of 1989) the ruling Communist Party (Bulgarian Communist Party) allowed multi-party (Multi-party system) elections, which subsequently led to Bulgaria's transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.
Bulgaria's population of 7.4 million people is predominantly urbanised and mainly concentrated in the administrative centres of its 28 provinces (Provinces of Bulgaria). Most commercial and cultural activities are centred on the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are heavy industry, power engineering, and agriculture, all of which rely on local natural resources.
The country's current political structure dates to the adoption of a democratic constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a unitary (Unitary state) parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation. It is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); and has taken a seat at the UN Security Council (United Nations Security Council) three times.