Anderson, Daniel and Elidio, formerly from the aforementioned ''Quinta Categoria''. Landscape architecture continues to develop as a design discipline, and to respond to the various movements in architecture and design throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. Thomas Church (Thomas Dolliver Church) was a mid-century landscape architect significant in the profession. His book, ''Gardens Are For People'', and numerous campus master planning and residential design projects influenced
men. * Nelson Mandela, former president of South Africa and well known face of the combat against apartheid, announced on 6 January at a press conference in Johannesburg, that his 56 year old son Makghato Mandela died of HIV-AIDS. "Speaking out is the only means of stopping AIDS being seen as an extraordinary disease, causing people to go to hell rather than to paradise", declared the man that for several years fights the taboo and discriminations related
of Light Music Festivals asked him to write a song to represent the Lebanese in the Rio de Janeiro Song Festival. His song won the first prize. His 2007 film ''The War on Democracy'' was Pilger's first cinema release and was named Best Documentary at the 2008 One World Media Awards. The One World Media Awards 2008 The film explores the historic and current relationship of Washington with Latin American
'' (2010), which features Chris Botti. Some unusual interpretations include an electronic version by William Orbit in ''Pieces in a Modern Style'' (2000), a solo bass guitar version by Jimmy Earl (1995), and Hayley Westenra's vocal adaptation "Never Say Goodbye", which appears in her album ''Pure (Pure_%28Hayley_Westenra_album%29)'' (2004). '''Élber Giovane de Souza''', simply '''Élber''' (born 23 July 1972 in Londrina, Paraná (Paraná (state))), is a retired Brazilian footballer (Association football) who played as a striker (Forward (association football)). The '''Green-headed Tanager''', ''Tangara seledon'', is a bird found in Atlantic forest in south-eastern Brazil, far eastern Paraguay and far north-eastern Argentina (Misiones only). The '''Federal University of Amazonas''' "Adopt a Tree in the Amazon Programme." ''Federal University of Amazonas'' (
name of the brown brocket deer comes from the Felix de Azara's Gouazoubira. Azara was the first to provide a quality description of the small deer population in the Americas, and he referred to the red brocket deer as Gouazoupita, while he referred to the brown brocket deer as Gouazoubira. Gouazoubira has been maintained in the current species name, ''Mazama gouazoubira''. Though sometimes it is seen as Mazama gouazoupira, this is incorrect, perhaps mistakenly replacing a "b"
was a place full of romantic characters such as coffee barons, musicians and poets and hinterland explorers. One of these is Conde (count) de Serra Negra, who is locally considered the father of Lawrence of Arabia and Rhett Butler, who is said to be buried there. Of note, Botucatu's municipal council has declared war on Great-Britain on two distinct occasions, with no actual consequences.
;mdash; small shops usually carry fake ones. If you have space in your bags, a Brazilian woven cotton '''hammock''' is a nice, functional purchase as well. Another interesting and fun item is a '''peteca''', a sort of hand shuttlecock used in a traditional game of the same name, similar to volleyball. Shopping It's not a bad idea to pack light and acquire a Brazilian wardrobe within a couple of days of arrival. It will make you less obvious as a tourist, and give you months of satisfied gloating back home about the great bargains you got whenever you are complimented on your clothing. Brazilians have their own sense of style and that makes tourists - especially those in Hawaiian shirts or sandals with socks - stand out in the crowd. Have some fun shopping, and blend in. Another good reason for buying clothes and shoes in Brazil is that the quality is usually good and the prices often cheap. However, this does not apply to any foreign brand as imports are burdened by high import taxes - therefore, do not expect to find any good prices on brands like Diesel, Levi's, Tommy Hilfiger, etc. To figure your Brazilian trousers size, measure your waist in centimeters, divide by 2, and round up to the next even number. Store windows will often display a price followed by "X 5" or "X 10", etc. This is an installment-sale price. The price displayed is the per-installment price, so that, "R$50 X 10", for example, means 10 payments (typically monthly) of R$50 each. The actual price is often lower if you pay in cash. Make sure any appliances you buy are either dual voltage or the same as in your home country. Brazil is 60 Hz, so don't buy electric clocks or non-battery operated motorized items if you live in Europe or Australia. The voltage, however, varies by state or even regions inside the same state. (see Electricity (Brazil#Electricity) below). Brazilian-made appliances and electronics are expensive. If not, they are usually of poor quality. All electronics are expensive compared to European or US prices. Brazil uses a hybrid video system called "PAL-M." It is NOT at all compatible with the PAL system of Europe and Australia. Television began in black and white using the NTSC system of the USA and Canada, then years later, using PAL for its analogue colour—making a totally unique system. Nowadays, most new TV sets are NTSC compatible. However, the newly introduced digital TV standard is not compatible with that of most other countries. Digital video appliances such as DVD players are also compatible with NTSC (all digital colour is the same worldwide), but make sure the DVD region code(s), if any, match your home country (Brazil is part of Region 4). Prices for imported electronic goods can be quite expensive due to high import tax, and the range of domestic electronic gadgets is not very wide. Also, be aware that the term "DVD" in Brazil is both an abbreviation for the disc itself and for its player, so be specific to avoid confusion. Although the strength of the Real means that shopping in Brazil is no longer cheap, there are still plenty of bargains to be had, especially leather goods, including shoes (remember sizes are different though). Clothes in general are a good buy, especially for women, for whom there are many classy items. Street markets, which are common, are also a very good option, but avoid brand names like "Nike" - you will pay more and it's probably fake. Don't be afraid to "feel" an item. If it doesn't feel right, most likely it isn't! Beware of the dreaded "Made in China" label. If there's none, it's probably Brazilian, but be aware: some Brazilian-made products are less robust than their American or European counterparts. Eat Cuisine thumb "Feijoada", probably Brazil's most famous dish (File:Feijoada 01.jpg) Brazil's cuisine is as varied as its geography and culture. On the other hand, some may find it an unrefined melange, and everyday fare can be bland and monotonous. While there are some quite unique dishes of regional origin, many dishes were brought by overseas immigrants and have been adapted to local tastes through the generations. Italian and Chinese food in Brazil can often be as baffling as Amazonian fare. Brazil's national dish is '''feijoada''', a hearty stew made of black beans, pork (ears, knuckles, chops, sausage) and beef (usually dried). It's served with rice, garnished with collard greens and sliced oranges. It's not served in every restaurant; the ones that serve it typically offer it on Wednesdays and Saturdays. A typical mistake made by tourists is to eat too much ''feijoada'' upon first encounter. This is a heavy dish — even Brazilians usually eat it parsimoniously. The standard Brazilian set lunch is called ''prato feito'', with its siblings ''comercial'' and ''executivo''. Rice and brown beans in sauce, with a small steak. Sometimes farofa, spaghetti, vegetables and French fries will come along. Beef may be substituted for chicken, fish or others. Excellent '''seafood''' can be found in coastal towns, especially in the Northeast (Northeast (Brazil)). Brazilian snacks, ''lanches'' (sandwiches) and ''salgadinhos'' (most anything else), include a wide variety of pastries. Look for '''coxinha''' (deep-fried, batter-coated chicken), '''empada''' (a tiny pie, not to be confused with the empanada - empadas and empanadas are entirely different items), and '''pastel''' (fried turnovers). Another common snack is a '''misto quente''', a pressed,toasted ham-and-cheese sandwich. '''Pão-de-queijo''', a roll made of manioc flour and cheese, is very popular, especially in Minas Gerais state - pão-de-queijo and a cup of fresh Brazilian coffee is a classic combination. Regional cuisines * '''Southern''' - ''Churrasco'' is Brazilian barbecue, and is usually served "rodizio" or "espeto corrido" (all-you-can-eat). Waiters carry huge cuts of meat on steel spits from table to table, and carve off slices onto your plate (use the tongs to grab the meat slice and don't touch the knife edge with your silverware to avoid dulling the edge). Traditionally, you are given a small wooden block colored green on one side and red on the other. When you're ready to eat, put the green side up. When you're too stuffed to even tell the waiter you've had enough, put the red side up... ''Rodizio'' places have a buffet for non-meaty items; beware that in some places, the desserts are not considered part of the main buffet and are charged as a supplement. Most churrasco restaurants (''churrascarias'') also serve other types of food, so it is safe to go there with a friend that is not really fond of meat. While churrascarias are usually fairly expensive places (for Brazilian standards) in the North, Central and the countryside areas of the country they tend to be much cheaper then in the South and big cities, where they are frequented even by the less affluent. * '''Mineiro''' is the "miner's" cuisine of Minas Gerais, based on pork and beans, with some vegetables. Dishes from Goiás are similar, but use some local ingredients such as ''pequi'' and ''guariroba''. Minas Gerais cuisine if not seen as particularly tasty, has a "homely" feel that is much cherished. * The food of '''Bahia''', on the northeast coast has its roots across the Atlantic in East Africa and Indian cuisine. Coconut, dende palm oil, hot peppers, and seafood are the prime ingredients. Tip: hot ("quente") means lots of pepper, cold ("frio") means less or no pepper at all. If you dare to eat it ''hot'' you should try ''acarajé'' (prawn-filled roasties) and vatapá (drinkable black beans soup). * Espírito Santo and Bahia have two different versions of ''moqueca'', a delightful tomato-based seafood stew prepared in a special type of clay pot. * Amazonian (North (Brazil)) cuisine draws from the food of the indigenous inhabitants, including various exotic fish and vegetables. There is also a stupendous variety of tropical fruits. * Ceará's food has a great sort of seafood, and is known to have the country's best crab. It's so popular that literally every weekend thousands of people go to '''Praia do Futuro''' in Fortaleza to eat fried fish and crabs (usually followed by cold beer). Brazilian cuisine also has a lot of imports: * '''Pizza''' is very popular in Brazil. In Sāo Paulo, travellers will find the highest rate of pizza parlours per inhabitant in the country. The variety of flavours is extremely vast, with some restaurants offering more than 100 types of pizza. It is worth noting the difference between the European "mozzarella" and the Brazilian "mussarela". They differ in flavor, appearance and origin but buffalo mozzarella ("mussarela de búfala") is also often available. The Brazilian "mussarela", which tops most pizzas, is yellow in color and has a stronger taste. In some restaurants, particularly in the South, pizza has no tomato sauce. Other dishes of Italian origin, such as '''macarrão''' (macaroni), '''lasanha''' and others are also very popular. * Middle-eastern and '''Arab''' (actually Lebanese (Lebanon)) food is widely available. Most options offer high quality and a big variety. Some types of middle-eastern food, such as ''quibe'' and ''esfiha'' have been adapted and are available at snack stands and fast food joints nation-wide. You can also find shawarma (kebabs) stands, which Brazilians calls "churrasco grego" (Greek Barbecue) * São Paulo's '''Japanese''' restaurants serve up lots of tempura, yakisoba, sushi and sashimi. The variety is good and mostly the prices are very attractive when compared to Europe, USA and Japan. Most Japanese restaurants also offer the ''rodizio'' or ''buffet'' option, with the same quality as if you ordered from the menu. Sometimes, however, it can be quite a departure from the real thing. The same can be said of Chinese (China) food, again with some variations from the traditional. Cheese-filled spring rolls, anyone.Japanese restaurants (or those that offer Japanese food) are much commoner than Chinese and can be found in many Brazilian cities, especially in the state of São Paulo. Restaurants * ALL restaurants will add a 10% service charge on the bill, and this is all the tip a Brazilian will ever pay. It is also what most waiters survive on, but it is not mandatory and you may choose to ignore it, although is considered extremely rude to do it. In some tourist areas you might be tried for extra tip. Just remember that you will look like a complete sucker if you exaggerate, and stingy and disrespectful if you don't tip. 5-10 Reais are considered good tips. * There are two types of self-service restaurants,sometimes with both options available in one place: all-you-can-eat buffets with barbecue served at the tables, called '''rodízio''', or a price per weight ('''por quilo'''), very common during lunchtime throughout Brazil. Load up at the buffet and get your plate on the scales before eating any. In the South there's also the traditional Italian "galeto", where you're served different types of pasta, salads, soups and meat (mostly chicken) at your table. * Customers are allowed by law to visit the kitchen and see how the food is being handled, although this is extremely uncommon and doing so will probably be considered odd and impolite. * Some Brazilian restaurants serve only meals for two. The size of the portions might not say in the menu, -ask the waiter. Most restaurants of this category allow for a "half-serving" of such plates (''meia-porção''), at 60-70% of the price. Also, couples at restaurants often sit side-by-side rather than across from each other; observe your waiter's cues or express your preference when being seated. * Fast food is also very popular, and the local takes on hamburgers and hot-dogs ("cachorro-quente", translated literally) are well worth trying. Brazilian sandwiches come in many varieties, with ingredients like mayonnaise, bacon, ham, cheese, lettuce, tomato, corn, peas, raisins, French fries, ketchup, eggs, pickles, etc. Brave eaters may want to try the traditional complete hot dog (just ask for a ''completo''), which, aside from the bun and the sausage, will include everything on display. The ubiquitous ''X-Burger'' (and its varieties X-Salad, X-Tudo, etc.) is not as mysterious as it sounds: the pronunciation of the letter "X" in Portuguese sounds like "cheese", hence the name. * Large chains: The fast-food burger chain ''Bob's'' is found nationwide and has been around in the country for almost as long as McDonald's. There is also a national fast-food chain called ''Habib's'' which despite the name serves pizza in addition to Arabian food (and the founder is Portuguese, by the way). Recent additions, though not as widespread, are Burger King and Subway. Drink Alcohol Brazil's national booze is '''cachaça''' (''cah-shah-sah'', also known as ''aguardente'' ("burning water") and ''pinga''), a 40% sugar-cane liquor known to knock the unwary out quite quickly. It can be tried in virtually every bar in the country. Famous producing regions include Minas Gerais, where there are tours of distilleries, and the city of Paraty. Pirassununga is home to Caninha 51, Brazil's best-selling brand. Outside Fortaleza there is a cachaça museum (''Museu da Cachaça'') where you can learn about the history of the Ypioca brand. Drinking cachaça straight, or stirring in only a dollop of honey or a bit of lime juice, is a common habit on the Northeast region of the country, but the strength of cachaça can be hidden in cocktails like the famous '''caipirinha''', where it is mixed with sugar, lime juice and ice. Using vodka instead of cachaça is nicknamed '''caipiroska''' or '''caipivodka'''; with white rum, it's a '''caipiríssima'''; and with sake it's a '''caipisaque''' (not in every region). Another interesting concoction is called '''capeta''' ("devil"), made with cachaça, condensed milk, cinnamon, guarana powder (a mild stimulant), and other ingredients, varying by region. If you enjoy fine brandy or grappa, try an '''aged cachaça'''. Deep and complex, this golden-coloured spirit is nothing like the ubiquitous clear liquor more commonly seen. A fun trip is to an "alambique" - a local distillery, of which there are thousands throughout the country - not only will you be able to see how the spirit is made from the raw cane sugar, you will probably also get a better price. Well worth a try is Brazilian whisky! It's actually 50% imported scotch - the malt component -and approximately 50% Brazilian grain spirit. Don't be misled by American sounding names like "Wall Street". It is not bourbon. Good value for money and indistinguishable from common British blends. While '''imported alcohol''' is very expensive, many international brands are produced under license in Brazil, making them widely available, and fairly cheap. You can buy booze in the tax-free after landing at Brazilian airports, but it generally is more expensive than buying it outside the airports. Beer '''Beer''' in Brazil has a respectable history because of the German immigrants. Most Brazilian beer brands tend to be way less thick and bitter than German, Danish or English beer. More than 90% of all beer consumed in Brazil is Pilsner, and it is usually drunk very cold (at a temperature close to 0°C). The most popular domestic brands are '''Brahma''', '''Antarctica''', and '''Skol'''. Traditional brands include '''Bohemia''', '''Caracu''' (a stout), '''Original''' and '''Serra Malte''' (another stout). They are easily found in bars and are worth trying but are usually more expensive than the popular beers. There are also some national premium beers that are found only in some specific bars and supermarkets; if you want to taste a good Brazilian beer, search for '''Baden Baden''', '''Colorado''', '''Eisenbahn''', '''Petra''', '''Theresopolis''' and others. There are also some international beers produced by national breweries like Heineken and Stella Artois and have a slightly different taste if compared with the original beers. There are two ways of drinking beer in bars: draft or bottled beer. Draft lager beer is called '''chope''' or '''chopp''' ('SHOH-pee'), and is commonly served with one inch of foam, but you can make a complaint to the bartender if the foam is consistently thicker than that. In bars, the waiter will usually collect the empty glasses and bottles on a table and replace them with full ones, until you ask him to stop, in a "tap" charging system. In the case of bottled beer, bottles (600ml or 1l) are shared among everyone at the table and poured in small glasses, rather than drunk straight from the bottle. Brazilians like their beer nearly ice-cold - hence, to keep the temperature down, bottles of beer are often kept in an insulated polystyrene container on the table. Wine Rio Grande do Sul is the leading '''wine''' production region. There are a number of wine-producing farms that are open to visitors and wine tasting, and wine cellars selling wine and fermented grape juice. One of these farms open to visitors is '''Salton Winery''', located in the city of Bento Gonçalves. The '''São Francisco Valley''', along the border of the states of Pernambuco and Bahia, is the country's newest wine-producing region. Brazilian wines are usually fresher, fruitier and less alcoholic than, for instance, French wines. Popular brands like ''Sangue de Boi'', ''Canção'' and ''Santa Felicidade'' and others with prices below R$6.00 are usually seen as trash. In Minas Gerais, look for ''licor de jabuticaba'' (jabuticaba liquor) or ''vinho de jabuticaba'' (jabuticaba wine), an exquisite purple-black beverage with a sweet taste. ''Jabuticaba'' is the name of a small grape-like black fruit native to Brazil. Coffee and tea Brazil is known world-wide for its high-quality strong coffee. ''Café'' is so popular that it can name meals (just like ''rice'' does in China, Japan and Korea): breakfast in Brazil is called ''café da manhã'' (morning coffee), while ''café com pão'' (coffee with bread) or ''café da tarde'' (afternoon coffee) means a light afternoon meal. ''Cafezinho'' (small coffee) is a small cup of strong, sweetened coffee usually served after meals in restaurants (sometimes for free, just ask politely). Bottled filtered coffee is being replaced by stronger espresso cups in more upscale restaurants. '''Chá''', or tea in Portuguese, is most commonly found in its ''Assam'' version (orange, light coloured). Some more specialised tea shops and cafés will have Earl Gray and green tea available as well. '''Mate''' is an infusion similar to tea that is very high in caffeine content. A toasted version, often served chilled, is consumed all around the country, while '''Chimarrão''' (incidentally called mate in neighbouring Spanish-speaking countries) is the hot, bitter equivalent that can be found in the south and is highly appreciated by the ''gaúchos'' (Rio Grande do Sul dwellers). '''Tererê''' is a cold version of Chimarrão, common in Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso state. Soft drinks Nothing beats '''coconut water''' (''água de coco'') on a hot day. (Stress the first ''o'', otherwise it will come out as "poo" (''cocô'')). It is mostly sold as ''coco gelado'' in the coconut itself, drunk with a straw. Ask the machete-wielding vendors to cut the coconut in half so that you can eat the flesh after drinking the water. If you want a '''Coke''' in Brazil, ask for ''coca'' or ''coca-cola'', as "cola" means "glue", in Portuguese. '''Guaraná''' is a carbonated soft drink made from the ''guaraná'' berry, native to the Amazon area. The major brands are ''Antarctica'' and ''Kuat'', the latter owned by Coke. ''Pureza'' is a lesser known guaraná soft drink specially popular in Santa Catarina. There is also a "Guaraná Jesus" that is popular in Maranhão. Almost all regions in Brazil feature their own local variants on guaraná, some which can be quite different from the standard "Antarctica" in both good and bad ways. If traveling to Amazonas, be sure to try a cold "Baré," which due to its huge popularity in Manaus was purchased by Antarctica and is becoming more available throughout northern Brazil. '''Tubaína''' is a carbonated soft drink once very popular among Brazilians (particularly the ones born in the 70s, 80s and early 90s) and becoming extremely hard to find. It was once mass-produced by "Brahma" before it became focused on beers only. If you happen to find a place that sells it, try it. '''Mineirinho''' (or '''Mate Couro''') is also a popular soft drink made of guaraná and a typical Brazilian leaf called Chapéu de Couro. Although most Brazilians say that it tastes like grass, older people (+70 years) claim that the drink has medicinal properties. Fruit juices Fruit juices are very popular in Brazil. Some cities, notably Rio de Janeiro, have fruit juice bars at nearly every corner. * ''Açai'' (a fruit from the Amazon) is delicious and nutritious (rich in antioxidants) and can be found widespread across the nations. In the Amazon region it's used as a complement to the everyday diet, often eaten together with rice and fish in the main meal of the day. Curiously, outside of the Amazon region, it's typically used in blended in combination with guarana (a stimulant) powder and a banana to re-energize from late-night partying. It is served cold and has a consistency of soft ice. There are also açai ice creams available. * ''Maracuja'' (passion fruit) (careful during an active day as this has a relaxant effect) * ''Caju'' (cashew fruit) and * ''Manga'' (mango) are also great juice experiences. * ''Mangaba'' * ''Umbu'' Brazilians have great taste when it comes to mixing juices. Sleep High season in Brazil follows the school holidays calendar, December and January (summer) being the busiest months. New Year, Carnival (movable between February and March, see ''Understand'' above) and Holy week are the peak periods, and prices can skyrocket, especially in coastal cities like Rio and Salvador. Also, during those holidays, many hotels restrict bookings to a 3 or 4-day minimum and charge in advance. '''Hotels''' are plentiful in just about all areas of Brazil and can range from luxury beach resorts to very modest and inexpensive choices. The Brazilian tourism regulation board imposes specific minimum attributes for each type of facility, but as the 1-5 star rating is no longer enforced, check in advance if your hotel provides the kind of services you expect. '''Pousada''' means guesthouse (the local equivalent of a French ''auberge'' or a British ''boarding house''), and are usually simpler than hotels, and will offer fewer services (room service, laundry etc.). Pousadas are even more widespread than hotels. In wilderness areas like the Pantanal, travelers usually stay in '''fazendas''', which are ranches with guest facilities. In small towns of Minas Gerais people are fond of '''hotéis-fazenda''' (farm hotels) where you can swim, ride, walk, play football, and camp as well as sleep in picturesque barracks. Also there is great fun in going on a '''boat hotel''' which will take you to inaccessible places on the rivers and lakes for great fishing trips or for simply relaxing and watching and photographing the wildlife which is very abundant in the Pantanal. The boats are large, safe, and comfortable with air-conditioned rooms (very necessary). Several small aluminum boats with outboard motor, carried by the boat hotel, driven by experienced fisher guide will take 2 or 3 tourists to the best "points". '''Motel''' is the local term for a "sex hotel". There's no social stigma per se in staying in one, but the room service and rates are geared to adults staying for a few hours with utmost discretion and privacy. '''Youth hostels''' (''albergues da juventude'') are becoming increasingly common. Learn Portuguese courses for foreigners are not widespread outside the big cities. A good alternative is to befriend language students and exchange lessons. If you come to Brazil with some initial notions of Portuguese, you will see that people will treat you much better and you will get by much easier. Language schools in Curitiba (Curitiba#Learn), Salvador (Salvador#Learn), São Paulo (São Paulo#Learn), Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro#Learn), Belo Horizonte (Belo Horizonte#Learn), and Porto Alegre (Porto Alegre#Learn) have Portuguese courses from 2 weeks up. Work If you can get a job, working in Brazil is easy, mostly because there is much informality. In theory, you must have a work permit (''Autorização de Trabalho'') from the Ministry of Labor before you can get a job. However, in order to obtain it, you must be sponsored by an employer before entering the country. The company must want a foreigner bad enough to pay the government upwards of R$2000 to sponsor you, knowing also that they are required by law to simultaneously hire and train a replacement for you. Because of this, finding a legal job can be a pretty daunting bureaucratic task, even in Brazil's growing job market of today. If you are a native English speaker, you may be able to find an English-teaching part-time job, but don't expect that to save your holidays. Although working in the informal market can seem hassle-free at first, there are risks as well. The pay will be under-the-table without contract, so it will be difficult for you to claim your labor rights later. In the bigger cities, there is also the danger of being turned in to the authorities by a rival school, which may see you to a plane home earlier than you had planned. There is also a growing demand for Spanish language classes, so native Spanish speakers should have no trouble finding work, especially in the major cities. In both cases, it's always much more lucrative to find work privately rather than through schools. This can be done easily, for example by putting an ad in the classifieds section of the Veja weekly news magazine (you have to pay for it) or by putting up signs on the notice boards at universities like USP (free of charge). Refer to the Ministry of Labour website for more detailed information. Stay safe By law, everyone must carry a photo ID at all times. For a foreigner, this means your passport. However, the police will mostly be pragmatic and accept a plastified color photocopy. Crime Even the most patriotic Brazilian would say that the greatest problem the country faces is crime. Brazil is one of the most criminalised countries of the world, therefore the crime rate is high, even for a developing nation. Armed bandits have, more recently, been attacking hotels, people inside vehicles or simply shooting at the driver for a quick robbery. Most of the violence against drivers occur while stopping on the semaphore, during daylight or night time, though the latter is more dangerous and many locals prefer to ignore and speed away. Bank robberies and ATM's, recently, are being done with stolen TNT. While in recent years, the overall crime levels are steadily decreasing, Brazil continues to have moderately high crime rates in various aspects, even with a moderate homicide rate (about 28 per 100,000 people). Of significant concern is that policemen may not always provide the best quality of assistance and even be more dangerous than the criminals themselves. Lack of man power, low wages and inappropriate training, all contribute to a lack of professionalism. The police, recently, have become targets for hitmen, either on-duty or off-duty, reward for such an attack often range from USD$300 to $1000 and in some cases even more. Brazil is a country plagued with inequality, in the same city it is possible to find extremely safe and, at the same time, often a few feet away, extremely unsafe areas. Towards the southern part of the country, with higher HDI, the crime is slightly lower. Poor areas Walking in slums and other poor areas while wearing expensive clothes or jewellery is extremely dangerous. If you want to visit such an area, get a reliable contact with recognized NGOs. It is relatively safe, even for foreigners, get in poor areas if accompanied by a community leader. Do not do it alone, nor Brazilians do it! Stay healthy Food from street and beach vendors has a bad hygienic reputation in Brazil. The later in the day, the worse it gets. Bottled and canned drinks are safe, although some people will insist on using a straw to avoid contact with the exterior of the container. Bear in mind the heat and humidity when storing perishable foods. Tap water varies from place to place, (from contaminated, saline or soaked with chlorine to plain drinkable) and Brazilians themselves usually prefer to have it filtered.. In airports, bus stations, as well as many of the cheaper hotels and malls, it is common to find drinking fountains (''bebedouro''), although not always safe. In hostel kitchens, look for the tap with the cylindrical filter attached. In more expensive hotels, there is often no publicly accessible fountain, and bedrooms contain minibars, selling you mineral water at extremely inflated prices — buying bottled water from the store is always the best alternative. Vaccination against yellow fever and taking anti-malaria medication may be necessary if you are travelling to central-western (Mato Grosso) or northern (Amazon) regions. If you're arriving from Peru, Colombia or Bolivia, proof of yellow fever vaccination is required before you enter Brazil. Some countries, such as Australia and South Africa, will require evidence of yellow fever vaccination before allowing you enter the country if you have been in any part of Brazil within the previous week. Check the requirements of any country you will travel to from Brazil. Public hospitals tend to be crowded and terrible, but they attend any kind of person, including foreigners. Most cities of at least 60,000 inhabitants have good private health care. Dentists abound and are way cheaper than North America and Western Europe. In general, the quality of their work is consistent, but ask a local for advice and a recommendation. The emergency number is '''190''', but you must speak Portuguese. Beware that air conditioning in airports, intercity buses etc. is often quite strong. Carry a long-sleeved garment for air-conditioned places. Although Brazil is widely known as a country where sex is freely available, it is sometimes misunderstood regarding HIV. Brazil has one of the best HIV prevention programs and consequently, a very low infection rate compared with most countries. Condoms are highly encouraged by governmental campaigns during Carnaval, and distributed for free by local public medical departments. Respect Brazilians tend to be very open and talk freely about their problems, especially political subjects and other issues. Also, they use a lot of self-deprecating humour. This allows you to make jokes about the problems in Brazil, when they are talking about such issues, in a playful manner. It is common when you pointing out something bad, for them to give answers like, "That's nothing. Look at this here. It's so much worse". But don't imitate them, as they are likely to feel offended if you criticize certain areas, such as nature or soccer. In some small towns, local politics can be a sensitive issue, and you should be careful when talking about it. Always be polite. Be aware that racism is a very serious offence in Brazil. Most Brazilians frown upon racism (at least in public), and even if you are only joking or you think you know your company, it is still wise to refrain from anything that can be perceived as racism. According to the Brazilian Constitution, racism is a crime for which bail is not available, and must be met with 6 months to 8 years imprisonment. This is taken very seriously. However, the law only seems to apply to overt, unquestionably racist statements and actions. Therefore, be aware and be respectful when discussing racial relations in Brazil; do not assume you understand Brazil's history of racial inequality and slavery better than a Brazilian person of colour. Remember that Portuguese is not Spanish and Brazilians (as well as other Portuguese speakers) feel offended if you do not take this in mind. Both languages can be mutually intelligible to a certain extent, but they differ considerably in phonetics, vocabulary and grammar. It is not a good idea to mix Portuguese with Spanish, don't expect people to understand what you're saying if you (intentionally or unintentionally) insert Spanish words into Portuguese sentences. It is also noteworthy that the Brazilians are fanatical about football (soccer) and so there are (sometimes violent) disputes between teams from different cities, and walking with the shirt of a team in certain areas may be seen as controversial or even dangerous. Speaking ill of the Brazilian national football team is not considered an insult, but you should never praise the Argentine team or compare them both. Brazil is open to LGBT tourists. São Paulo boasts the biggest LGBT Pride parade in the world, and most major cities will have gay scenes. However, be aware that homophobia is widespread in Brazilian society, and Brazil is not the sexual haven that many foreigners perceive it to be. Couples that in any way don't conform to traditional heterosexual expectations should expect to be open to some verbal harassment and stares if displaying affection in the streets, though several neighborhoods of many of the major cities are very welcoming of the LGBT population, and LGBT-oriented bars and clubs are common. It is best to gather information from locals as to which areas are more conservative and which are more progressive. Social etiquette * Cheek-kissing is very common in Brazil, among women and between women and men. When two women, or opposite sexes first meet, it is not uncommon to kiss. Two men WILL shake hands. A man kissing another man's cheek is extremely bizarre by Brazilian standards (unless in family relationships, special Italian descendants, and very close friends). Kissing is suitable for informal occasions, used to introduce yourself or being acquainted, especially to young people. Hand shaking is more appropriate for formal occasions or between women and men when no form of intimacy is intended. Trying to shake hands when offered a kiss will be considered odd, but never rude. However, to clearly refuse a kiss is a sign of disdain. :When people first meet, they will kiss once (São Paulo), twice (Rio de Janeiro) or three times (Florianópolis and Belo Horizonte, for instance), depending on where you are, alternating right and left cheeks. Observe that while doing this, you should not kiss on the cheeks (like in Russia) but actually only touch cheeks and make a kissing sound while kissing the air, placing your lips on a strangers cheek is a clear sign of sexual interest. Failing to realise these rules likely won't be seen as rude, especially if it is known that you are a foreigner. * In Brazil showers are long and frequent. In fact Brazil is the only country that rivals Japan in the amount of time people spend cleaning themselves. However, if showering at someone else's home, try not to take too much time. * Many Brazilians can dance and Brazilians are usually at ease with their own bodies. While talking, they may stand closer to each other than North Americans or Northern Europeans do, and also tend to touch each other more, e.g. on the shoulder or arm, hugs etc. This is not necessarily flirtatious in nature. * Brazilians like to drink, especially (very) cold beer (in pubs and in hot weather) and wine (in restaurants or in the winter). However getting drunk, even in a pub, is considered highly uncooth unless you are with very good friends and everybody is as drunk as you. People go to pubs to talk, flirt and tell jokes, not essentially to drink. The consumption of alcoholic beverages on the streets is allowed, but not in football stadiums, remember that. And in certain regions of the country, it is common for homeowners, especially older people, to offer you some cachaça. It is not impolite to refuse, but they may make jokes about you, since drinking cachaça in some places is considered a sign of strength, due to the beverage's high alcohol level. Connect By phone Brazil has international telephone code 55 and two-digit area codes, and phone numbers are eight or nine digits long. Some areas used seven digits until 2006, meaning you might still find some old phone numbers which won't work unless you add another digit. (Mostly, try adding 2 or 3 at the beginning, or if it's an eight-digit number starting with 6 to 9 try adding a 9 at the beginning). Eight-digit numbers beginning with digits 2 to 5 are land lines, while eight-digit or nine-digit numbers beginning with digits 6 to 9 are mobile phones. All cities use the following emergency numbers: * 190 - Police * 192 - SAMU''(Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência)'' * 193 - Firefighters However, if you dial 911 while in Brazil, you will be redirected to the police. To dial to another area code or to another country, you must chose a carrier using a two-digit carrier code. Which carriers are available depends on the area you are dialing from and on the area you are dialing to. Carrier 21 (Embratel) is available in all areas. The international phone number format for calls from other countries to Brazil is +55-(area code)-(phone number) In Brazil: * To dial to another area code: 0-(carrier code)-(area code)-(phone number) * To dial to another country: 00-(carrier code)-(country code)-(area code)-(phone number) * Local collect call: 90-90-(phone number) * Collect call to another area code: 90-(carrier code)-(area code)-(phone number) * International Collect Call: 000111 or through Embratel at 0800-703-2111 Public payphones use disposable prepaid cards, which come with 20, 40, 60 or 75 credits. The discount for buying cards with larger denominations is marginal. Phone booths are nearly everywhere, and all cards can be used in all booths, regardless of the owner phone company. Cards can be bought from many small shops, and almost all news agents sell them. The ''Farmácia Pague Menos'' sells them at official (phone company) price, somewhat cheaper. Calls to cell phones (even local) will use up your credits ''very'' quickly (nearly as expensive as international calls). Calling the USA costs about one real per minute. It's possible to find all international and Brazilian phone codes on DDI and DDD phone codes. By mobile phone When traveling to Brazil, even though it may seem best to carry your cell phone along, you should not dismiss the benefits of the calling cards to call the ones back home. Get yourself a Brazil calling card when packing for your trip. Brazil phone cards has 4 national mobile operators: Vivo (Telefónica Group), Claro (Telmex América Móvil Group), OI and TIM (Telecom Italia Group), all of them running GSM and HSDPA HSPA+ networks. There are also smaller operators, like Nextel (NII Sprint Group) (with iDEN Push-To-Talk and HSPA+), CTBC-ALGAR (GSM and HSDPA in Triangulo Mineiro Region (Minas Gerais)), and Sercomtel (GSM and HSDPA in Paraná). Pay-as-you-go ('''pré-pago''') SIM cards for GSM phones are widely available in places like newsstands, drugstores, supermarkets, retail shops, etc. Vivo uses 850 1800 1900 MHz frequencies, while other operators uses 900 1800 MHz (and some specific cases, 1900Mhz) frequencies. 3G HSDPA coverage is available mostly on big cities on the southeast states and capitals. Some states use 850 MHz but others use 2100 MHz for 3G HSDPA. If you need to unlock a phone from a specific operator, this can be done for a charge in any phone shop. All major carriers (Vivo, Claro, TIM and Oi) can send and receive text messages (SMS) as well as phone calls to from abroad. Some operators (as Vivo, Claro, and TIM), can send and receive international text messages. By net Internet cafes (''Lan houses'') are increasingly common, and even small towns often have at least one spot with more or less decent connections. An increasing number of hotels, airports and shopping malls also offer hotspots for Wi-Fi with your laptop computer. For general tips on internet while travelling, see our travel topic: Internet access By mail The Brazilian ''Correio'' is fairly reliable and post offices are everywhere. However, be aware that if you ask how much it costs to send a letter, postcard or package they will automatically give you the "priority" price (''prioritário'') instead of the normal one (''Econômico''). You might think that the priority one will make it go faster, but it isn't always true; sometimes it takes as long as the normal fare, so be sure to ask for the "econômico" price of anything you wish to dispatch.
; ref more famous under his pen name '''Léo''' is a Brazilian comics creator. Biography After graduating as a mechanical engineer, Oliveira left Brazil because of the then military dictatorship. He lived in Chile until the Chilean coup of 1973, then in Argentina, before returning to Brazil in 1974. He worked as an illustrator in the advertising industry in São Paulo before once more leaving Brazil, this time for France, in 1981. He had hoped to find work
url http: www.bbc.co.uk news world-latin-america-11662712 work BBC News title Has Brazil voted for continuity? date October 31, 2010 <
. Peruvian spider monkey are independent at about 10 months, with a lifespan of about 20 years. Location and distribution Azara's night monkey is distributed throughout southern Central America and northern South America. It can be found in Panama, northern Colombia, northwestern Venezuela, northern Peru, southern Brazil, and eastern Ecuador. It is also found in parts of Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina. It tends to live in vine forests that are low
Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline (Coastline of Brazil) of This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations (Indigenous Brazilian) prior to the landing of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500, who claimed the area for Portugal. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire (Portuguese Empire) was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro (Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil) after French forces invaded Portugal. In 1815, it was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Its independence (Brazilian Independence) was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The country became a presidential republic in 1889, when a military ''coup d'état'' proclaimed the Republic (Proclamation of the Republic (Brazil)), although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress (National Congress of Brazil), dates back to the ratification of the first constitution in 1824. An authoritarian military junta (Brazilian military dictatorship) had led the nation from 1964 (1964 Brazilian coup d'état) until 1985. Brazil's current Constitution (Constitution of Brazil), formulated in 1988, defines it as a federal republic. The Federation is composed of the union of the Federal District (Federal District (Brazil)), the 26 states (States of Brazil), and the 5,570 municipalities (Municipalities of Brazil).
The country's economy (Economy of Brazil) is the world's seventh largest by both nominal GDP (List of countries by GDP (nominal)) and purchasing power parity (List of countries by GDP (PPP)), as of 2012. "World Development Indicators database" (PDF file), World Bank, 7 October 2009. Brazil has been the world's largest producer of coffee (Coffee production in Brazil) for the last 150 years.