Boston

What is Boston known for?


centuries violent

in the United States since as early as the pre-Revolution (American Revolution) era of the 18th century. During the early-to-mid- 19th centuries, violent rioting occurred between Protestant "Nativists" and recently arrived Irish Catholic immigrants. These reached heights during the peak of immigration in the 1840s and 1850s in cities including New York (New York City, New York), Philadelphia (Philadelphia Nativist Riots), and Boston. During the early 20th century, riots were


writing publishing

, a suburb of Boston and became the pastor of Ruggles Street Baptist Church. While holding down the pulpit there, he also taught at the Gordon Bible and Missionary Training School, and turned his passion to writing, publishing ''Old and New'', an attack on the liberal Social Gospel movement. Riley is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." The Coalition is co-chaired by Boston Mayor Thomas Menino and New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. Ship ordered Ship builder City Point Iron Works, Boston, Massachusetts Ship laid down April 1891 birth_date commons:Boston


running musical

. Broadway The musical had a tryout in Boston, before opening on Broadway (Broadway theatre) at the Alvin Theatre on November 21, 1934. It ran for 420 performances, becoming the fourth longest-running musical of the 1930s, despite the impact of the Great Depression on Broadway patrons' disposable income. Directed by Howard Lindsay with choreography by Robert Alton and sets by Donald Oenslager, it starred Ethel Merman as Reno Sweeney, William Gaxton as Billy Crocker and Victor Moore as Moonface Martin. basis The stories of Dr. Seuss productions 2000 Boston tryout 2000 Broadway (Broadway theatre) 2002 1st US Tour 2003 2nd US Tour 2007 Off Broadway In 1932, he and three other partners were awarded an NFL franchise (Sports franchising) for Boston. This team became known as the Boston Braves, as they played on the same field as baseball's Boston Braves (Atlanta Braves). Marshall's partners left the team after one season, leaving him in control. In 1933 he moved the team from Braves Field to Fenway Park, changing the team nickname to the Redskins. In 1937 (1937 Washington Redskins season) he moved the team to Washington. He was romantically tied to silent screen actress Louise Brooks throughout the 1920s and 1930s, and she gave him the nickname "Wet Wash" due to his owning of the laundry chain. He was married to film actress-author Corinne Griffith from 1936 to 1958. In early 1775, Boston's Committee of Correspondence sent John Brown (John Brown of Pittsfield) into Quebec to gather intelligence, gauge sentiment, and agitate for rebellion in that province. He found mixed sentiment among English-speaking inhabitants, some of whom were concerned that the Congress' adoption of an export boycott would essentially give the lucrative fur trade to French-speakers. The bulk of the French-speaking population was at best neutral with respect to British rule; some were happy with it, but more might be convinced to assist the Americans in their aims. Brown also noted the relatively weak military presence in the province. Alden (#Alden), pp. 195-196 General Carleton, while aware of Brown's activities, did nothing to interfere, beyond preventing publication of the letter in the local newspaper. Nelson (#Nelson), p. 59 Drafting the letter The Second Continental Congress met on May 10, 1775, following the Battles of Lexington and Concord in which colonial forces resisted a large British force on April 19 and drove it back to Boston. This victory resulted in Congress opening the session with great excitement and hope. Wrong (#Wrong), pp. 272–273 Air Jamaica and several North American and European airlines run their Caribbean hub in "MoBay" (Sangster International Airport) connecting the island with the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Canada. The southern U.S. city of Miami (Miami, Florida) can be reached within 70 minutes. The southern U.S. cities of Charlotte (Charlotte, North Carolina), Houston (Houston, Texas), Atlanta (Atlanta, Georgia), and Tampa (Tampa, Florida) can be reached by nonstop flights in less than three hours. Other locations like Philadelphia, New York City, Boston, Washington D.C., and Chicago can be reached in under four hours. At the time of Healy's death, the Stooges (consisting of Moe, Larry, and Curly) were at Grand Central Terminal in New York City preparing to leave for a personal appearance in Boston. Before their departure, Howard called Rube Jackter, head of Columbia Pictures' sales department, to confirm their benefit performance at Boston's Children's Hospital. During the conversation, Jackter told Howard that the night editor of ''The New York Times'' wanted to talk to him. Howard phoned ''The Times''. The editor, without even a greeting, queried curtly, "Is this Moe?" Howard said it was. The editor then asked, "Would you like to make a statement on the death of Ted Healy?" Howard was stunned. He dropped the phone. Folding his arms over his head, Howard started to sob. Curly and Larry rushed into the phone booth to warn Howard that their train was about to leave. They found him crumpled over, crying. Since Howard seldom openly showed his emotions, Larry cracked to Curly, "Your brother's nuts. He is actually crying." Howard did not explain the reason for his emotional breakdown until he boarded the train. When they arrived back in Hollywood, they learned the details of Healy's death from a writer friend, Henry Taylor. Taylor told Howard that Healy had been out drinking at the Trocadero (Trocadero (Los Angeles)) nightclub on the Sunset Strip, and an argument broke out with three college boys. Healy called them vile names and offered to go outside the club to take care of them one at a time. Once outside, Ted did not have a chance to raise his fists. The three men jumped him, knocked him to the ground and kicked him in the head, ribs and stomach. Healy's friend actor Joe Frisco came on the scene, picked him up from the sidewalk and took him to his apartment, where Ted died of what medical officials initially called a brain concussion (Concussion). Howard, Moe. (1977, rev. 1979) ''Moe Howard and the Three Stooges'', p. 39; Citadel Press. ISBN 978-0-8065-0723-1 top 100px Pratt Truss (Image:pratt truss.png) The '''Pratt truss''' was patented in 1844 by two Boston railway engineers, ''Bethanga Bridge'' at the NSW Heritage Office; retrieved 2008-Feb-06 Caleb Pratt and his son Thomas Willis Pratt. ''A Brief History of Covered Bridges in Tennessee'' at the Tennessee Department of Transportation; retrieved 2008-Feb-06 The design uses vertical members for compression (compression (physical)) and horizontal members to respond to tension (Tension (physics)). What is remarkable about this style is that it remained popular even as wood gave way to iron, and even still as iron gave way to steel. ''The Pratt Truss'' courtesy of the Maryland Department of Transportation; retrieved 2008-Feb-6 The continued popularity of the Pratt truss is probably due to the fact that the configuration of the members means that longer diagonal members are only in tension for gravity load effects. This allows these members to be used more efficiently, as slenderness effects related to buckling under compression loads (which are compounded by the length of the member) will typically not control the design. Therefore, for given planar truss with a fixed depth, the Pratt configuration is usually the most efficient under static, vertical loading. In 1636, when under suspicion, Miantonomoh went to Boston to prove his loyalty to the colonists. In the following year, during the Pequot War, he permitted John Mason (John Mason (c.1600-1672)) to lead his Connecticut expedition against the Pequot Indians through Narraganset country. The Pequot were defeated in this war. In 1638, he signed for the Narraganset the tripartite treaty between that tribe, the Connecticut colonists and the Mohegan Indians, which provided for a perpetual peace between the parties, and Miantonomoh was given control over eighty of the two hundred Pequot. However, conflict continued with the Mohegans over control of the Pequot people and land. Miantonomoh tried to organize other tribes throughout the English colonies in a union against the English. left thumb Miantonomo's Monument located in Sachem's Park, Norwich, Connecticut (Image:Miantonomoh Monument 1.jpg). First World War service Leckie learned to fly in Toronto and joined the Royal Naval Air Service in 1915. During the First World War he flew anti-submarine patrols over the North Sea. Flying a Curtiss H12 flying boat on reconnaissance, Leckie downed the German zeppelin ''L22'' (List of Zeppelins) near Terschelling on May 14, 1917. Fifteen months later, during a nighttime raid on August 6, 1918, a German zeppelin formation under the command of ''Führer der Luftschiffe (FdL.)'' (Admiral, 2nd class) Peter Strasser attacked Boston, Norwich, and the Humber estuary. Flying in a DH.4 (Airco DH.4) biplane, Major Egbert Cadbury (pilot) and Leckie (gunner) took part in the interception engagement and were credited with downing Zeppelin ''L70'' (List of Zeppelins) just north of Wells-next-the-Sea on the Norfolk coast. ''FdL.'' Strasser, head of the Imperial German Navy's (Kaiserliche Marine) zeppelin forces, was on board ''L70'' and did not survive. By the end of the war, Leckie was a Wing Commander (Wing Commander (rank)) in the Royal Air Force (RAF). right thumb Casa Bonita (File:Casa Bonita 2.jpg) The antecedents of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style can be traced to the Mediterranean Revival architectural (Mediterranean Revival architecture) style. For St. Augustine, Florida, three northeastern architects, New Yorkers (New York City) John Carrère and Thomas Hastings (Thomas Hastings (architect)) of Carrère and Hastings and Bostonian Franklin W. Smith, designed grand, elaborately detailed hotels in the Mediterranean Revival and Spanish Revival (:Category:Spanish Revival architecture) styles in the 1880s. With the advent of the Ponce de León Hotel (Carrère and Hastings, 1882), the Alcazar Hotel (Lightner Museum) (Carrère and Hastings, 1887) and the Casa Monica Hotel (later Hotel Cordova) (Franklin W. Smith, 1888) thousands of winter visitors to 'the Sunshine State' began to experience the charm and romance of Spanish influenced architecture. These three hotels were influenced not only by the centuries old buildings remaining from the Spanish rule in St. Augustine (St. Augustine, Florida#Spanish rule) but also by ''The Old City House'', constructed in 1873 and still standing, an excellent example of early Spanish Colonial Revival architecture. - N842D Boston, Massachusetts February 28, 1963 Douglas DC-7 Person ran into propeller (suicide) - - Flight 160 (Pan Am Flight 160) ''Clipper Titian'' Boston November 3, 1973 Boeing 707-321C (Boeing 707) Smoke in cockpit, in-flight fire, loss of control - - Flight 30 (World Airways Flight 30) Boston, Massachusetts (Boston) January 23, 1982 McDonnell Douglas DC-10 Weather - Brewer was born in Boston. He graduated from Harvard College in 1835 and from Harvard Medical School three years later. He abandoned his career as a doctor after a few years to concentrate on writing and politics, later becoming editor of the ''Boston Atlas''. He then joined the printing firm of Swan & Tileston, which became Brewer & Tileston when he became a partner in 1857. Brewer, Wilmon, ''Looking Backwards,'' Marshall Jones Company, Francestown, NH, 1985 '''Boston Common''' (also known as "the Common") is a central public park in Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometimes erroneously referred to as the "''Boston Commons''". commons:Boston


professional programs

-- Additionally, classes are offered at the graduate and professional level at satellite locations in Quincy (Quincy, Massachusetts) and Woburn (Woburn, Massachusetts). Campuses and Directions - Graduate and Professional Programs - Emmanuel College Boston Career Barker made it to Broadway (Broadway theatre) once, in a small role in a short run


television public

and women's. '''''The French Chef''''' is an influential television cooking show created by Julia Child, and produced and broadcast by WGBH (WGBH-TV), the public television station (Public television) in Boston, Massachusetts, from February 11, 1963 to 1973. It was one of the first cooking shows (Cooking show) on television. The show grew out of some special presentations that Julia did based on the book ''Mastering the Art of French Cooking'', which she had co


power association

(U.S. state) Georgia Public Radio. '''Mark Crisson''' was born Phillip Mark Stevens Crisson in Boston, Massachusetts in March 1949. He received his undergraduate degree in Applied Science from the United States Naval Academy, and a Masters of Business Administration from Pacific Lutheran University. He is currently the CEO of the American Public Power Association--the service organization for the more than 2,000 U.S. community-owned


contemporary classical

and Haydn Society (one of the oldest choral companies in the United States). commons:Boston


hot+metal

'''''Vs.''''' is the debut album by the Boston post-punk band Mission of Burma. It was a fully realized follow-up to their EP (extended play) ''Signals, Calls, and Marches''. It was the only full studio album the band released during the 1980s, as soon afterward they disbanded due to Roger Miller's worsening tinnitus. * Avenue de Gallatin in Geneva, Switzerland * Gallatin Hall at Harvard Business School in Boston, Massachusetts * Gallatin School of Individualized Study at New York University in New York, New York thumb left 300px The 1925-26 New York Americans (Image:1925 26 NYAmericans NHL.jpg) In 1923, Thomas Duggan received options on three NHL franchises for the United States. After selling one to Boston grocery magnate Charles Adams (Charles Adams (ice hockey)), Duggan arranged with Tex Rickard to have a team in Madison Square Garden (Madison Square Garden (1925)). Rickard agreed, but play was delayed until the new Garden was built in 1925. In April of that year, Duggan and Bill Dwyer (Bill Dwyer (gangster)), New York's most-celebrated prohibition bootlegger, were awarded the franchise for New York. Somewhat fortuitously given the shortage of players, the Hamilton Tigers (Hamilton Tigers (ice hockey)), who had finished first the season before, had been suspended from the league after they struck for higher pay. Dwyer duly bought the collective rights to the Tiger players for $ (United States dollar)75,000 and moved them to the newly built Garden. The Tigers franchise was suspended and never returned; the NHL does not consider the Americans to be a continuation of the Tigers--or for that matter, of the Tigers' predecessors, the Quebec Bulldogs. 350px right thumb The New York Americans in 1929. (Image:New York Americans 1929.jpg) Takeover by New York Thomas Duggan of Montreal, owner of the Mount Royal Arena, held two options for expansion teams in the United States. He sold the first of the two to Boston grocery magnate Charles Adams (Charles Adams (ice hockey)), who used it to start the Boston Bruins. He sold the second to a New York (New York City, New York) bootlegger named "Big Bill" Dwyer (Bill Dwyer (mobster)) for a team to play in New York. At the NHL league meeting of April 17, 1925, Dwyer was granted an expansion franchise for New York. During the 18th century, Middletown became the largest and most prosperous settlement in Connecticut. By the time of the American Revolution, Middletown was a thriving port, comparable to Boston or New York in importance, with one-third of its citizens involved in merchant and maritime activities. Slavery was part of the early economy of Middletown; African slaves were brought to the town in 1661 from Barbados; by 1756 Middletown had the third largest African slave population in the state of Connecticut—218 slaves to 5,446 whites. Besides Marblehead Neck, there are also two other villages within town, Devereux to the southeast and Clifton to the southwest. Given its small area, most of the residential land in town is thickly settled. Marblehead's town center is located approximately four miles from the center of Salem (Salem, Massachusetts), sixteen miles northeast of Boston and twelve miles (19 km) southwest of Cape Ann. It is bordered by Swampscott (Swampscott, Massachusetts) to the south, and Salem to the northwest. (Because Salem's water rights extend into Massachusetts Bay, there is no connection between Marblehead and the city of Beverly (Beverly, Massachusetts) across Beverly Harbor.) A 2005 film remake of ''Fever Pitch'', directed by the Farrelly Brothers with Hornby as an executive producer, starred Jimmy Fallon and Drew Barrymore. In this adaptation (based on the 1997 film, not the 1992 book), the action is moved from London to Boston, the focus of the protagonist's obsession is shifted from football (Association football) to baseball, and the story centers on the 2004 Boston Red Sox season, which culminated with the team's first Major League Baseball World Series victory (2004 World Series) in 86 years. This championship was entirely coincidental; the filming of the 2005 version was being done during the 2004 regular season, including scenes filmed at Fenway Park during actual games. As the Red Sox continued to progress through the playoffs, the Farrellys had to rewrite the script to include the historic moment. Fever Pitch was produced by ELC Productions Ltd., Fox 2000 Pictures, Wildgaze Films, Alan Greenspan Productions, and Flower Films. Low fares were causing the company to lose money. In October 1984, it canceled several routes, including Tampa-London. At the same time, the company reoriented its route structure from an east-west alignment to a north-south one, reported Aviation Week & Space Technology. San Juan, Puerto Rico, where the company was building a new hub, was the center of the scheduled network, and by the end of 1985 Arrow Air was connecting the destination with Montreal, New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Orlando (Orlando, Florida), and Miami. In 1985, more than one million people flew Arrow to 245 destinations in 72 countries. The organization has District offices in Boston and Los Angeles, and a national headquarters in New York. There are approximately 11,000 members nationwide. They own and operate a summer camp located in Hopewell Junction, New York called Camp Kinder Ring. An adult vacation facility, Circle Lodge, shares the camp grounds and has bungalows and cottages. *''-(a)n'' (countries continents: Africa → African, Albania → Albanian, America (America (disambiguation)) → American, Armenia → Armenian, Asia → Asian, Australia → Australian, Austria → Austrian, Bosnia → Bosnian, Brunei → Bruneian, Bulgaria → Bulgarian, Burma → Burmese (though see below; Irregular forms), Cambodia → Cambodian, Chile → Chilean, Colombia → Colombian, Costa Rica → Costa Rican, Croatia → Croatian, Cuba → Cuban, El Salvador → Salvadoran, Estonia → Estonian, Ethiopia → Ethiopian, Europe → European, Georgia (Georgia (country)) → Georgian, Germany → German, Guatemala → Guatemalan, Haiti → Haitian, Honduras → Honduran, Hungary → Hungarian, India → Indian, Indonesia → Indonesian, Italy → Italian, Jamaica → Jamaican, Kenya → Kenyan, North South Korea → North South Korean, Laos → Laotian, Latvia → Latvian, Lithuania → Lithuanian, Macedonia (Macedonia (region)) → Macedonian, Malaysia → Malaysian, Mali → Malian, Mexico → Mexican, Mongolia → Mongolian, Morocco → Moroccan, Nicaragua → Nicaraguan, Paraguay → Paraguayan, Romania → Romanian, Russia → Russian, Saudi Arabia → Saudi Arabian, Singapore → Singaporean, Slovakia → Slovakian, Slovenia → Slovenian, South Africa → South African, Sri Lanka → Sri Lankan, Syria → Syrian, United States of America (United States) → American, Uruguay → Uruguayan, Venezuela → Venezuelan; cities states: Arizona → Arizonan, Atlanta → Atlantan, Baltimore → Baltimorean, California → Californian, Catalonia → Catalan, Chicago → Chicagoan, Cincinnati → Cincinnatian, El Paso (El Paso, Texas) → El Pasoan, Louisiana → Louisianian, Miami → Miamian, Minneapolis → Minneapolitan, Minnesota → Minnesotan, Nebraska → Nebraskan, Ottawa → Ottawan, Philadelphia → Philadelphian, Regina (Regina, Saskatchewan) → Reginan, Riga → Rigan, Rome → Roman, San Antonio → San Antonian, San Diego → San Diegan, San Francisco → San Franciscan, San Jose (San Jose, California) → San Josean, Tasmania → Tasmanian, Tucson (Tucson, Arizona) → Tucsonan Tulsa (Tulsa, Oklahoma) → Tulsan, Utah → Utahn) *''-ian'' (countries: Bahamas → Bahamian, Barbados → Bajan, Belarus → Belarusian, Belgium → Belgian, Bermuda → Bermudian, Brazil → Brazilian, Canada → Canadian, Cardiff → Cardiffian, Egypt → Egyptian, Ecuador → Ecuadorian, Iran → Iranian (also "Irani" or "Persian"), Jordan → Jordanian, Panama → Panamanian, Ukraine → Ukrainian; cities states: Adelaide → Adelaidian, Athens → Athenian, Boston → Bostonian, Brisbane → Brisbanian (also "Brisbanite"), Calgary → Calgarian, Coventry → Coventrian, Edmonton → Edmontonian, Florida → Floridian, Fort Worth → Fort Worthian, Gibraltar → Gibraltarian, Hanoi (Vietnam) → Hanoian, Houston → Houstonian, Isles of Scilly → Scillonian, Lethbridge → Lethbridgian, Liverpool → Liverpudlian, Louisville (Louisville, Kentucky) → Louisvillian, New Guinea → New Guinian, Madrid → Madrilenian, Manchester → Mancunian, McKinney (McKinney, Texas) → McKinnian, Melbourne → Melburnian, New Orleans → New Orleanian, Oregon → Oregonian, Paris → Parisian, Peterborough → Peterborian, Phoenix (Phoenix, Arizona) → Phoenician, Saskatoon (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) → Saskatonian (Saskabusher (Amelanchier alnifolia)), Toronto → Torontonian, Washington (Washington, D.C.) → Washingtonian, Wellington → Wellingtonian) *''-in(e)'' (Florence → Florentine (also Latin "Florentia"), Montenegro → Montenegrin, Philistia → Philistine, ''Argentina → Argentine'' cf. above (Demonym#Adjectives as placenames)) '''''The Scarlet Letter''''' is an 1850 romantic work of fiction in a historical setting, written by Nathaniel Hawthorne. It is considered to be his magnum opus. National Public Radio (NPR): March 2, 2008, Sunday. SHOW: Weekend All Things Considered. "Sinner, Victim, Object, Winner" ANCHORS: JACKI LYDEN http: www.npr.org templates story story.php?storyId 87805369 (quote in article refers to it as his "masterwork", listen to the audio to hear it the original reference to it being his "magnum opus") Set in 17th-century Puritan Boston during the years 1642 to 1649, it tells the story of Hester Prynne, who conceives a daughter through an adulterous affair and struggles to create a new life of repentance and dignity. Throughout the book, Hawthorne explores themes of legalism (Legalism (theology)), sin, and guilt. The following are historical and Biblical references that appear in ''The Scarlet Letter.'' * Anne Hutchinson, mentioned in Chapter 1, The Prison Door, was a religious dissenter (1591–1643). In the 1630s she was excommunicated by the Puritans and exiled from Boston and moved to Rhode Island. * Ann Hibbins, who historically was executed for witchcraft in Boston in 1656, is depicted in ''The Scarlet Letter'' as a witch who tries to tempt Prynne to the practice of witchcraft. Schwab, Gabriele. ''The mirror and the killer-queen: otherness in literary language.'' Indiana University Press. 1996. Pg. 120. Hunter, Dianne, ''Seduction and theory: readings of gender, representation, and rhetoric.'' University of Illinois Press. 1989. Pgs. 186-187 The Macy's East downtown Boston store (formerly the Jordan Marsh flagship) touched off a local public relations firestorm with the June 6, 2006, removal of two mannequins and the Web address of the AIDS Action Committee from a window display promoting Boston's annual gay pride celebration. The removal was apparently in response to pressure from MassResistance, a local group opposed to same-sex marriage, whose members complained the mannequins were "homosexual". The removal of the mannequins was widely condemned by residents and officials, including Boston mayor Thomas Menino, who was quoted as saying: - 1951 NBA All


popular year

in America", indicating its long tradition as a summer colony. Recently, it has also become a popular year-round home for many seeking an idyllic, small town existence. Its downtown is picturesque, with shops lining the main street, and large public docks at the lake shore. Geography thumb left Hooksett Village from the Pinnacle (Image:HooksettNewHampshire.jpg)Hooksett is situated on the Merrimack River in south-central New Hampshire. Interstate 93 connects Hooksett


opening show

declared the AL would operate as a major league. He then placed teams in Baltimore, Boston, Philadelphia and Washington. thumb View of the TU Center from Pearl Street (File:Times Union Center.jpg) Since its opening show, starring Frank Sinatra on January 30, 1990, Pepsi Arena (Times Union Center) Tickets the Times Union Center has become a popular

joined Edward Franklin Albee II, who was selling circus tickets, in operating the Boston Bijou Theatre (Bijou Theatre (Boston)). Their opening show was on July 6, 1885. The theatre was one of the early adopters of the continuous variety show which ran from 10:00 in the morning until 11:00 at night, every day. Previously, shows ran at fixed intervals with several hours of downtime between shows. With the continuous show, you could enter the theatre at anytime, and stay until you reached the point in the show where you walked in. Moving pictures Albee and Keith opened the Union Square Theatre in New York City, and it was the site of the first American exhibition of the Lumière (Auguste and Louis Lumière) Cinématographe. The first showing was on June 29, 1896, they had obtained the exclusive American rights to the Lumière apparatus and their film output. They then opened theatres in Philadelphia, and Boston, and then smaller theatres in the East and Midwest of the United States, buying out rival smaller chains. They signed a contract with Biograph Studios in 1896 which lasted until July 1905 when they switched to Edison Studios as their supplier of motion pictures. Keith and Albee merged their theatre circuit with Frederick Freeman Proctor in June 1906. Because of the complexity of the variables discussed, it is necessary to create a computer model that can analyze sound levels in the vicinity of roadways. The first meaningful models arose in the late 1960s and early 1970s addressing the noise line source (e.g. roadway). Two of the leading research teams were BBN in Boston and ESL (ESL Incorporated) of Sunnyvale, California. Both of these groups developed complex mathematical models to allow the study of alternate roadway designs, traffic operations and noise mitigation strategies in an arbitrary setting. Later model alterations have come into widespread use among state Departments of Transportation (Department of transportation) and city planners, but the accuracy of early models has had little change in 40 years. birth_date commons:Boston

Boston

'''Boston''' (pronounced Included in the CSA: MA counties: Bristol, Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk, Plymouth, Suffolk and Worcester; NH counties: Belknap, Hillsborough, Merrimack, Rockingham and Strafford; RI counties (entire state): Bristol, Kent, Newport, Providence and Washington (South County)

One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England.

The area's many colleges and universities make Boston an international center of higher education and medicine, and the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation for a variety of reasons.

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