Bosnia and Herzegovina

What is Bosnia and Herzegovina known for?


comedy albums

Montenegro, streams flow toward the Adriatic Sea. Much of the drainage of the karstic region is not on the surface but travels in underground channels. Albums Ismet Horo is a popular comedian in Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina). He has released well-over 10 comedy albums and is still doing and releasing comedy. He started his professional career around 1995 6, but he got interested in comedy when he was still in high school. Peacekeepers The Guardia Civil has been involved in operations as peacekeepers in United Nations sponsored operations, including operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Angola, Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Mozambique, Nicaragua, Haiti, East Timor and El Salvador. They also served with the Spanish contingent in the war in Iraq, mainly in intelligence gathering, where seven of its members were killed . In addition to ''el instituto armado'' ("the armed institution"), the Guardia Civil is known as ''la benemérita'' ("the well-remembered"). They served in the Spanish colonies, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Spanish Guinea and Spanish Morocco. left thumb 200px Mouskouri was appointed as a UNICEF (File:Flag of UNICEF.svg) Goodwill Ambassador in 1993 Mouskouri was appointed a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador in October 1993.


main early

and Herzegovina '' but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the name was officially changed to ''Bosnia and Herzegovina''. History


place position

in the league behind Lyon (Olympique Lyonnais) and ahead of the likes of Monaco (AS Monaco FC) and Marseille (Olympique de Marseille). The club also reached the Round of 16 in the UEFA Cup. The second place position resulted in Lille qualifying for the UEFA Champions League for the first time in its history. In the ensuing season (2005–06 Ligue 1), Lille kept its consistency by finishing in third place in the league. On 2 November 2005, the club recorded one of the greatest results in its history by defeating Manchester United (Manchester United F.C.) in the UEFA Champions League group phase. familycolor Indo-European states Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Romania, Hungary speakers 13 million Štokavian is spoken in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the major part of Croatia, and the southern part of Austria’s Burgenland. The primary subdivisions of Štokavian are based on two principles: one is whether the subdialect is Old-Štokavian or Neo-Štokavian, and different accents according to the way the old Slavic phoneme ''jat (yat)'' has changed. Modern dialectology generally recognises seven Štokavian subdialects. The Proto-Štokavian idiom appeared in the 12th century. In the following century or two, Štokavian was divided into two zones: western, which covered the major part of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slavonia in Croatia, and eastern, dominant in easternmost Bosnia and Herzegovina and greater parts of Montenegro and Serbia. Western Štokavian was principally characterized by three-accentual system, while eastern Štokavian was marked by two-accentual system. According to research of historical linguistics, the Old-Štokavian was well established by the mid-15th century. In this period it was still being mixed with Church Slavonic to varying degrees, as geographically transitory to Čakavian and Kajkavian dialects spoken on the territory of today's Croatia, with which it had constituted a natural dialectal continuum. The Proto-Štokavian idiom appeared in the 12th century. In the following century or two, Štokavian was divided into two zones: western, which covered the major part of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slavonia in Croatia, and eastern, dominant in easternmost Bosnia and Herzegovina and greater parts of Montenegro and Serbia. Western Štokavian was principally characterized by three-accentual system, while eastern Štokavian was marked by two-accentual system. According to research of historical linguistics, the Old-Štokavian was well established by the mid-15th century. In this period it was still being mixed with Church Slavonic to varying degrees, as geographically transitory to Čakavian and Kajkavian dialects spoken on the territory of today's Croatia, with which it had constituted a natural dialectal continuum. Ever since the construction began in 1948, Novi Beograd experienced explosive population growth, but oddly, as the 2002 census showed, the population size actually decreased slightly during the 1990s. Regarding this it is hard to predict the future population changes in Novi Beograd. With a population of 212,104 on December 31, 2011, and including Serbian refugees from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbian Province of Kosovo, the number of people is probably not exceeding 250,000, despite the figure of 400,000 inhabitants often circulating in the press over the last 20 years. The ten-days war in Slovenia in June 1991 was short and with few casualties. However, the war in Croatia in the latter half of 1991 brought many casualties and much damage. As the war eventually subsided in Croatia, the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) started in early 1992. Peace would only come in 1995 after such events as the Srebrenica massacre, Operation Storm and the Dayton Agreement, which provided for a temporary solution, but nothing was permanently resolved. The war in Bosnia brought major ethnic cleansing of non-Serbs from the regions that today make up the Republika Srpska: throughout Bosanska Krajina (notably the significant minority population of Bosniaks and Croats in Banja Luka, slight majority of Bosniaks in Prijedor), Bosnian Posavina (Croats as well as Bosniaks, from Brčko (Brčko (city)), Bosanski Brod, Doboj, Odžak, Derventa), eastern Bosnia (Bosniak majority population of Foča, Zvornik, Višegrad, Srebrenica, Žepa), eastern Herzegovina (Trebinje). During the Bosniak-Croat conflict, Bosniaks were ethnically cleansed by Croats and sometimes vice-versa in areas of Central Bosnia, central and eastern Herzegovina (Mostar and Stolac). The war in Croatia started in 1991, and was caused by the rebellion of Serbian (Serbs) population in Croatia, their wish to secede, hoping to form a Greater Serbia, and along with other Serb-occupied territories in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina unite with Serbia. During the war in Croatia, from 1991 to 1995 around 600,000 Serbs were ethnically cleansed from southern and eastern parts of country, they were forced out in waves, and the most known event was the operation storm, where 250.000 people fled in the course of 5 days. The Croatian operations Flash (Operation Flash) and Storm (Operation Storm) in 1995 was the instigator to widespread incidents, including rapes and murders of those who had chosen to stay, burning of houses, killing of livestock etc. in the purpose of ethnically cleansing these majority Serb areas, but UN, ICTY and international community didn't show any interest for that issue. Many of Croatias generals are indicted for these atrocities, and had the war time president Franjo Tudjman not died he would also be indicted according to Carla Del Ponte, the chief attorney of the Haag court, Serbia is now home to more than 800.000 refuges from Croatia, Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Kosovo, most of them are Serbs, but there are Roma (Romani people) (who are, in most cases, settled in cardbox ghettos around Serbian cities (most famous is Gazela situated under the Gazela bridge in Belgrade downtown)), Gorani (Gorani people), Albanians and Montenegrins as well. The war in Bosnia brought major ethnic cleansing of non-Serbs from the regions that today make up the Republika Srpska: throughout Bosanska Krajina (notably the significant minority population of Bosniaks and Croats in Banja Luka, slight majority of Bosniaks in Prijedor), Bosnian Posavina (Croats as well as Bosniaks, from Brčko (Brčko (city)), Bosanski Brod, Doboj, Odžak, Derventa), eastern Bosnia (Bosniak majority population of Foča, Zvornik, Višegrad, Srebrenica, Žepa), eastern Herzegovina (Trebinje). During the Bosniak-Croat conflict, Bosniaks were ethnically cleansed by Croats and sometimes vice-versa in areas of Central Bosnia, central and eastern Herzegovina (Mostar and Stolac). The war in Croatia started in 1991, and was caused by the rebellion of Serbian (Serbs) population in Croatia, their wish to secede, hoping to form a Greater Serbia, and along with other Serb-occupied territories in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina unite with Serbia. During the war in Croatia, from 1991 to 1995 around 600,000 Serbs were ethnically cleansed from southern and eastern parts of country, they were forced out in waves, and the most known event was the operation storm, where 250.000 people fled in the course of 5 days. The Croatian operations Flash (Operation Flash) and Storm (Operation Storm) in 1995 was the instigator to widespread incidents, including rapes and murders of those who had chosen to stay, burning of houses, killing of livestock etc. in the purpose of ethnically cleansing these majority Serb areas, but UN, ICTY and international community didn't show any interest for that issue. Many of Croatias generals are indicted for these atrocities, and had the war time president Franjo Tudjman not died he would also be indicted according to Carla Del Ponte, the chief attorney of the Haag court, Serbia is now home to more than 800.000 refuges from Croatia, Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Kosovo, most of them are Serbs, but there are Roma (Romani people) (who are, in most cases, settled in cardbox ghettos around Serbian cities (most famous is Gazela situated under the Gazela bridge in Belgrade downtown)), Gorani (Gorani people), Albanians and Montenegrins as well. On October 17, 2007 Croatia became a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for the 2008-2009 term, while Bosnia and Herzegovina became a non-permanent member for the 2010-2011 period. Croatia has since joined NATO, along with Albania, on April 1, 2009, and both countries also seek admission in the EU in 2009. The program is named for its creator, Irfan Škiljan from Jajce, Bosnia and Herzegovina, living in Vienna.


vast agricultural

Blato '' in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ''Nature Park Neretva Delta'' in Croatia, and important reservoirs of freshwater, plus vast agricultural lands in the lower Neretva valley which are in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. The full impact of this controversial project has not been fully measured. The Neretva and two main tributaries are already harnessed by four HE power-plants (Hydroelectricity) with ''large dams (Dam)'' on the Neretva, one HE power-plant (Hydroelectricity) with a ''major dam (Dam)'' on the Neretva tributary Rama, and two HE power-plants (Hydroelectricity) with one ''major dam (Dam)'' on the Trebišnjica River, which is part of the Neretva watershed. In recent times the Republic of Srpska government finished the project named ''The Upper Horizons'' (


celebrity news

Eurovision winner Linda Martin said they were "childish and inexperienced" without any "star quality".


great hits


popular drinking

bar is fully stocked. Like most Slavs Bosnians make 'Rakija' which comes in many a variety and is made both commercially and at home. Red wine is 'Crno vino' (Black wine) and white wine is 'bijelo vino'. Wines from Herzegovina are renowned for their quality. Alcohol is not taxed as heavily as in most Western nations and is often very affordable. Quality alcohol is sought after and valued. Another popular drinking beverage is Turkish coffee, in Bosnia called Bosnian or ''domaca'' (homemade) coffee, which can be bought in every bar, coffee shop or fast food place. Bosnians are among the heaviest coffee drinkers in the world. Sleep In Bosnia and Herzegovina you can choose from the great number of hotels, hostels, motels and pensions. At the seaside town of Neum you can book hotels from 2 to 4 stars. In the other cities many hotels are 3 stars, 4 stars and some of them are 5 stars. In Banjaluka the best hotels are: Cezar, Palas, Bosna, Atina, Cubic and Talija. Reservation is possible via internet or by contacting Zepter Passport Travel Agency, Banjaluka, for any accommodation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, or any service; contact: http: www.zepterpassport.com, phone number +387 51 213 394, +387 51 213 395, Fax +387 51 229 852. In Sarajevo the best hotels are: Hollywood, Holiday Inn, Bosnia, Saraj, Park, Grand and Astra. Reservation is possible via the internet or by contacting Centrotrans-Eurolines travel board in Sarajevo, phone number: +387 33 205 481, languages spoken: English, German, French and Dutch. Campsites are not very common. An overview of campsites (Camping) in Bosnia is available at the national tourism agency Wild camping is often no problem, but be careful for mines. Work With one of the highest unemployment rates in Europe (in some areas up to 40%, official rate 17%), it will be unlikely you will find legitimate employment in the country unless you are working for a multi-national organisation. Stay safe If you plan on traveling off the beaten path in Bosnia, be aware that the nation is still in the process of clearing many of the estimated 5 million land mines left around the countryside during the war of 1992-1995. In rural areas try to stay on paved areas if possible. Never touch any explosive device. Houses and private property were often rigged with mines as their owners fled during the war. If an area or property looks abandoned, stay away from it. Bosnia experiences very little violent crime. In the old centre of Sarajevo be aware of pickpocketing. Stay healthy All Bosnian employees undergo regular health checks to ensure that they can physically do their jobs and that they will not transmit any disease or injure anyone. People in the food industry are particularly checked and random health and safety checks for the premises are held often. Food providers are held to the highest standards. A Bosnian kitchen is expected to be spotless and food safety is very important. If getting a tattoo, ensure that the instruments are sterilised. While this may be a common practice, one should still be careful. Since the food is very rich, some extra exercise may help. And as above, never walk off dedicated paths in case of land mines. Cope '''Smoking''' is allowed nearly everywhere in the country, and over half the population use tobacco. Therefore, be prepared to endure very smoky restaurants, bars and shopping centers. Even bus drivers often smoke while driving. Respect Respect the religious differences of the people in the region and their effort to move past the Yugoslav civil war. It is important to be careful in areas where there is still tension and to ensure that one does not offend a particular group due to indifference or sheer ignorance. Similarly, respect the environment. A lot of the country has been saved from pollution and it is important to be careful of one's influences. Moreover, it is equally important to be careful as the rivers tend to be fierce, the mountains and valleys often unguarded and the footing unsure. Always have a tour guide with you or consult a local for advice on the natural dangers and land mines. Connect Do be aware that the two entities have their own separate '''postal services''', so stamps bought in the Federation cannot be used in the RS and vice versa. There are three mobile phone networks in Bosnia and Herzegovina: HT ERONET (Mostar), GSMBiH (Sarajevo) and m:tel (Republika Srpska, Banja Luka). You can buy a prepaid SIM card from any network at any kiosk for 10 KM or less.


liberal culture

from Surinam and Indonesia, as a result of decolonization (Dutch empire), Turkey and Morocco, as migrant workers, and Iraq, Iran, Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Afghanistan as refugees. In the early 21st century, religious tensions between native Dutch people and migrant Muslims is increasing. After the rise of the populist politician Pim Fortuyn, who sought to defend the Dutch liberal culture against what he saw as a "backwards religion",<


population culture

translated the New Testament into Serbian, which was published in 1868. The Vukovian effort of language standardization lasted the remainder of the century. Before then the Serbs had achieved a fully independent state (1878), and a flourishing national culture based in Belgrade and Novi Sad. Despite the Vienna agreement, the Serbs had by this time developed a ekavian accent, which was the native speech of their two cultural capitals as well as the great majority of the Serbian population

. ) is a form of epic poetry written by Serbs originating in today's Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia) and Montenegro. The main cycles were composed by unknown Serb authors between the 14th and 19th centuries. They are largely concerned with historical events and personages. On 20 January 1827, Prince-Bishop Petar I named Radivoje as his successor


book based

Bosnia and Herzegovina

'''Bosnia and Herzegovina''' ( , ''Encarta'', 2006. Archived 2009-10-31. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, bookended by hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a region that traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age, during and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic (Celts) civilizations. Culturally, politically, and socially, the country has one of the richest histories in the region, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries CE. They then established the first independent ban (ban (title))ate in the region, known as the Banate of Bosnia, , p. 120; ''..medieval Bosnia was a country of one people, of the single Bosnian people called the Bošnjani, who belonged to three confessions''. This evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it would remain from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam (Islam in Bosnia and Herzegovina) to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878–1918)), which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period, Bosnia was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, the country was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence (Breakup of Yugoslavia#Independence of the Republic of Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina) in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995.

Today, the country maintains high literacy, life expectancy and education (List of countries by Human Development Index) levels and is one of the most frequently visited countries in the region (Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina),

Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is highly limited, as the country is largely decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third region, the Brčko District, governed under local government. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 federal units – cantons (Cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina). The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union (Accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union) and has been a candidate for North Atlantic Treaty Organisation membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan at a summit in Tallinn . Additionally, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union (Union for the Mediterranean) upon its establishment in July 2008.

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